Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs): the Derivatives and Triggers of Inflammation

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergen is an umbrella term for irritants of diverse origin. Along with other offenders such as pathogens, mutagens, xenobiotics, and pollutants, allergens can be grouped as inflammatory agents. Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are altered metabolism products of necrotic or stressed cells, which are deemed as alarm signals by the innate immune system. Like inflammation, DAMPs play a role in correcting the altered physiological state, but in excess, they can be lethal due to their signal transduction roles. In a vicious loop, inflammatory agents are DAMP generators and DAMPs create a pro-inflammatory state. Only a handful of DAMPs such as uric acid, mtDNA, extracellular ATP, HSPs, amyloid β, S100, HMGB1, and ECM proteins have been studied till now. A large number of DAMPs are still obscure, in need to be unveiled. The identification and functional characterization of those DAMPs in inflammation pathways can be insightful.Recent FindingsAs inflammation and immune activation have been implicated in almost all pathologies, studies on them have been intensified in recent times. Consequently, the pathologic mechanisms of various DAMPs have emerged. Following PRR ligation, the activation of inflammasome, MAPK, and NF-kB is some of the common pathways.SummaryThe limited number of recognized DAMPs are only a fraction of the vast array of other DAMPs. In fact, any misplaced or abnormal level of metabolite can be a DAMP. Sophisticated analysis ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): R Sharon Chinthrajah, Natasha Purington, Sandra Andorf, Andrew Long, Katherine L O'Laughlin, Shu Chen Lyu, Monali Manohar, Scott D Boyd, Robert Tibshirani, Holden Maecker, Marshall Plaut, Kaori Mukai, Mindy Tsai, Manisha Desai, Stephen J Galli, Kari C NadeauSummaryBackgroundDietary avoidance is recommended for peanut allergies. We evaluated the sustained effects of peanut allergy oral immunotherapy (OIT) in a randomised long-term study in adults and children.MethodsIn this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study, we enrolle...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionThere is moderate evidence that high doses of ICS, in addition to SCS, reduces the risk of hospital admission in ED treatment of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations. Further research is required to determine their optimal role in both ED and outpatient settings.
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In PracticeAuthor(s): Jonathan Corren, Mario Castro, Thomas O’Riordan, Nicola A. Hanania, Ian D. Pavord, Santiago Quirce, Bradley E. Chipps, Sally E. Wenzel, Karthinathan Thangavelu, Megan S. Rice, Sivan Harel, Alexandre Jagerschmidt, Asif Khan, Siddhesh Kamat, Jaman Maroni, Paul Rowe, Yufang Lu, Nikhil Amin, Gianluca Pirozzi, Marcella RuddyAbstractBackgroundDupilumab blocks the shared receptor component for interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, key drivers of type 2 inflammation, including immunoglobulin E (IgE)-m...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUrbanization and urbanization-related detrimental exposures are commonly indicated as responsible determinants for the dramatic increase in allergy and asthma, and one of the main urbanization factors that have been recently associated with the development of allergic sensitization is the reduced access to natural and biodiverse spaces. The present review aimed to compile and discuss the recent findings from studies focused on neighbourhood greenspace effect on asthma and allergic disease development in children.Recent FindingsGreen areas neighbouring children residences play a role on the prevalen...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn patients with AERD, moderate ‐certainty and high‐certainty evidence shows that aspirin desensitization meaningfully reduces symptoms of rhinosinusitis and improves quality of life, but results in a significant increase in adverse events.
Source: International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
ALLERGY AND ASTHMA PROCEEDINGS, Volume 40, Number 5, 1 September 2019. Loaded on 2019-09-13
Source: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
THURSDAY, Sept. 12, 2019 -- Allergy immunotherapy (AIT) is associated with a decreased risk for asthma progression, particularly in younger patients, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in Allergy. Jochen Schmitt, M.P.H., from the...
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
ConclusionConsistent with research in middle and older adults, physical health conditions are associated with increased risk for the onset of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. Mental health screening for adolescents with chronic medical conditions may help parents and physicians identify suicidality early.
Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Over the past two decades, the approach to peanut introduction and preventing peanut allergy has drastically changed.1 The Learning Early About Peanut (LEAP) study2 provided evidence for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) guidelines3 for early peanut introduction. The current recommendations have complexities and criticisms regarding how to implement the guidelines; specifically with the shortage of allergists and possibility of developing peanut allergy while on waitlist for appointments.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letters Source Type: research
Conclusion For the first time, this study shows that being sensitised to SEs is associated with an increased subsequent risk of severe asthma and asthma exacerbations.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Asthma Source Type: research
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