Combination therapies for treating metastatic melanoma.
Combination therapies for treating metastatic melanoma. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2015 Apr;13(4):211-4 Authors: Tawbi H PMID: 26352577 [PubMed - in process]
A 37-year-old woman, with no history of diseases or medical treatment, presented with an asymptomatic nonulcerated lesion, at the lower posterior gingiva. The patient had periodontitis with periodical control and the intraoral exam showed a single, hardened nodule measuring 1 × 0.5 cm, with a smooth surface and sessile base, surrounding the interproximal distal space between the first and second left lower molars. Radiographically, there was no evidence of bone compromise. Pigmentation was only seen on the lingual area.
We report the case of a 35-year-old female HIV-positive patient, who had abandoned treatment for her systemic condition, who presented with complaints of swelling in her mouth and neck and difficulty in deglutition during 10 months after tooth extraction.
The present study reports a rare case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 23-year-old female patient, in the anterior maxilla. On clinical examination, the lesion presented as a 5-cm sessile nodule, with brownish irregular macules on the mucosal surface, painless, with a firm consistency ranging from teeth 14 to 24 with palatal and nasal extension causing facial asymmetry and dental mobility. The computed tomography showed irregular lytic bone reabsorption, without dental involvement. The incisional biopsy followed by microscopic examination suggested primitive neuroectodermal tumor, due to the presence of round blue cel...
We report an unusual case of a 1.5-cm dark macule on the edentulous posterior mandibular alveolar ridge. The lesion affected a 62-year-old woman referred by a clinician to the oral medicine service with suspect of melanoma. Clinical investigation found no signs of pain and discomfort. The patient stated she had not noticed the lesion previously. An excisional biopsy was performed and during the excision a loose brownish granular material within the submucosa and over the mandibular bone surface was seen.
Oral melanoacanthoma is an uncommon acquired pigmentation. An 11-year-old black female patient was assessed because of an asymptomatic macular lesion on the labial and buccal mucosa with evolution of 1 week. Medical history did not contribute. Intraoral examination showed a dark brown and flat lesion with irregular borders measuring around 30 mm on the left side. Diagnostic hypotheses were oral melanoacanthoma, physiologic macula, and melanoma. Incisional biopsy was performed. Histologic slices showed numerous benign dendritic melanocytes scattered throughout the lesional epithelium.
Oral melanoacanthoma is an uncommon pigmented lesion of the oral mucosa characterized by the presence of acanthosis and dendritic pigment-laden melanocytes located in the prickle cell layer of the epithelium. Pseudomelanocytic nests (PNs) represent cellular aggregates of keratinocytes, macrophages, and melanocytes, usually located in close relationship with lichenoid inflammation, which if not recognized can be misdiagnosed as melanoma. A 41-year-old white woman was referred presenting a pigmented gingival lesion located between the left maxillary central and lateral incisors with 1 year of evolution.
A 67-year-old male farmer presented with the complaint of a slightly symptomatic spot in the mouth for the past 2 years. The medical history discussed no abnormalities. Extraoral examination revealed cervical lymphadenopathy on the left side and intraoral examination a blue-black sessile elevated mass with irregular borders, involving the attached vestibular gingiva of teeth 27 and 28, extending to the hard palate and measuring approximately 3.5 cm. Panoramic radiograph did not show bone involvement.
This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
This study aimed to determine whether brevilin A has anti-melanoma effects, and whether STAT3 signaling is involved in the effects.Main methodsA mouse A375 xenograft model, as well as A375 and A2058 cell models were employed to assess the in vivo and in vitro anti-melanoma effects of brevilin A. A375 cells stably expressing STAT3C, a constitutively active STAT3 mutant, were used to determine the role of STAT3 signaling in brevilin A's anti-melanoma effects.Key findingsIntraperitoneal injection of brevilin A dose-dependently inhibited melanoma growth in mice and suppressed STAT3 phosphorylation in the tumors. In cultured ce...