Post-Smallpox Vaccination Skin Eruption in a Marine.

Post-Smallpox Vaccination Skin Eruption in a Marine. Mil Med. 2018 Mar 13;: Authors: Kramer TR Abstract This case report examines a vesiculopustular reaction which occurred in a young Marine 9 d after receiving the smallpox vaccination. Review of the CDC guidelines, ACAM2000 package insert, and literature surrounding the smallpox vaccine reveals several well-established adverse cutaneous reactions associated with vaccination. These dermatologic reactions are typically mild and self-limited, but do have the potential to be life threatening - especially in those with immunocompromise. Unfortunately, the correct diagnosis can often be difficult to make, as many of these rashes share similar characteristics. Furthermore, the low overall incidence of some exanthema associated with the smallpox vaccination makes familiarization with these rashes difficult for the primary provider. This case report includes a review of the associated literature and seeks to offer the clinician some familiarity of the skin eruptions associated with the smallpox vaccination. Self-limited skin eruptions such as autoinoculation, nonviral pustulosis, and generalized vaccinia will be distinguished from the more serious eczema vaccinatum, and from the potentially life-threatening progressive vaccinia. PMID: 29546340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research

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Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
Orthopoxvirus infections are on the rise worldwide. In addition, a smallpox bioterrorism event would necessitate ring vaccination with vaccinia virus (VV). This would pose a significant threat to susceptible groups, such as patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Subjects with AD, exposed to VV, can develop a serious complication called eczema vaccinatum (EV). As part of the Atopic Dermatitis Research Network, we have shown that a similar viral complication, called eczema herpeticum, is more common in AD subjects who are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (S.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Innate Immunity, Microbiology, and Microbiome Source Type: research
Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects 20% of children and is characterized by a defective skin barrier and type 2 immunity. We found AD patients with eczema herpeticum or S. aureus colonization have barrier defects and are more Th2-polarized. Therefore, we investigated the importance of AD inflammation or barrier disruption on epidermal infectivity of vaccinia (VV) – the virus used to vaccinate against smallpox.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Smallpox vaccination is associated with several potential cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from benign self-limited hypersensitivity reactions to life-threatening eczema vaccinatum and progressive vaccinia. Acral papulovesicular eruption is a distinct presentation which has been described in U.S. military members following vaccination with the second generation smallpox vaccine ACAM2000. We characterize this unique eruption with 12 reported cases so far, as well as review previously described cutaneous adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Petersen Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations—including complications and sequelae—as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes. Experimental and natural infectio...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) can reduce the immune response by inhibiting CD8 T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity. We studied a series of human viral (molloscum, human papillomavirus, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, smallpox) and bacterial infections (Helicobacter pylori) for the in situ expression of PD-L1, mononuclear cell infiltration, and CD8 activity and compared this to noninfectious idiopathic inflammatory conditions to better define which immune responses may be more highly correlated with an infectious agent. Each viral and bacterial infection showed an increased PD-L1 expression ...
Source: Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology - Category: Chemistry Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionsA good safety profile of the MVA‐BN vaccine was shown. The absence of adverse events in subjects with atopic disorders appears promising for the development of a safe smallpox vaccine for patients with AE or other atopic diseases.
Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsA good safety profile of the MVA‐BN vaccine was shown. The absence of adverse events in subjects with atopic disorders appears promising for the development of a safe smallpox vaccine for patients with AE or other atopic diseases.
Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Eczema vaccinatum (EV) is a life-threatening complication of exposure to smallpox vaccination in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) characterized by dissemination of vaccinia virus (VV) in the skin and internal organs.1 We have shown that BALB/c mice inoculated with VV at sites of allergic skin inflammation elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) exhibit features of EV.2 They include satellite lesions and VV dissemination to internal organs. EV features were absent in mice inoculated with VV in control skin epicutaneously sensitized with saline, suggesting that allergic skin inflammation predispo...
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Abstract Vaccines are rigorously tested and monitored and are among the safest medical products we use. Millions of vaccinations are given to children and adults in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are rare. However, because of the high volume of use, coincidental adverse events including deaths, that are temporally associated with vaccination, do occur. When death occurs shortly following vaccination, loved ones and others might naturally question whether it was related to vaccination. A large body of evidence supports the safety of vaccines, and multiple studies and scientific reviews have ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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