Revisiting the Lyme Disease Serodiagnostic Algorithm: the Momentum Gathers Commentary

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, and it is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, with an estimated incidence of 300,000 cases per year. The currently recommended approach for laboratory support of the diagnosis of Lyme disease is a standard two-tiered (STT) algorithm comprised of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or immunofluorescence assay (IFA), followed by Western blotting (WB). The STT algorithm has low sensitivity in early infection, and there are drawbacks associated with the WB use in practice. Modified two-tiered (MTT) algorithms have been shown to improve the sensitivity of the testing in early disease while maintaining high specificity. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, A. Pegalajar-Jurado et al. (J Clin Microbiol 56:e01943-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01943-17) report the results of their evaluation of the Liaison VlsE CLIA, the Captia B. burgdorferi IgG/IgM EIA, and the C6 B. burgdorferi (Lyme) EIA as MTT algorithms compared with results with the STT algorithm using the same tests as the first-tier test and the ViraStripe IgM and IgG WBs as the second-tier test. The results showed that all MTT algorithms had higher sensitivities than STT algorithms and were highly specific. These results showed that MTT approaches are a valid alternative to the currently recommended STT algorithm for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease, opening the door for the development of rapid diag...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

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This study presented examples of base-calling DNA sequencing electropherograms routinely generated in a clinical diagnostic laboratory on DNA extracts of human blood specimens and ticks collected from human skin bites and from the environment. Since some of the tick samples tested were collected in Ireland, borrelial species or strains not known to exist in the United States were also detected by analysis of this 16S rRNA “core genome”. We recommend that hospital laboratories located in Lyme disease endemic areas begin to use a “core genome” sequencing test to routinely diagnose spir...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we compared factors that may have an influence on DNA extraction namely commercially available DNA extraction kits vs alkaline hydrolysis for DNA extraction. The methods were applied to questing Ixodes (I.) ricinus ticks and Borrelia cultures of defined cell concentrations. A total of 69 questing I. ricinus ticks were collected. From 34 ticks, total DNA was extracted using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Thirty-five ticks were treated with 1.25 % ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). Six ticks from each batch were placed in 70 % ethanol (EtOH) for one week prior to DNA extraction to see the effect of EtOH preservatio...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWith co-infection of tick-borne pathogens being commonplace, diagnostic improvements remain important. Developing in vivo models might allow more insight into human pathogenesis. Continued ecological and human case studies are key to better epidemiological understanding, guiding intervention strategies. PMID: 31064634 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Pavel Švec, Václav Hönig, Dana Zubriková, Maria Wittmann, Kurt Pfister, Libor GrubhofferAbstractResearch projects in the field of eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases often require extensive sampling of arthropod vectors in the field. The aim of our study was to use geographical information systems (GIS) to select appropriate sampling sites of Ixodes ricinus ticks in central European habitat for further ecological studies of vector-borne pathogens (tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorfe...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Eliza A.H. Little, John F. Anderson, Kirby C. Stafford, Lars Eisen, Rebecca J. Eisen, Goudarz MolaeiAbstractLyme disease is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States. Ixodes scapularis, commonly referred to as the blacklegged tick, is the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), in the eastern United States. Connecticut has pervasive populations of I. scapularis and remains a hotspot for Lyme disease. A primary aim of this study was to determine if passively collected...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, we applied complementary in silico approaches to modeling how Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection modulates tick vector regulome. This proof-of-concept research provided support for the use of network analysis in the study of regulome response to infection, resulting in new information on tick-pathogen interactions and potential targets for developing interventions for the control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. Deciphering the precise nature of circuits that shape the tick regulome in response to pathogen infection is an area of research that in the future will advance our knowledge of tick-...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 115Author(s): Hua Zhao, Xiting Dai, Xinlin Han, Aihua Liu, Fukai Bao, Ruolan Bai, Zhenhua Ji, Miaomiao Jian, Zhe Ding, Manzama-Esso Abi, Taigui Chen, Lisha Luo, Mingbiao Ma, Lvyan TaoAbstractLyme disease, reffered to as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Lyme arthritis, the most common, serious and harmful manifestation during the late stages of Lyme disease, is closely associated with the Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (BmpA). Chemokines are also reported to have an importa...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study provides insight into the microbial diversity of I. scapularis in New York State and Connecticut.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract Lyme disease, reffered to as Lyme borreliosis, is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Lyme arthritis, the most common, serious and harmful manifestation during the late stages of Lyme disease, is closely associated with the Borrelia burgdorferi basic membrane protein A (BmpA). Chemokines are also reported to have an important role in Lyme arthritis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecules which are structurally conserved among microbes, to activate transcriptional events, including cytokine production, inflammation, and tissue da...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Charlotte Mason1, Xiaoyan Liu2, Spoorthy Prabhudeva1 and Zhiming Ouyang1* 1Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States 2Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States BosR, a Fur family member, is essential for the pathogenesis of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi. Unlike typical Fur proteins in which DNA binding represses gene expression, binding of BosR to the rpoS promoter directly activates rpoS transcription in B. burgdorferi. However, virtually nothing is known concerning potential structural fea...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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