Urbanization: a problem for the rich and the poor?
Authors: Kuddus MA, Tynan E, McBryde E Abstract Urbanization has long been associated with human development and progress, but recent studies have shown that urban settings can also lead to significant inequalities and health problems. This paper is concerned with the adverse impact of urbanization on both developed and developing nations and both wealthy and poor populations within those nations, addressing issues associated with public health problems in urban areas. The discussion in this paper will be of interest to policy makers. The paper advocates policies that improve the socio-economic conditions of the ur...
Source: Public Health Reviews - January 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Use of health outcome and health service utilization indicators as an outcome of access to medicines in Brazil: perspectives from a literature review.
Conclusions: This research showed the variety and heterogeneity of the indicators used in scientific studies. The best indicators for access to medicines are sought to measure the use of health services for symptomatic health conditions that are quickly responsive to pharmacological treatment, while the indicators related to worker productivity loss was the most suitable for health outcomes. PMID: 31867131 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - December 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

A scoping review on sexual and reproductive health behaviors among Tanzanian adolescents.
Conclusion: Adolescents engage in high-risk sexual behaviors and experience its adverse consequences. It is essential to collect more information, but the existing evidence supports a need for improving provision of sexual and reproductive health services among Tanzanian adolescents. PMID: 31508247 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - September 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Critical reflections, challenges and solutions for migrant and refugee health: 2nd M8 Alliance Expert Meeting.
This report is shaped by discussions from the second M8 Alliance Expert Meeting (Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, 15-16 June 2018) and is supported by supplementing literature to develop a framework addressing critical reflections, challenges and solutions of and for migrant and refugee health. This report aims to inform decision-making fostering a humanitarian, ethics and rights-based approach. Through a series of country-specific case studies and discussions, this report captures the most prominent themes and recommendations such as mental health, tuberculosis (TB) and best practices for increased access. PMID: 30...
Source: Public Health Reviews - March 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Healthcare human resource development in Saudi Arabia: emerging challenges and opportunities-a critical review.
Conclusion: Vision 2030 adopted in 2016 is a testimony to a revolutionary step undertaken by the government and that the healthcare sector is also passing through a major shift in its approach and execution. Vision 2030 has come out with a very clear sense of direction to the healthcare sector, and the projected shift from the existing one-third to two-third Saudi-to-foreigner workforce ratio by the year 2030 needs to be adopted carefully to turn the healthcare HRD challenges into opportunities. PMID: 30858991 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - March 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Health professionals' perspectives on breast cancer risk stratification: understanding evaluation of risk versus screening for disease.
Conclusions: Our study was the first to evaluate the perspectives of health professionals on the implementation and benefits of a new program for breast cancer risk stratification with the purpose of personalizing screening for disease. This new multi-step approach to screening requires more clarity in communication with health professionals. To implement and maintain effective screening, engagement of family physicians with other health professionals or even development of a centralized public health system may be needed. PMID: 30858992 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - March 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

The effect of antenatal care follow-up on neonatal health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Wondemagegn AT, Alebel A, Tesema C, Abie W Abstract Background: Neonatal mortality is one of the major public health problems throughout the world and most notably in developing countries. There exist inconclusive findings on the effect of antenatal care visits on neonatal death worldwide. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to reveal the pooled effect of antenatal care visits on neonatal death. Methods: The present systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using published literature, which was accessed from national and international databases such as, Medline/PubMed,...
Source: Public Health Reviews - December 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease in racial/ethnic minority populations: illness burden and overview of community-based interventions.
Authors: Muncan B Abstract Cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the USA, poses a unique and multilateral burden to racial/ethnic minorities. The admixture of comorbid conditions, structural barriers, and psychosocial standing complicates the prevention, diagnosis, and management of cardiovascular disease in racial/ethnic minority populations and requires newer approaches to reduce existing disparities. A discussion of the cardiovascular disease risk burden is presented, along with an overview of multi-stratified considerations for improving racial/ethnic minority cardiovascular health via community...
Source: Public Health Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Higher education as a platform for capacity building to address violence against women and promote gender equality: the Swedish example.
Authors: Okenwa-Emgwa L, von Strauss E Abstract Violence against women is an acknowledged public and global health problem which has adverse consequences for women's health. Education, especially higher education, has long been identified as an important arena for addressing the problem and promoting gender equality. Two measures recently put in place in the Swedish higher education have brought the role of the sector into focus. The first is the inclusion of gender equality as a measurable outcome in quality assurance in higher education. The second measure is the amendment of the Swedish Higher Education Ordinanc...
Source: Public Health Reviews - November 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Exclusive breastfeeding and rotavirus vaccination are associated with decreased diarrheal morbidity among under-five children in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.
Conclusion: In Bahir Dar, one in every ten of the under-five children surveyed suffered from diarrheal morbidity. Thus, implementing effective rotavirus vaccination programs, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and emphasizing appropriate solid waste management would reduce childhood diarrheal morbidity in the region. In addition, the finding suggests that improved child care mechanisms, especially for mothers working outside the home, and efforts to increase household income should be intensified to reduce incidence of diarrhea. PMID: 30410814 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - November 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Incitement, genocide, genocidal terror, and the upstream role of indoctrination: can epidemiologic models predict and prevent?
Authors: Richter ED, Markus DK, Tait C Abstract We apply the models and tools of epidemiology and public health to propose a unified field theory showing the role of ideologies, indoctrination, and incitement, in genocide, genocidal terror, and terror by groups or individuals. We examine the effects of indoctrination and incitement as exposures and risks in relation to genocide and genocidal terror. Incitement has been recognized as a trigger to these outcomes but indoctrination is upstream to incitement. Population-wide exposure to indoctrination increases susceptibility to the effects of incitement. These relatio...
Source: Public Health Reviews - November 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

