Recent innovations in mRNA vaccines.

Recent innovations in mRNA vaccines. Curr Opin Immunol. 2016 May 26;41:18-22 Authors: Ulmer JB, Geall AJ Abstract Nucleic acid-based vaccines are being developed as a means to combine the positive attributes of both live-attenuated and subunit vaccines. Viral vectors and plasmid DNA vaccines have been extensively evaluated in human clinical trials and have been shown to be safe and immunogenic, although none have yet been licensed for human use. Recently, mRNA based vaccines have emerged as an alternative approach. They promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines, without the need for electroporation, but with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. In addition, they avoid the limitations of anti-vector immunity seen with viral vectors, and can be dosed repeatedly. This review highlights the key papers published over the past few years and summarizes prospects for the near future. PMID: 27240054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 23 February 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Yunhe Jiang, Shunan Liu, Siyu Shen, Haoran Guo, Honglan Huang, Wei WeiAbstractEnterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornavirus family and a causative agent of respiratory diseases in children. The incidence of EV-D68 infection has increased worldwide in recent years. Thus far, there are no approved antiviral agents or vaccines for EV-D68. Here, we show that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a common drug that disrupts lipid rafts, specifically inhibits EV-D68 infection without producing significant cytotoxicity at virucida...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Martínez Lozano H, Conthe Alonso A, Bañares R Abstract INTRODUCTION: hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Since the generalization of vaccination, its incidence had markedly declined. Nevertheless, several HAV-outbreaks have been described in the last decade, mainly related to contaminated alimentary products. In recent years, a new pattern of acute HAV infection has been described with changes in the demographic profile of the infected population, which is more common in healthy young men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a retrospective case series stud...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Min-Ju Kim, Su-Hwa Lee, Hae-Ji Kang, Ki-Back Chu, Hyunwoo Park, Hui Jin, Eun-Kyung Moon, Sung Soo Kim, Fu-Shi QuanAbstractToxoplasmosis is an intracellular parasitic disease caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii, which affects about half of the world's population. In spite of the strenuous endeavors, a T. gondii vaccine for clinical use remains unreported to date. In the present study, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) containing T. gondii apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and assessed its efficacy in a murine model. VLPs w...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Luke Gardner, 21, from Northamptonshire, is well aware of the toll the illness can take. He caught mumps as well as German measles while studying broadcast journalism.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conclusion: Results suggest that these strains represent a putative new subgroup of BRSV with mutations observed in the immunodominant region of the G protein. However, further studies on these Brazilian BRSV strains should be performed to establish their pathogenic potential. PMID: 32083983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
In this study, we constructed a nitrated T-cell epitope named NitraTh by incorporating p-nitrophenylalanine into a universal T helper epitope. NitraTh had enhanced ability to activate CD4+ T cells and can be recognized by CD4+ T cells with different HLA class II haplotypes. This NitraTh can also break immune tolerance to autoantigens, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and cannabinoid receptor 1, and induce strong specific IgM+ B cell responses in vitro. HER2-NitraTh vaccine can also stimulate the generation of HER2-specific IgG+ B cells in human immune system mice, which was established by cotransplan...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Authors: Lambraño J, Curtidor H, Avendaño C, Díaz-Arévalo D, Roa L, Vanegas M, Patarroyo ME, Patarroyo MA Abstract Malaria continues being a high-impact disease regarding public health worldwide; the WHO report for malaria in 2018 estimated that ~219 million cases occurred in 2017, mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The disease cost the lives of more than 400,000 people, mainly in Africa. In spite of great efforts aimed at developing better prevention (i.e., a highly effective vaccine), diagnosis, and treatment methods for malaria, no efficient solution to this disease ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Authors: Cai W, Kesavan DK, Cheng J, Vasudevan A, Wang H, Wan J, Abdelaziz MH, Su Z, Wang S, Xu H Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii, as a nonfermentation Gram-negative bacterium, mainly cause nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. With the widespread of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, the urgency of developing effective therapy options has been emphasized nowadays. Outer membrane vesicles derived from bacteria show potential vaccine effects against bacterial infection in recent study. Our present research is aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved in immune protection of mice after out...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
In this study, we focused on the envelope glycoprotein F as the main target for neutralizing antibodies produced after infection or vaccination. The complete coding region of the protein (60 kDa) was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, obtained in a recombinant form and secreted to the culture medium. Later, to analyze its immunogenicity, the protein was combined with an oily adjuvant and used to inoculate mice. The results provide evidence supporting a potential application of this recombinant protein as a subunit vaccine.
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Every year in the United States, the CDC estimates that influenza results in between 9 million – 45 million illnesses, between 140,000 – 810,000 hospitalizations, and between 12,000 – 61,000 deaths (approximately 100  – 200 being pediatric fatalities). In the United States, the immense disease burden of the flu is unparalleled with any other pathogen, but fortunately there is a vaccine and antiviral medications which help to mitigate the yearly morbidity and mortality wrought by influenza.Because the flu changes its shape every year by a process called antigenic shift&n...
Source: A Pediatrician's Blog - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: blogs
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