Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Review of the Research

AbstractAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are highly comorbid, precipitating an urgent need to identify evidence-based practices that might be used to address this comorbidity exclusively. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of intervention research and clinical reports to examine the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals who have comorbid ASD and OCD. Based on the pre-determined review inclusion criteria, 11 studies were included in the review: three randomized control trials (RCT), one case controlled study, two single subject experimental designs, and five case studies. These studies offer promising data on the use of CBT interventions for individuals with ASD and comorbid OCD as well as for individuals with OCD and comorbid ASD when standard CBT protocol is enhanced with modifications such as parental involvement, increased use of visuals, personalized treatment metaphors, self-monitoring, positive reinforcement, and use of clear language and instructions. Limitations and implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research

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Abstract Anxiety is common in children with ASD; however, the burden of specific anxiety disorders for adults with ASD is under-researched. Using the Stockholm Youth Cohort, we compared anxiety disorder diagnoses among autistic adults (n = 4049), with or without intellectual disability, and population controls (n = 217,645). We conducted additional sibling analyses. Anxiety disorders were diagnosed in 20.1% of adults with ASD compared with 8.7% of controls (RR = 2.62 [95% CI 2.47-2.79]), with greatest risk for autistic people without intellectual disability. Rates of almos...
Source: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: J Autism Dev Disord Source Type: research
Abstract A patient diagnosed with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autistic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was found to have a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst (PFAC) compressing the cerebellum. The patient was referred to our Ataxia Unit for consideration of surgical drainage of the cyst to improve his clinical constellation. This scenario led to an in-depth analysis including a literature review, functional resting-state MRI analysis of our patient compared to a group of controls, and genetic testing. While it is reasonable to consider that there may be a causal relationship between PFAC and ne...
Source: Cerebellum - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cerebellum Source Type: research
AbstractA patient diagnosed with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autistic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms was found to have a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst (PFAC) compressing the cerebellum. The patient was referred to our Ataxia Unit for consideration of surgical drainage of the cyst to improve his clinical constellation. This scenario led to an in-depth analysis including a literature review, functional resting-state MRI analysis of our patient compared to a group of controls, and genetic testing. While it is reasonable to consider that there may be a causal relationship between PFAC and neurodevelop...
Source: The Cerebellum - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder that is known to be moderately heritable but has poorly understood pathogenesis, limiting development of novel pharmacologic treatments. Previous studies suggest a significant contribution to OCD risk from de novo germline variants, which arise spontaneously in the parental germ cells or zygote. Recent studies of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability suggest a risk contribution from post-zygotic variants (PZVs) arising de novo in multicellular stages of embryogenesis, suggesting these mosaic variants can be used to examine the ge...
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
We describe the neurodevelopmental needs in this young cohort at study enrollment as reported by the parent or primary care-giver. We present data that supports that young boys with DMD have a high prevalence of neurodevelopmental needs as reported by parent or care-giver. Further, boys with DMD mutations between exons 45-50 reported higher cognitive problems. There was no relationship between neurodevelopmental needs and glucocorticoid use. We conclude that there is an unmet, critical medical need in DMD to develop pragmatic solutions for early detection and intervention of neurodevelopmental needs during a window of neu...
Source: PLOS Currents Muscular Dystrophy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Kabuki syndrome is a congenital disorder with multiple anomalies and intellectual disabilities. People with Kabuki syndrome have mild to severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, as well as a higher incidence of anxiety, attention problems, obsessive-compulsive traits and autistic behaviors. Self-Inflicted Skin Lesions is a condition in which changes on the skin are solely produced by the patient ’s own actions. This usually occurs as a result or manifestation of various psychologic problems.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Discussion “Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write. The modern term’s meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture.” The earliest written communication was in 3500-3000 BCE, with the earliest alphabet being from 1200-750 BCE. Although the percentage of the world’s adult literacy rate is increasing each decade by ~5%, “…from 55.7 per cent in 1950 to 86.2 per cent in...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
The holiday season is a time to reflect, find gratitude and show kindness, especially to those who may be struggling. It’s also a great time to escape the chaos and hunker down with a good book. Why not do both? Today, there are more and more books about children and teens coping with physical and mental health issues that help young readers empathize with these characters but also relate, especially if they’re faced with a similar condition. We’ve selected five books that will not only make great gifts for the kids on your list, but also will stay with them long after those holiday decorations are put aw...
Source: Thrive, Children's Hospital Boston - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Parenting autism clubfoot dyslexia eating disorder OCD Source Type: news
ConclusionsThis study identifies novelFOXP1 mutations associated with FOXP1 syndrome, identifies recurrent mutations, and demonstrates significant clustering of missense mutations in the DNA-binding domain. Clinical findings confirm the roleFOXP1 plays in development across multiple domains of functioning. The genetic findings can be incorporated into clinical genetics practice to improve accurate genetic diagnosis of FOXP1 syndrome and the clinical findings can inform monitoring and treatment of individuals with FOXP1 syndrome.
Source: Molecular Autism - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
AbstractTourette syndrome (TS) often presents with other comorbid conditions in clinical settings. The most common comorbidities are obsessive-compulsive disorder or obsessive-compulsive behaviors, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, autism, mood and anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. Comorbid disorders and coexistent psychopathologies are often associated with impaired functioning, more severe course, and poorer long-term outcome. The overall presentation of TS with and without comorbidities can be significantly different and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions may also change with...
Source: Current Developmental Disorders Reports - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
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