Are depressed patients ’ coping strategies associated with psychotherapy treatment outcomes?
ConclusionsDeficits in adaptive (engagement) and excesses in maladaptive (rumination) coping strategies may simply be proxy indicators (epiphenomena) of depression severity.Practitioner points Lower pre-treatment engagement coping predicted higher post-treatment depression Higher pre-treatment rumination predicted higher post-treatment depression Change in rumination during treatment correlated with change in depression symptoms However, none of the above associations remained statistically significant after controlling for baseline depression severity (Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice)
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - October 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: James Tait, Laura Edmeade, Jaime Delgadillo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The subjective effect of antipsychotic medication on trauma ‐related thoughts, emotions, and physical symptoms: A qualitative study with people who have experienced childhood trauma and psychosis
ConclusionsThe effects of antipsychotics can be subjectively experienced as beneficial or detrimental depending on how they influence trauma-related thoughts, emotions, and physical responses. Intervention studies are needed to determine how people with childhood trauma and psychosis respond to antipsychotic drugs.Practitioner points Antipsychotics may alter the way in which people with childhood trauma and psychosis remember and re-experience trauma. These alterations can be beneficial or detrimental, and thus play a role in whether people consider their medication helpful. By suppressing trauma-related thoughts and emo...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - October 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ilias Kamitsis, Louise Harms, Sarah Bendall Tags: Qualitative Paper Source Type: research

A systematic review of the rates of depression in autistic children and adolescents without intellectual disability
ConclusionRates of depression vary considerably across studies and do not show a particular pattern in relation to methodology, or age. Our research joins a crucial call to action from the research community for future research to improve the identification of depression in autism, which in turn will aid our understanding of the potentially different characterization and manifestation of depression in autism, to ultimately improve assessment and treatment of depression in autistic children and adolescents.Practitioner points Rates of depression in autistic children and adolescents vary and do not show a particular pattern...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - October 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tracy M. Stewart, Katherine Martin, Michela Fazi, Jessica Oldridge, Allan Piper, Sinead M. Rhodes Tags: Review paper Source Type: research

The experience of cognitive behavioural therapy in depressed adolescents who are fatigued
ConclusionsThis study provides an initial insight into how fatigued adolescents with MDD experience CBT. Further research is required to establish whether the themes are pervasive and relatedly, how best to treat depression in fatigued adolescents receiving CBT.Practitioner points Fatigued adolescents with depression found engaging in CBT sessions and therapeutic homework demanding. Establishing a collaborative therapeutic relationship, where the therapist was perceived as genuine, appeared helpful for participation. The structured approach to therapy, combined with flexibility, was experienced as helpful. Adolescents w...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Georgia Tanith Herring, Maria Elizabeth Loades, Nina Higson ‐Sweeney, Emily Hards, Shirley Reynolds, Nick Midgley Tags: Qualitative Paper Source Type: research

Effects of rhythmic eye movements during a virtual reality exposure paradigm for spider ‐phobic patients
ConclusionsContrary to our expectation, the implementation of rhythmic eye movements during virtual exposure did not enhance the effectiveness of the treatment. However, the eye movement group did show a significantly lower heart rate during exposure compared with the control group which might indicate a less stressful treatment.Practitioner points One-session Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy reduced fear of spiders effectively. Performing rhythmic eye movements during exposure did not enhance therapy effects. Rhythmic eye movements during exposure resulted in lower heart rate than standard exposure. (Source: Psycholog...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - September 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jessica Reitmaier, Anika Schiller, Andreas M ühlberger, Michael Pfaller, Marie Meyer, Youssef Shiban Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Working together: An investigation of the impact of working alliance and cohesion on group psychotherapy attendance
ConclusionsThe importance of individual and group processes in influencing group therapy engagement is highlighted, including the role of fostering bonds within the group and between clients and therapists.Practitioner points A complex array of process factors has been argued to influence treatment outcomes in group therapy The quality of the relationship between group therapy clients, as well as the relationship between a client and the therapist, predict session attendance. The quality of the relationship between the client and the therapist may be the most important predictor of session attendance. Therapists shoul...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - September 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bonnie Clough, Lauren Spriggens, Matthew Stainer, Leanne Casey Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Patient experiences of therapy for borderline personality disorder: Commonalities and differences between dialectical behaviour therapy and mentalization ‐based therapy and relation to outcomes
ConclusionsThe findings identify novel evidence of common therapeutic processes across DBT and MBT that may help to reduce self-harm. The findings also highlight the potential iatrogenic effect of difficulties in the alliance with therapists or with other group members. This underscores the importance of listening to patients ’ voices about what they are finding difficult during therapy and working to address these relational challenges, so that the patient is able to progress and make best use of the treatment.Practitioner points Regardless of whether dialectical behaviour therapy or mentalization based therapy is...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - September 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kirsten Barnicot, Caio Redknap, Florence Coath, Jeantique Hommel, Laura Couldrey, Mike Crawford Tags: Qualitative Paper Source Type: research

