Adolescent and adult nicotine exposure differentially impacts oral nicotine and oral saccharin self-administration in mice.

Adolescent and adult nicotine exposure differentially impacts oral nicotine and oral saccharin self-administration in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Jul 24;: Authors: Cole RD, Wolsh C, Zimmerman M, Harrington E, Gould TJ, Parikh V Abstract Smokers that begin during adolescence are more likely to develop nicotine dependence than those who begin as adults. However, the factors that contribute to this remain largely unknown. Here we utilized a novel operant oral nicotine self-administration procedure in mice to assess the consequences of adolescent nicotine exposure on nicotine and saccharin (non-drug) reinforcement in adults. Animals were given non-contingent exposure to either saline or nicotine using the osmotic minipumps during both adolescence and adulthood for 2 weeks. Reinforcing efficacy for oral nicotine and saccharin was assessed using the progressive ratio schedule 2-weeks following the washout period in adults. Non-contingent nicotine exposure in adolescence drastically increased operant responding for oral nicotine but reduced responding for oral saccharin in the group re-exposed to nicotine in adulthood. Interestingly, adolescent nicotine-exposed mice that received saline exposure as adults exhibited higher preference for oral saccharin. However, breakpoints for oral nicotine in these mice remained comparable to control animals. Surprisingly, both adolescent and adult nicotine exposure increased inactive lever responding during self-administratio...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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