Deep sea creatures provide a guiding light in the quest to develop cancer therapies

(University of Southern California - Health Sciences) Scientists at the Keck School of Medicine of USC use enzymes responsible for marine animal bioluminescence to help researchers test whether cancer immunotherapies work.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Treatment costs for the immunotherapy can run to more than $1 million. Some state Medicaid programs aren't paying for the treatment, and Medicare's complicated payment rates have hospitals worried.(Image credit: Fanatic Studio/Collection Mix: Subjects RF/Getty Images)
Source: NPR Health and Science - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017Source: Materials TodayAuthor(s): Emily Reiser Evans, Pallavi Bugga, Vishwaratn Asthana, Rebekah DrezekAbstractCancer immunotherapy, or the utilization of the body’s immune system to attack tumor cells, has gained prominence over the past few decades as a viable cancer treatment strategy. Recently approved immunotherapeutics have conferred remission upon patients with previously bleak outcomes and have expanded the number of tools available to treat cancer. Nanoparticles – including polymeric, liposomal, and metallic formulations – naturally traffic to th...
Source: Materials Today - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2018Source: Journal of Geriatric OncologyAuthor(s): Ginah Nightingale, Rowena Schwartz, Ekaterina Kachur, Brianne N. Dixon, Christine Cote, Ashley Barlow, Brooke Barlow, Patrick MedinaAbstractUnique challenges exist when managing older adults with cancer. Associations between cancer and age-related physiologic changes have a direct impact on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cancer therapies and can affect drug dosing, dose intensity, efficacy, safety and quality of life. The breadth and depth of these issues, however, have not been fully evaluated because the majority of c...
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Sun S, Du G, Xue J, Ma J, Ge M, Wang H, Tian J Abstract Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temoz...
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research
We describe here various myeloid regulatory cells (MRCs) in mice and human as well as their relevant therapeutic targets. We first address the role of the monocytes and macrophages that can contribute to angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastatic dissemination. Next, we discuss the differential role of neutrophil subsets in tumor development, enhancing the dual and sometimes contradicting role of these cells. A heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, MDSCs, was shown to be generated and accumulated during tumor progression as well as to be an important player in cancer-related immune suppression. Lastly, we...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy offers new options and powerful weapons for the treatment of cancer, but its efficacy varies greatly among different types of cancer and across individual patients. Thus, the development of the right tools that can be used to identify patients who could benefit from this therapy is of utmost importance in order to maximize the therapeutic benefit, minimize risk of toxicities, and guide combination approaches. Multiple predictors have emerged that are based on checkpoint receptor ligand expression, tumor mutational burden, neoantigen and microsatellite instability, t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Immunology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Immunol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Filipa Lynce, Ayesha N. Shajahan-Haq, Sandra M. SwainAbstractDysregulation of the cyclin dependent kinase pathway in luminal breast cancer creates a new therapeutic opportunity for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Initial pan-CDK inhibitors were associated with extensive toxicities but in recent years, the development of potent specific CDK inhibitors with favorable tolerability has driven renewed interests in this class of targeted therapies. Palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib are specific CDK4/6 inhibitors that h...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Khushboo Agrawal, Viswanath Das, Pankhuri Vyas, Marián HajdúchAbstractDNA methylation plays a pivotal role in the etiology of cancer by mediating epigenetic silencing of cancer-related genes. Since the relationship between aberrant DNA methylation and cancer has been understood, there has been an explosion of research at developing anti-cancer therapies that work by inhibiting DNA methylation. From the discovery of first DNA hypomethylating drugs in the 1980s to recently discovered second generation pro-drugs, ...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tobias Gutting, Elke Burgermeister, Nicolai Härtel, Matthias P. EbertAbstractImmunotherapy is the latest revolution in cancer therapy. It continues to show impressive results in malignancies like melanoma and others. At least so far, effects are modest in colorectal cancer (CRC) and only a subset of patients benefits from already approved checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we discuss major hurdles of immunotherapy like the immunosuppressive niche and low immunogenicity of CRC next to current achievements of checkpoint inhi...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Filipa Lynce, Ayesha N. Shajahan-Haq, Sandra M. SwainAbstractDysregulation of the cyclin dependent kinase pathway in luminal breast cancer creates a new therapeutic opportunity for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Initial pan-CDK inhibitors were associated with extensive toxicities but in recent years, the development of potent specific CDK inhibitors with favorable tolerability has driven renewed interests in this class of targeted therapies. Palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib are specific CDK4/6 inhibitors that h...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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