The Community Health Experience Model-value generation from person-centered health transaction network.
Conclusions: In conclusion, the proposed Community Health Experience Model is a novel and promising approach to designing the structure of more effective and efficient health services and collaborative networks. PMID: 30288335 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - October 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Health system barriers and levers in implementation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Pakistan: an evidence informed situation analysis.
Conclusion: For better immunization coverage and ultimately a reduction in child mortality due to preventable diseases, EPI operations and performance must be improved. Further systematic implementation research could help to develop an even finer understanding of the system-wide bottlenecks encumbering the coverage and efficiency of the program. PMID: 30237907 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - September 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Screening and treatment of hypertension in older adults: less is more?
Authors: Anker D, Santos-Eggimann B, Santschi V, Del Giovane C, Wolfson C, Streit S, Rodondi N, Chiolero A Abstract Screening and treatment of hypertension is a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Hypertension causes a large proportion of cases of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and associated disability and is highly prevalent especially among older adults. On the one hand, there is robust evidence that screening and treatment of hypertension prevents CVD and decreases mortality in the middle-aged population. On the other hand, among older adults, observational studies have shown...
Source: Public Health Reviews - September 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Assessing trauma in a transcultural context: challenges in mental health care with immigrants and refugees.
Authors: Wylie L, Van Meyel R, Harder H, Sukhera J, Luc C, Ganjavi H, Elfakhani M, Wardrop N Abstract The growing numbers of refugees and immigrants from conflict-prone areas settling throughout the world bring several challenges for those working in the mental health care system. Immigrants and refugees of all ages arrive with complex and nuanced mental health histories of war, torture, and strenuous migration journeys. Many of the challenges of addressing the health care needs for this growing population of immigrants and refugees are often unfamiliar, and thus practices to address these challenges are not yet ro...
Source: Public Health Reviews - August 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Participation in lung cancer screening programs: are there gender and social differences? A systematic review.
Authors: Schütte S, Dietrich D, Montet X, Flahault A Abstract Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A number of screening trials for early detection of lung cancer exist, using chest X-ray, low-dose computed tomography, or both. However, little is known about the socio-demographic characteristics of participants in lung cancer screening programs. As gender and socio-economic determinants are important variables to consider for successful program implementation, this review aims to characterize the participants in such programs and to investigate whether differences in representat...
Source: Public Health Reviews - August 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Food safety impacts of antimicrobial use and their residues in aquaculture.
Conclusion: Prudent use of antibiotics in aquaculture under veterinary supervision is critical in ensuring safety of aquaculture products. Good animal husbandry practices as well as the use of alternatives to antibiotics such as vaccination, probiotics, phage therapy, and essential oils are recommended panaceas to reducing the use of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture and consequent food safety effects. PMID: 30094087 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - August 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Household wellbeing and health risks in Mexican households with and without migrants: a cross-sectional analysis.
Conclusions: Results showed that socioeconomic, demographic, and health conditions differed between households with and without emigrants. These differences were determined as not being attributable to migration and cannot be considered as predisposing factors of migration. PMID: 30083397 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - August 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Issues of accessibility to health services by older Australians: a review.
Conclusions: The contribution of factors to health service accessibility varies according to an older person's geographical local and their accessibility to transport, as well as their level of multi-morbidity and cultural background. Improving access to health services could be improved by matching services to the population that they serve. PMID: 30027001 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - July 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Assessing the value of screening tools: reviewing the challenges and opportunities of cost-effectiveness analysis.
