Rural Surgery: Then, Now, and Beyond
This issue of Surgical Clinics was in the process of editing when the great pandemic of 2020 swept over the world. As of this writing, how the events of that historic event will change the practice of surgery in multiple venues remains enigmatic. Osler wisely said, “In order to solve a problem one must first understand the problem.” Knowing the prime issues of rural surgery before the pandemic without doubt is part of understanding its problems and future. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 26, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Tyler G. Hughes Tags: Preface Source Type: research

What Makes Wounds Chronic
Chronic wounds present a unique therapeutic challenge to heal. Chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria and the presence of a biofilm that further inhibits the normal wound healing processes, and are locked into a very damaging proinflammatory response. The treatment of chronic wounds requires a coordinated approach, including debridement of devitalized tissue, minimizing bacteria and biofilm, control of inflammation, and the use of specialized dressings to address the specific aspects of the particular nonhealing ulcer. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 20, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Stephanie R. Goldberg, Robert F. Diegelmann Source Type: research

Foot and Ankle Surgery for Chronic Nonhealing Wounds
Chronic wounds often are the result of bone deformities, compounded by musculotendinous and ligamentous imbalance. Sensory neuropathy places patients at greater risk for acute wounds to develop into chronic wounds. Etiologies of these deforming forces include Charcot neuroarthropathy, trauma, and congenital and acquired neuromuscular disorders. Management of these deformities ranges from simple relief of pressure with soft inserts to bracing for mechanical instability. Correction of more complex deformities requires resection of bone, osteotomies, fusions, and external fixation. Tendon and ligament imbalance must be addres...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 20, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Christopher Bibbo, Brittany E. Mayer, Laura A. Michetti Source Type: research

Plastic Surgery Techniques for Wound Coverage
This article reviews techniques for wound coverage that are not amenable to simple linear closure. The relevant anatomy and classification of flaps is discussed, as well as specific techniques for successful flap design. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 19, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Brad T. Morrow Source Type: research

Wound Healing: A Call for Engagement
This issue of Surgical Clinics is designed to give the reader a summary of important aspects of tissue repair. The authors have prepared excellent articles that amply address difficult issues in origin and persistence of chronic wounds, and an update on modern methods to heal them. We appreciate the opportunity to host this issue given by Dr Ron Martin, the forbearing Consulting Editor of Surgical Clinics. We also greatly appreciate the contributions of each of the article authors and hope that the reader will find their efforts to be as outstanding as we believe them to be. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 19, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Michael J. Harl, Michael D. Caldwell Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Defining the Role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an Adjunct to Reconstructive Surgery
This article attempts to lessen this bias by reviewing the benefits of HBOT in conditions where there is uniform acceptance of its role, such as carbon monoxide poisoning and decompression illness. It demonstrates that these conditions have similar pathophysiologic derangements to conditions commonly encountered by the reconstructive/wound care surgeon, including crush injuries, compartment syndrome, compromised flaps, and thermal burns. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Michael James Harl Source Type: research

The History of Wound Healing
This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Tiffany Brocke, Justin Barr Source Type: research

The Effect of Comorbidities on Wound Healing
Wound healing is affected by several factors. Preexisting diagnoses may significantly alter, delay, or inhibit normal wound healing. This is most commonly seen with chronic disorders, such as diabetes and renal failure, but also occurs secondary to aging and substance abuse. Less commonly, genetic or inflammatory disorders are the cause of delayed wound healing. In some cases, it is not the illness, but the treatment that can inhibit wound healing. This is seen in patients getting chemotherapy, radiation, steroids, methotrexate, and a host of other medications. Understanding these processes may help treat or avoid wound he...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Robel T. Beyene, Stephen Lentz Derryberry, Adrian Barbul Source Type: research

Biologic and Synthetic Cellular and/or Tissue-Based Products and Smart Wound Dressings/Coverings
Cellular and/or tissue-based products (CTPs) have advanced greatly in the past several decades and improve the ability to heal wounds more efficiently. Products can be characterized as nonviable cells, tissue based, animal; nonviable cells, tissue based, human; viable human cells, cultured in  vitro, animal substrate; viable human cells, cultured in vitro, synthetic substrate; viable human cells, noncultured, intact tissue. There are approximately 77 different CTPs at the time of this writing, with many more being investigated. Cellular and/or tissue-based product selection, applicatio n, postapplication course, ...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: James Abdo, Holly Ortman Source Type: research

Vascular Assessment of the Lower Extremity with a Chronic Wound
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects many individuals worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Controversy exists on whether or not to screen asymptomatic patients. Further complicating this is that many patients with a chronic lower extremity wound are often asymptomatic. PAD and traditional noninvasive vascular studies may be inaccurate in providing a correct diagnosis. A review of current and novel vascular assessment modalities along with their benefits and limitations are presented here. A combination of these vascular assessments may help improve accuracy in diagnosis, providing timely...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 17, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Jonathan F. Arnold Source Type: research