A cognitive behavioural intervention for low self ‐esteem in young people who have experienced stigma, prejudice, or discrimination: An uncontrolled acceptability and feasibility study
ConclusionsThe intervention was feasible and highly acceptable to treatment completers. This suggests the intervention warrants investigation in a randomized-controlled trial.Practitioner points Young people with low self-esteem whom have been negatively affected by stigma may wish to access support and be willing to engage in psychological interventions. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be helpful for young people with low self-esteem who have experienced stigma, prejudice, or discrimination. Cognitive behavioural techniques such as self-compassionate thought records and behavioural experiments were considered accept...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - August 30, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Katie Langford, Katrina McMullen, Livia Bridge, Lovedeep Rai, Patrick Smith, Katharine A. Rimes Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Brief Reflective Functioning Interview
ObjectivesTo measure mentalization in a feasible manner, various instruments have been designed in recent years. The Brief Reflective Functioning Interview (BRFI) is a short interview that is based on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). The aim of both studies was to examine the psychometric properties of the German version of the BRFI and to compare them to those of the AAI.MethodsIn Study 1, we examined 60 students using the BRFI and the AAI. In Study 2, the validity of the BRFI was examined using a mixed sample of students and patients (N = 149). Trained coders evaluated the Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - August 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sylke Andreas, Paul Pl ümer, Katharina Reichholf, Maria Dehoust, Holger Schulz, Pia Müllauer, Marie G. Rudden, Birgit Senft, Richard Gaugeler, Markus Hayden Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Embodiment in online psychotherapy: A qualitative study
ConclusionsFrom an enactive perspective, such adaptations manifest regulatory processes aimed at sustaining interactive dynamics and coordinating the primordial tension between relational and individual norms in social encounters.Practitioner points We examine different aspects of embodiment that practitioners should take into account when switching from face-to-face to online encounters with their clients. Online communication systems can alter aspects of the therapeutic relationship, such as its structure, its fragility, and its significance. Video calls afford new forms of intervention such as integrating the experi...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - August 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Enara Garc ía, Ezequiel A. Di Paolo, Hanne De Jaegher Tags: Qualitative paper Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice)
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - August 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Empathy, compassion, and theory of mind in obsessive ‐compulsive disorder
ConclusionBy investigating OCD with diverse scientific practices we shed light on the higher levels of empathy exhibited by individuals with OCD, which are relevant for clinical practice and our understanding of OCD symptomatology.Practitioner Points People with obsessive-compulsive disorder show higher levels of empathy, that is the increased sharing of others ’ suffering, compared with healthy individuals in both a traditional self-report and a naturalistic task. Regarding compassion, that is caring for others, their self-reported compassion was higher in people with OCD. In Theory of Mind, that is cognitively ...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - July 31, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Maike Salazar K ämpf, Philipp Kanske, Alexandra Kleiman, Anke Haberkamp, Julia Glombiewski, Cornelia Exner Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Early shaming experiences and psychological distress: The role of experiential avoidance and self ‐compassion
ConclusionThese findings suggest that self-compassion may play a significant buffering role within attenuating the effects of experiential avoidance associated with depressive symptoms. Such findings present important clinical and theoretical implications in further understanding the protective role of self-compassion within early shaming experiences and the relationship between depressive symptoms.Practitioner points Early shaming experiences have been linked to later psychological distress. Experiential avoidance identified a core underlying psychological process in the relationship between early shaming experiences a...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - July 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jordan Farr, Margo Ononaiye, Chris Irons Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