Conclusions: To capture all important costs and outcomes of a screening tool, screening pathways should be modeled including patient treatment. Also, false positive and false negative patients are likely to have important costs and consequences and should be included in the analysis. As these patients are difficult to identify in regular data sources, common treatment patterns should be used to determine how these patients are likely to be treated. It is important that assumptions are clearly indicated and that the consequences of these assumptions are tested in sensitivity analyses, particularly the assumptions of indepen...
Source: Public Health Reviews - July 18, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Social autopsy for maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh: a tool for community dialog and decision making.
Authors: Biswas A, Ferdoush J, Abdullah ASM, Halim A Abstract Bangladesh has an established comprehensive death review system for tracking and reviewing maternal and perinatal deaths. This death review system, established in 2010, was initially known as the "Maternal and Perinatal Death Review (MPDR) System." One of the key interventions of the MPDR system, social autopsy (SA), is generally undertaken following a maternal or perinatal death notification. Social autopsy is managed at the community level by government field health workers. The main purpose of SA is to enable community discussion and create ...
Source: Public Health Reviews - July 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Public health implications of overscreening for carotid artery stenosis, prediabetes, and thyroid cancer.
Conclusions: Screening for carotid artery stenosis, prediabetes, and thyroid cancer in an asymptomatic population can result in unnecessary, harmful, and costly care. Systemic challenges to lowering overscreening include lack of clinician awareness, examination of conflicts of interests, perverse financial incentives, and communication with the general public. PMID: 29988604 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - July 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Screening for social determinants of health in clinical care: moving from the margins to the mainstream.
Conclusion: There is increasing traction within the medical field for improving social history taking and integrating more formal screening for social determinants of health within clinical practice. There is also a growing number of high-quality evidence-based reviews that identify interventions that are effective in promoting health equity at the individual patient level, and at broader community and structural levels. PMID: 29977645 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - July 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Developing the public health workforce: training and recognizing specialists in public health from backgrounds other than medicine: experience in the UK.
Conclusion: The transition from a predominantly medical to a multidisciplinary public health specialist workforce over a relatively short timescale is unprecedented globally and was the product of a sustained period of grass roots activism aligned with national policy innovation. the UK experience might provide a model for other countries seeking to develop public health specialist workforce capacity in line with the Essential Public Health Operations. PMID: 29942671 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - June 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Human rights in patient care: drug treatment and punishment in Russia.
Authors: Golichenko M, Chu SKH Abstract An inherent feature of drug control in many countries has been an excessive emphasis on punitive measures at the expense of public health. At its most extreme, this approach has reduced health services for people who use drugs to an extension of the drug control system. In these environments, health services are punitive rather than supportive for people who use drugs, especially those who are drug dependent. In Russia, the government's official policy towards drug use is one of "social intolerance," which seeks to legitimize and encourage societal ill treatment of ...
Source: Public Health Reviews - June 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Is blended learning and problem-based learning course design suited to develop future public health leaders? An explorative European study.
Conclusions: Blended, problem-based learning might be an effective way to develop leadership competencies among public health professionals in international and interdisciplinary context. PMID: 29881645 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - June 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Scrutinizing screening: a critical interpretive review of primary care provider perspectives on mammography decision-making with average-risk women.
This study is a critical interpretive review of peer-review literature that reports primary care provider perspectives on mammography screening decision-making. Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus databases were searched with dates from 2002 to 2017 using search terms related to mammography screening, uncertainty, counseling, decision-making, and primary health care providers. Results: Nine articles were included following a review process involving the three authors. Using an inductive and iterative approach, data were grouped into four thematic categories: (1) perceptions on the effectiveness of screening, s...
Source: Public Health Reviews - June 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