Biofilm and Chronic Nonhealing Wound Infections
In this review, the author summarizes the role of biofilm formation in chronic nonhealing wound infections along with characteristics of biofilm formation, diagnosis, detection, and treatment. Because biofilms are still not clearly understood, treatment and diagnosis are currently difficult. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Steven R. Evelhoch Source Type: research

Wound Healing
There is an adage that time heals all wounds: would that it were so. I suppose if someone were to take an extremist view, one might consider that saying is true in the way one might believe that “all bleeding stops.” I think it can be readily said that time, in and of itself, is not the most significant contributor to wound healing and may actually be working against some people. The process of wound healing is complex, involving many interrelated biological processes, host factors, and environmental contributions. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - June 7, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Ronald F. Martin Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Surgical Oncology for the General Surgeon
The practice of general surgery is dynamic and ever-changing. A well-trained general surgeon is able to handle a wide array of surgical problems with excellent outcomes. Even with increasing specialization, a large percentage of cancer operations in the United States are done by general surgeons. This includes largely breast, colon, and skin cancers, as there has been regionalization of liver, pancreas, and esophageal cancer surgery. Of note, there are only about 10% of counties in the United States that have a surgical oncologist. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Neal Wilkinson, Randall Zuckerman Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Surgical Oncology for the General Surgeon
SURGICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Neal Wilkinson, Randall Zuckerman Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
RONALD F. MARTIN, MD, FACS (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
Ronald F. Martin (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Surgical Clinics of North America
Wound Management (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - May 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Peritoneal Cancers and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
Cytoreductive surgery followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is an aggressive, potentially curative approach used to treat locoregional disease associated with primary and secondary malignancies of the peritoneum. It involves resection of all macroscopic disease larger than 2.5  mm, followed by instillation of hyperthermic chemotherapy directly into the peritoneum for higher drug exposure to microscopic disease. In select patients with primary peritoneal mesothelioma, pseudomyxoma peritonei, colorectal adenocarcinoma, appendiceal adenocarcinoma, or ovarian cancer, with no extra-abdominal metastasis and ...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Eric Pletcher, Elizabeth Gleeson, Daniel Labow Source Type: research

Cancer Genetics
For most individuals, cancer development is multifactorial; however, up to 10% of all cancers are related to an inherited genetic mutation. As health care shifts to having a greater emphasis on prevention, care providers, including general surgeons, will need to play a role in identifying patients at high risk for cancer development. Genetic testing provides a tool to determine those patients with a genetic mutation and to whom appropriate preventive care and treatment may be offered. It is imperative for general surgeons to understand the role genetics plays in the care of individual patients and their relatives. (Source:...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Christine Van Cott Source Type: research

Primary Liver Cancers
This article reviews the essential workup and treatment options necessary for general surgeons as they treat patients with primary liver cancers. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Juan C. Mejia, Jennifer Pasko Source Type: research

Foreword
As I write this foreword for this issue of the Surgical Clinics of North America, I am the only person in the administrative wing of our hospital. We are on the steep part of the ascending curve of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the hospital at which I work is preparing as best it can for the worst. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Ronald F. Martin Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Tumors of the Abdomen and Retroperitoneum
Soft tissue tumors of the abdomen and retroperitoneum encompass a wide range of benign and malignant neoplasms. Retroperitoneal sarcomas, the most common, are composed of rare malignancies with numerous histiotypes. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and the only curative option for retroperitoneal sarcomas. With histiotype-dependent local and distant recurrences, it is imperative these cases are discussed in a multidisciplinary tumor board setting at specialized sarcoma centers. This review discusses the current evidence for the management of abdominal and retroperitoneal soft tissue tumors, with particular focu...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Michael K. Turgeon, Kenneth Cardona Source Type: research

Management of Rectal Cancer
This article clarifies and simplifies this common clinical problem from the surgical perspective. Treatment of rectal cancer requires an understanding of presenting stage (early or advanced) and location (high or low) to provide oncologic sound treatment decisions. Surgical treatment requires a minimum of 1  cm distal margin, careful clearance of the mesorectum and radial margin using total mesorectal excision technique, and 12 or more regional lymph nodes harvested and analyzed. Appropriate and effective multimodality treatments exist and must be used based on sound guidelines as outlined. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Neal Wilkinson Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Tumors of the Extremity
This article focuses on the optimal workup of soft tissue masses including the indications for ultrasound and MRI, as well as use of preoperative core needle biopsy. Current AJCC staging, surgical principles of soft tissue sarcoma management, and data regarding indications for radiation therapy and chemotherapy are reviewed. As up to 50% of patients with soft tissue sarcoma will develop recurrent disease, surgical management of locally recurrent and distant metastatic disease is discussed. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 13, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Christina L. Roland Source Type: research

