Dynamic changes in bronchoalveolar macrophages and cytokines during infection of pigs with a highly or low pathogenic genotype 1 PRRSV strain

AbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replicates primarily in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and the resulting lung damage is influenced by strain virulence. To better understand the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection, we performed a longitudinal study of the PAM population and lung cytokines in specific pathogen-free pigs infected either with the highly pathogenic Lena strain or with the low pathogenic Finistere strain in comparison to uninfected pigs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected to follow viral, cellular and cytokine changes in lung with respect to clinical signs and systemic events. Compared to Finistere-infected pigs, Lena-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical signs and 10- to 100-fold higher viral loads in BALF and blood. Similarly, they showed an earlier drop in BALF cell viability and phagocytic activity along with a decrease in the macrophage count. From 8 to 15  days post-infection (dpi), monocytes increased both in BALF and blood from Lena-infected pigs. BALF and blood showed contrasting cytokine patterns, with low increase of IFN-α and TNF-α levels and high increase for IL-1α and IL-8 in BALF after Lena-infection. In contrast, in the blood, the incre ase was marked for IFN-α and TNF-α but limited for IL-1β and IL-8. Down-regulation of PAM functions combined with inflammatory cytokine and monocyte recruitment may promote lung pathogenesis and virus repli...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Publication date: 1st Quarter 2020Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 50, Part 3Author(s):
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
This study demonstrated that the insoluble fiber dissociated from edible mushroom byproducts has good potential for producing the edible films.
Source: Journal of Food Engineering - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This study characterized wear behaviors of casein (3–5% w/w, 200 mM NaCl), κ-carrageenan (0.8–1.2% w/w, 100 mM NaCl), and whey protein gels (13% w/w, 50–150 mM NaCl) at room temperature (20 °C) under several normal forces (0.1–1.5 N). A kernel-based model was used to characterize hydrogel wear behavior by separating the deformation–wear process deformation-dominant, constant wear rate, and failure regions. Higher normal force and lower polymer concentration showed higher constant wear rates and lower durability. The kernel model was able to characterize hydrogel wear-deform...
Source: Journal of Food Engineering - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: LWTAuthor(s): Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas, Julen Bustamante, Francesc Guardiola, Diego Luís García-González, Sara Barbieri, Alessandra Bendini, Tullia Gallina Toschi, Stefania Vichi, Alba TresAbstractSensory quality, assessed following a standardized method, is one of the parameters defining the commercial category of virgin olive oil. Considering the difficulties linked to the organoleptic evaluation, specially the high number of samples to be assessed, setting up instrumental methods to support sensory panels becomes a need for the olive oil sec...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: LWTAuthor(s): Yan-Zhen Zheng, Yu Zhou, Rui Guo, Zhong-Min Fu, Da-Fu ChenAbstractDifferences in the antioxidant activity of ferulic acid and its nine naturally occurring derivatives with the presence of different ester groups at the end of their carbon side chains were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The thermodynamics parameters related to the double H+/e− free radical scavenging mechanisms were calculated in the gas, benzene and water phases. In the investigated phases, ferulic acid with the COOH group or COO− group and it...
Source: LWT Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Authors: Montazeri K, Bellmunt J Abstract Introduction: Since the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), there has been continuing and significant progress in urothelial cancer (UC) treatment. However, only about one fifth of UC patients respond to ICI. Recently, erdafitinib was developed for treating locally advanced or metastatic UC (mUC) with FGFR3 or FGFR2 alterations, accounting for 15-20% of patients. Erdafitinib is the first targeted therapy ever approved for mUC.Areas covered: This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data on erdafitinib for UC. PubMed search and relevant articles presen...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
Vincent speaks with Félix Rey about his career and his work on solving structures of a variety of viruses and the insights learned about viral membrane fusion and antibody-mediated neutralization. Click arrow to play Download TWiV 577 (46 MB .mp3, 75 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology antibody neutralization cryo-EM dengue virus flavivirus fusion loop glycoprotein Semliki Forest virus tick borne encephalitis virus viral viral membrane fusion viruses X-ray crystallography zika virus Source Type: blogs
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Source: Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Tags: Biomed Tech (Berl) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Journal of Sound and VibrationAuthor(s): Feng Feng, Xiannan Meng, Qiang WangAbstractThe spectral acoustic analogy (AA) theory is used to study the acoustic generation by a pair of co-rotating vortices from the decomposition of wave packets. The use of a two-dimensional spectral AA formulation is based on the data obtained by conducting a direct simulation of unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations. By way of the spectral AA theory and convolution filtering operations, the role played by the wave packets of the vortices in the generation of the sound are thorou...
Source: Journal of Sound and Vibration - Category: Physics Source Type: research
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