A multi-faceted pandemic: a review of the state of knowledge on the Zika virus.
Authors: Depoux A, Philibert A, Rabier S, Philippe HJ, Fontanet A, Flahault A Abstract While until recently the small and isolated Zika outbreaks in Eastern Asia and Pacific islands had been overlooked, the large-scale outbreak that started in Brazil in 2015 and the increase of microcephaly cases in the same place and time made media headlines. Considered as harmless until recently, Zika has given rise to an important global crisis that poses not only health challenges but also environmental, economical, social, and ethical challenges for states and people around the world. The main objective of this paper is to re...
Source: Public Health Reviews - May 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Brief assessments and screening for geriatric conditions in older primary care patients: a pragmatic approach.
This article discusses the epidemiologic rationale for screening functional, cognitive, affective, hearing and visual impairments, and nutritional status as well as fall risk and social status. It proposes using brief screening tests in primary care practice to identify patients who may need further comprehensive geriatric assessment or specific interventions. PMID: 29744236 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - May 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

A case study of the use of a special interest group to enhance interest in public health among undergraduate health science students.
Conclusions: A SIG appears to be an effective strategy to increase public health interest among students. This finding is key in settings with particular health workforce shortages and high burdens of disease. A foundation phase with high levels of academic support by those already qualified is needed to allow student leadership to emerge. Despite the modified and reduced number of sessions, the SIG was still successful in increasing awareness about public health and possible career choices: both positive consequences of engaging with students within a SIG. PMID: 29744237 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - May 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.
Authors: Bjerregaard P, Larsen CVL Abstract Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental h...
Source: Public Health Reviews - April 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that public health internships and mentorship facilitate trainee engagement in applied public health research. PMID: 29619272 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - April 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

How do accountability problems lead to maternal health inequities? A review of qualitative literature from Indian public sector.
Conclusion: The narrative and interpretive synthesis approach allowed to integrate and reframe the relevant comparable information from the limited empirical studies to identify the hot spots of systemic flaws from an accountability perspective. The framework highlighted problems in health system beyond health service delivery to wider areas such as policy or politics justifying their relevance and importance in such analysis. A crucial message from the study pertains to a need to move away from the traditional concept of viewing accountability as a blame-game approach and a concern of limited frontline health workers towa...
Source: Public Health Reviews - March 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Cancer screening recommendations: an international comparison of high income countries.
Conclusions: Guidelines for cancer screening differ between countries, with areas of commonality but also clear differences. Recommendations have important commonalities for well-established cancer screening programs such as breast and cervical cancer, with greater variation between countries regarding prostate, colorectal, lung, and skin cancer screening. Ideally, recommendations should be made by a professionally diverse, independent panel of experts that make evidence-based recommendations regarding screening based on the benefits, harms, and available resources in that country's context. PMID: 29507820 [PubMed - in...
Source: Public Health Reviews - March 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Personalized cancer screening: helping primary care rise to the challenge.
Authors: Selby K, Bartlett-Esquilant G, Cornuz J Abstract With their longitudinal patient relationships, primary care physicians and their care teams are uniquely situated to promote preventive medicine, including cancer screening. A confluence of forces is driving the demand for the personalization of cancer screening recommendations. Recommendations are increasingly based on individual patient preferences, medical history, genetic and environmental risk factors, and level of interaction with the healthcare system. Current examples include choices between colonoscopy, fecal testing, and emerging tests for colorect...
Source: Public Health Reviews - March 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Preface: a new stage in the evolution of public health reviews.
Authors: Chambaud L, Tulchinsky T PMID: 29450029 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Foundational values for public health.
Authors: Lee LM, Zarowsky C Abstract The development of an agreed-upon set of foundational ethical values for the field of public health is ongoing. In this paper we outline key elements of recent convergence on some basic moral precepts that drive public health. We suggest that three elements are particularly useful for anchoring public health practitioners' reflections on public health ethics: 1) the notions of "common" and "professional" morality, 2) an understanding of the practice and content of modern public health and especially its practical, solution-focused orientation, and 3) an appre...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Towards public health ethics.
In conclusion, it is necessary to have a public health ethics framework and a professional code of ethics applied to public health. The training of public health professionals in ethics is essential to ensure that they feel more confident when it comes to addressing the sheer range of ethical conflicts that they frequently face in the performance of their duties. PMID: 29450031 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Integrating ethics in public health education: the process of developing case studies.
Authors: Tulchinsky T, Jennings B, Viehbeck S Abstract The study of ethics in public health became a societal imperative following the horrors of pre World War II eugenics, the Holocaust, and the Tuskegee Experiment (and more recent similar travesties). International responses led to: the Nuremberg Doctors' Trials, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and the Convention on Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CCPCG, 1948), which includes sanctions against incitement to genocide. The Declaration of Geneva (1948) set forth the physician's dedication to the humanitarian goals of medicine, a...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Continuing the conversation about public health ethics: education for public health professionals in Europe.
Authors: Lee LM, Royo-Bordonada MÁ PMID: 29450033 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