Esophagus and Gastrointestinal Junction Tumors
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma account for 95% of all esophageal malignancies. The rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma have increased in Western countries, making it the predominant type of esophageal cancer. Treatment of both types of cancer has transformed to a more minimally invasive approach, with endoscopic methods being used for superficial cancers and more frequent use of video-assisted and laparoscopic modalities for locally advanced tumors. The current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines advocate a trimodal approach to treatment, with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery for lo...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Saba Kurtom, Brian J. Kaplan Source Type: research

Pancreas Solid Tumors
This article reviews the classification, clinical presentation, and workup in differentiating solid tumors of the pancreas and serves as an additional tool for general surgeons faced with such a clinical finding, from a surgical oncology perspective. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 9, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: George Younan Source Type: research

Imaging and Interventional Radiology for Cancer Management
The past decade has brought about dramatic changes in the diagnosis and management of cancer. Advancements in imaging and minimally invasive interventional techniques combine to rapidly diagnose, stage, and in certain cases, treat various forms of cancer. Physicians treating patients with cancer are confronted with many challenges beginning with the initial diagnosis. Imaging plays an integral role in every step of caring for the patient with cancer. Advances in imaging allow the earlier detection and staging of the disease and aid in decision making and treatment planning. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 3, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Benjamin J. Pomerantz Source Type: research

Cancers Metastatic to the Liver
The liver is a common site of metastatic cancer spread, and metastatic lesions are the most common malignant liver tumors. Diagnosis of liver metastases often is established based on clinical assessment, laboratory tests, and appropriate imaging. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for resectable colorectal and neuroendocrine liver metastases. Long-term survival outcome data after treatment of hepatic metastases of noncolorectal non-neuroendocrine tumors are less robust. The treatment strategy for patients with liver metastases should be determined case by case in a multidisciplinary setting. (Source: Surgical Cl...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 3, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Nikdokht Rashidian, Adnan Alseidi, Russell C. Kirks Source Type: research

Pancreas Cystic Lesions
This article outlines the principles behind the management of pancreatic cystic lesions. We outline what the general surgeon needs to know in managing and triaging these patients. It is our feeling that the general surgeon is often the first line of evaluation of these complex patients and a working knowledge of the different types of cysts is critical to safe care of the patient. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 2, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Houssam Osman, Dhiresh Rohan Jeyarajah Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreatobiliary and Gastrointestinal Tracts
This article addresses current guidelines for diagnosis and localization of NETs, including somatostatin receptor PET. Updated treatment and outcomes of NETs by primary tumor site are discussed as well as those metastatic to the liver. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - April 1, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Morgan Bonds, Flavio G. Rocha Source Type: research

Cancer Incidence and Trends
The incidence of many types of cancer continues to increase, and despite many successes in the realms of screening, prevention, and treatment, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in North America. Cancer types affecting this population have varied over time, with a trend toward more malignancies caused by modifiable risk factors related to a western lifestyle. Despite the increasing incidence of cancer, a combination of population-based screening and improved therapeutics has made the disease more survivable, and created an ever-increasing community of cancer survivors. These cancer survivors face unique chall...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 27, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Melissa C. Hulvat Source Type: research

Anal Cancer
This article discusses the most commonly encountered anal canal tumors, the evaluation of these tumors, and their management. The foundation for successful therapy includes timely diagnosis, accurate staging, and routine surveillance. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 27, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Anne N. Young, Elizabeth Jacob, Patrick Willauer, Levi Smucker, Raul Monzon, Luis Oceguera Source Type: research

Management of Gastric Adenocarcinoma for General Surgeons
This article reviews pearls and pitfalls of multidisciplinary management of the gastric adenocarcinoma for best outcomes. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 18, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Hisakazu Hoshi Source Type: research

Urologic Robotic Surgery
Urologists have always been leaders in advancing surgical technology and were the first to utilize modern robotic surgery for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical proctectomy. Surgeon ergonomics, instrument precision, operative time, and postoperative recovery were all objectively improved. In urology, robotic surgery is now used for all intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, and pelvic procedures and has been expanded to renal transplants and pediatric use. Modern robotic surgery has become an essential part of treating complex urologic disease in the developed world. Urologists continue to lead the way with the latest roboti...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: David Mikhail, Joseph Sarcona, Mina Mekhail, Lee Richstone Source Type: research

Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (RA-LVHR) has many options. Before applying these techniques, it is important to identify the patient ’s goals for hernia repair, align yourself with those goals, and apply a technique appropriate for the clinical scenario, and most likely to meet the goals. Fundamental principles of hernia repair must be maintained: avoiding thermal injury to hollow viscera, adequate dissection of abdominal wall, appropriate mesh:defect ratio, stronger fixation where overlap is limited, and more overlap where fixation points are weak. This manuscript will detail available technique...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: David Earle Source Type: research

