Leveraging multi-layer imager detector design to improve low-dose performance for megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography.

Leveraging multi-layer imager detector design to improve low-dose performance for megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2017 Dec 13;: Authors: Hu YH, Rottmann J, Fueglistaller R, Myronakis ME, Wang A, Huber P, Shedlock D, Morf D, Baturin P, Star-Lack JM, Berbeco RI Abstract While megavoltage (MV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) provides many advantages over kilovoltage (kV) CBCT, clinical adoption is limited by its high doses. Multi-layer imager (MLI) EPIDs increase DQE(0) while maintaining high resolution. However, even well-designed, high-performance MLIs suffer from increased electronic noise from each readout, degrading low-dose image quality. To improve low-dose performance, shift-and-bin addition (ShiBA) imaging is proposed, leveraging the unique architecture of the MLI. ShiBA combines hardware readout-binning and super-resolution concepts, reducing electronic noise while maintaining native image sampling. The imaging performance of full-resolution (FR); standard, aligned binned (BIN); and ShiBA images in terms of noise power spectrum (NPS), electronic NPS, modulation transfer function (MTF), and the ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) - the detectability index (d') - are compared. The FR 4-layer readout of the prototype MLI exhibits an electronic NPS magnitude 6-times higher than a state-of-the-art single layer (SLI) EPID. Although the MLI is built on the same readout...
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Most CPAFs identified on CCTA have a favorable prognosis. Observation with OMT is usually an appropriate strategy. Fistula size is a possible determinant for surgical treatment. PMID: 31606954 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Korean Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic DisordersAuthor(s): Katherine L. Morrow, James Bena, Sean P. Lyden, Ezequiel Parodi, Christopher J. SmolockAbstractObjectiveInferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been commonly used to prevent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep vein thrombosis. However, IVC filters have been associated with risks, including IVC perforation, filter migration, fracture, and thrombosis. Filter retrieval has not always been successful. Our objective was to identify the factors associated with failure of retrieval of IVC filters.Meth...
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
AbstractIt is unknown whether treatment in very early/early systemic sclerosis (SSc) can affect long-term outcomes. A case-based review was conducted (i) to assess the effect of rituximab (RTX) in very early SSc and (ii) to explore how many clinical trials in SSc targeted early disease and whether treatment of these patients led to better clinical outcomes. We identified cases of very early SSc from our department and performed a search in MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical trials in SSc during 2005 –2018. Two cases are reported where RTX was administered within 24 months from the appearance of Raynaud&rs...
Source: Rheumatology International - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
ConclusionIt is difficult to distinguish amputation neuroma from malignant tumors because radiological findings of a neuroma mimic findings of malignancy. Intraoperative diagnosis is necessary to select an appropriate surgical procedure due to the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsPhysicians should be alert of this tumor despite its rarity because diagnostic delays increase mortality. In this report, we summarize the features that differentiate PPAS from PE and the importance of imaging in diagnosing the tumor.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral RadiologyAuthor(s): Şehrazat Evirgen, Halil Tolga Yüksel, Gökçe Yüksel, Barış Kaki, Kıvanç KamburoğluAbstractObjectiveTo identify the prevalence and radiological characteristics of intravertebral pneumatocysts (IVP), degenerative joint disease (DJD), and ponticulus posticus (PP) in the cervical spine using CBCT images. The correlations between the presence of these lesions, and the correlations of the lesions to patient age and sex, were also evaluated.Study DesignCBCT images obta...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) is a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. If not promptly diagnosed and treated the associated mortality is very high. The role of endovascular treatment is not yet defined. In this paper we report a clinical case of a 94-year-old male admitted in the emergency department with rectal bleeding. Due to detection of a pulsatile abdominal mass, a computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan was performed, which established the diagnosis of aorto-enteric fistula due to a left common iliac artery aneurysm (CIAA) ruptured to the sigmoid colon and also revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) a...
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
We present a case of a 70-year-old woman with acute presentation of bilateral limb ischemia and abdominal pain. Angio-CT scan showed the sub-occlusion of the distal thoracic aorta due to a severe calcified coarctaction with intraluminal thrombosis, a chronic occlusion of the superior mesenteric and celiac trunk arteries, an hypertrophic inferior mesenteric artery associated with signs of partial left kidney ischemia.
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Acute superior mesenteric artery thrombosis is usually fatal; however, early intravascular treatment using a mechanical thrombectomy device can be an effective intervention. A 70-year-old man with atrial fibrillation presented with sudden abdominal pain; superior mesenteric artery thrombosis was confirmed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Thrombolysis, mechanical fragmentation, aspiration, and thrombectomy were successfully performed using the Trevo ® XP ProVue stent retriever via a brachial approach, and intestinal necrosis was avoided.
Source: Annals of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe femoral tunnel positions created by the TT technique were significantly higher, with larger variance, than the TP technique in double-bundle ACL reconstruction, although the positions seemed to be within anatomical footprint. In addition, there were several cases in which femoral tunnels could not be created at the intended position by the TT technique.Level of evidenceI
Source: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
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