An ethics training specific for European public health.
Authors: Camps V, Hernández-Aguado I, Puyol A, Segura A Abstract Training in public health ethics is not at the core of public health programmes in Europe. The fruitful progress of the United States could stimulate the European schools of public health and other academic institutions to develop specifically European teaching programmes for ethics that embrace both transatlantic innovations and some adaptations based on the evolution of moral values in European societies. This paper reviews the arguments for a European public health ethics curriculum and recommends the main features of such a programme. Europ...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Developing public health ethics learning modules - can we learn from critical pedagogy?
We describe ethical reasoning in medicine and in Public Health, specify pedagogical approaches and key assignments organized around the critical pedagogy. PMID: 29450035 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Screening and overdiagnosis: public health implications.
Authors: Bulliard JL, Chiolero A Abstract Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of an abnormality that bears no substantial health hazard and no benefit for patients to be aware of. Resulting mainly from the use of increasingly sensitive screening and diagnostic tests, as well as broadened definitions of conditions requiring an intervention, overdiagnosis is a growing but still largely misunderstood public health issue. Fear of missing a diagnosis or of litigation, financial incentives or patient's need of reassurance are further causes of overdiagnosis. The main consequence of overdiagnosis is overtreatment. Treating an ...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors beginning in childhood.
Authors: Bloetzer C, Bovet P, Suris JC, Simeoni U, Paradis G, Chiolero A Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Individual detection and intervention on CVD risk factors and behaviors throughout childhood and adolescence has been advocated as a strategy to reduce CVD risk in adulthood. The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has recently recommended universal screening of several risk factors in children and adolescents, at odds with several recommendations of the U.S. Services Task Force and of the U.K. National Screening committee. In the current review...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Why and how would we implement a lung cancer screening program?
We present the main reasons for implementing lung cancer screening in high-risk adults and discuss the main issues related to lung cancer screening. We stress the importance of eligibility criteria, smoking cessation programs, primary care physicians, and informed-decision making should lung cancer screening be implemented. Seven years ago, we were waiting for the results of trials. Such evidence is now available. Similar to almost all other cancer screens, uncertainties exist and persist even after recent scientific efforts and data. We believe that by staying within the characteristics of the original trial and appropria...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

On the rationale of population screening for chronic kidney disease: a public health perspective.
Authors: Bochud M Abstract Unlike opportunistic screening, population screening is accompanied by stringent quality control measures and careful programme monitoring. Sufficient evidence for benefit together with acceptable harms and costs to society are needed before launching a programme. A screening programme is a complex process organized at the population level involving multiple actors of the health care system that should ideally be supervised by public health authorities and evaluated by an independent and trustful body. Chronic kidney disease is defined by reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or presence...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Teaching public health ethics.
This article suggests how a broader ethically oriented approach to the ever-changing field of public health might be pursued - so that a professional public health practitioner might be prepared for a lifelong career of ethical activism. Informed by the pedagogic philosophy of Freire it assumes the development of a module within an MPH programme. If, as is widely acknowledged, we are dealing with essentially a corpus of values, the challenge for an educator of public health ethics is how do we inculcate those values effectively and efficiently? How do we prepare students for as yet unrecognised ethical problems that they m...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Screening for cardiovascular disease risk and subsequent management in low and middle income countries: challenges and opportunities.
Conclusion: The large burden of CVD in LMICs and the fact that persons with high CVD can be identified and managed along cost-effective interventions mean that health systems need to be structured in a way that encourages patient registration, opportunistic screening of CVD risk factors, efficient procedures for the management of chronic conditions (e.g. task sharing) and provision of affordable treatment for those with high CVD risk. The focus needs to be in primary care because that is where most of the population can access health care and because CVD programmes can be run effectively at this level. PMID: 29450041 [...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Prevalence of hypertension in Ethiopia: a systematic meta-analysis.
Conclusion: This study found that the prevalence of hypertension in Ethiopia is increasing. This evidence suggests that attention has to be given to primary prevention of hypertension in the Ethiopian adult population, especially in the urban population by integrating it with health extension programs. PMID: 29450042 [PubMed] (Source: Public Health Reviews)
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research

Europe's collective failure to address the refugee crisis.
Authors: Roberts B, Murphy A, McKee M Abstract The European response to the refugee crisis has been lamentable. A preoccupation with numbers has, too often, ignored how each refugee is an individual, many of whom have experienced the most appalling conditions in their countries of origin and in transit. These stories are only rarely heard, when the cameras are there to capture the tragedies. In this commentary we review the challenges of responding to the health needs of refugees, including examples of best practice, but above all call for a concerted political response that will both reduce the pressure on refugee...
Source: Public Health Reviews - February 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research