Robotic Surgery
Throughout the history of surgery, we surgeons have had to wrestle with how to incorporate new ideas and technology. As our understanding of the human condition has evolved, that task has become sometimes easier and sometimes less easy. For the first 6000 years or so of recorded surgical history, everything we could do didn ’t really make that much of an impact on overall longevity or societal cost. Of course, there were some large gains here and there, but much of what improved health and longevity was outside of the traditional confines of surgery. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Ronald F. Martin Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Robotic Surgery
SURGICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Julio Teixeira Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
RONALD F. MARTIN, MD, FACS (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
Ronald F. Martin (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Surgical Oncology for the General Surgeon (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - March 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Robotic Colorectal Surgery
The role of robotics in colon and rectal surgery has been established as an important and effective tool for the surgeon. Its inherent technologies have provided for increased visualization and ease of dissection in the minimally invasive approach to surgery. The value of the robot is apparent in the more challenging aspects of colon and rectal procedures, including the intracorporeal anastomosis for right colectomies and the low pelvic dissection for benign and malignant diseases. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 18, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Poppy Addison, Jennifer L. Agnew, Joseph Martz Source Type: research

Complications of Robotic Surgery
Robotic-assisted surgery has represented a revolution for surgical practice and minimally invasive surgery. The case volume is increasing exponentially and the numbers continue to grow particularly owing to urology and general surgery subspecialties. Nonetheless, robotic surgery is not exempt from complications, which can occur during the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods, and in particular with issues related to patient preparation, team dynamics, equipment failure, complications related to the surgical act, and surgical outcomes. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 13, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Ram ón Díaz Jara, Alfredo D. Guerrón, Dana Portenier Source Type: research

One Hundred Years of Evolution in Surgery: From Asepsis to Artificial Intelligence
The twentieth century witnessed a dramatic evolution in the field of surgery. The introduction of aseptic technique, improvements in anesthesia and perioperative care, and the standardization of hospital care by the American College of Surgeons unleashed an era of creativity and scientific experimentation that led to explosive growth in surgery. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 13, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Julio Teixeira Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Robotic Liver Resection
Robotic surgery has rapidly evolved. It is particularly attractive as an alternative minimally invasive approach in liver surgery because of improvements in visualization and articulated instruments. Limitations include increased operative times and lack of tactile feedback, but these have not been shown in studies. Considerations unique to robotic surgery, including safety protocols, must be put in place and be reviewed at the beginning of every procedure to ensure safety in the event of an emergent conversion. Despite the lack of early adoption by many hepatobiliary surgeons, robotic liver surgery continues to evolve and...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 12, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Kelly J. Lafaro, Camille Stewart, Abigail Fong, Yuman Fong Source Type: research

Robotic Foregut Surgery
Robotic-assisted surgery for benign esophageal disease is described for treatment of achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux, paraesophageal hernias, epiphrenic diverticula, and benign esophageal masses. Robotic Heller myotomy has operative times, relief of dysphagia, and conversion rates comparable to laparoscopic approach, with lower incidence of intraoperative esophageal perforation. The use of robotic platform for primary antireflux surgery is under evaluation, due to prolonged operative time and increased operative costs, with no differences in postoperative outcomes or hospital stay. Studies have shown benefits of robotic...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Tanuja Damani, Garth Ballantyne Source Type: research

Robotic Biliary Surgery
This article summarizes reported outcomes after robotic biliary surgery. A technical overview of robotic multiport and single port cholecystectomy is provided. Last, the approach to benign bile duct disease during robotic cholecystectomy, including reconstruction of the biliary tree, is described. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Karen Chang, Fahri Gokcal, Omar Yusef Kudsi Source Type: research

Robotic Pancreatic Surgery for Solid, Cystic, and Mixed Lesions
This article details our technique and application of the robotic platform to robotic pancreatectomy. The use of the robot does not change the nature of pancreatic operations, but it is our belief that it will improve patient outcomes and, possibly, survival by reducing perioperative complications. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 11, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Alexander S. Rosemurgy, Sharona Ross, Kenneth Luberice, Harrison Browning, Iswanto Sucandy Source Type: research

Pediatric Robotic Surgery
This article describes the development of pediatric robotic-assisted surgery, discusses technical limitations and benefits, and reviews training considerations particular to robotic surgery. Applications and published outcomes of common procedures in urology, general and thoracic surgery, otolaryngology, and pediatric surgical oncology are described. Finally, costs and the anticipated future direction of pediatric robotic-assisted surgery are discussed. (Source: Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - February 7, 2020 Category: Surgery Authors: Naomi-Liza Denning, Michelle P. Kallis, Jose M. Prince Source Type: research