An ongoing process of reconnection: A qualitative exploration of mindfulness ‐based cognitive therapy for adults in remission from depression
ConclusionsOur findings have clinical implications in terms of facilitating MBCT and point to important themes around recognizing the ongoing process of reconnection with experiences, self, and others.Practitioner points Participants with histories of depression may have experienced disconnection and isolation from internal experiences (e.g., thoughts and emotions), self, and others; MBCT encourages a deliberate shift towards reconnection with these experiences. Practitioners could encourage more psychoeducation and discussions around depression during MBCT to encourage reflections on the process of reconnection. Pract...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - July 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kate Williams, Samantha Hartley, Ian M. Anderson, Kelly Birtwell, Merryn Dowson, Rebecca Elliott, Peter Taylor Tags: Qualitative Paper Source Type: research

Young people ’s experience of online therapy for first‐episode psychosis: A qualitative study
ConclusionsThe self-directed and flexible nature of the Horyzons online therapy gave some young people a sense of welcomed control over their mental health journey, and others felt overwhelmed by the high level of choice. Feeling overwhelmed by the level of choice appeared to interrupt their engagement with the platform, and thus their overall ability to use the intervention meaningfully. We also found that on-demand help-seeking and positive distraction were two functions unique to young people through online therapy and may have been related to the significant reduction in the number of overall presentations by young peo...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - July 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lee Valentine, Carla McEnery, Shaunagh O ’Sullivan, Simon D’Alfonso, John Gleeson, Sarah Bendall, Mario Alvarez‐Jimenez Tags: Qualitative paper Source Type: research

Corrigendum
(Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice)
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - July 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

How does attachment imagery for paranoia work? Cognitive fusion and beliefs about self and others mediate the impact on paranoia and anxiety
ConclusionsIn line with attachment and cognitive theory, secure attachment imagery is effective in reducing paranoia and anxiety and works by reducing cognitive fusion and negative self- and other-beliefs. These novel findings suggest that the secure imagery task could be incorporated into cognitive and behavioural therapies to reduce distressing interpersonal threat beliefs and associated negative affect, and increase help-seeking intentions.Practitioner points When working with people experiencing paranoia, secure attachment imagery may be effective in reducing state paranoia and anxiety and improving help-seeking inte...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - June 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Monica Sood, Katherine Carnelley, Katherine Newman ‐Taylor Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

The interpersonal processes of non ‐suicidal self‐injury: A systematic review and meta‐synthesis
ConclusionFindings provide a more nuanced investigation of the interpersonal processes underlying NSSI. Consistent with relevant theories, NSSI appears to be a way of mitigating difficult interpersonal experiences or getting interpersonal needs met. NSSI may be engaged in as a substitute to other, less damaging ways to cope. An argument is made for a more empathetic understanding of NSSI and the use of relational interventions.Practitioner points Self-injury may occur in response to interpersonal stressors Self-injury can be a means to get interpersonal needs met Self-injury may replace other means of coping that becom...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kelly ‐Marie Peel‐Wainwright, Samantha Hartley, Angel Boland, Eleanor Rocca, Susanne Langer, Peter J. Taylor Tags: Review Paper Source Type: research

Factors differentiating panic disorder with and without comorbid symptoms of depression
The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and clinical differences between people with a probable diagnosis of panic disorder (PD) and those with PD and a probable comorbid diagnosis major depressive disorder (PD  + MDD). We also sought to explore the potential contribution of cognitive variables to help differentiate between PD and PD + MDD. This was a subgroup analysis of 331 patients with PD symptoms who were included in the PsicAP clinical trial. All participants completed scales to evaluate panic, d epression, somatization, cognitive and performance variables. A univariate analysis ...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - May 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sara Barrio ‐Martínez, Antonio Cano‐Vindel, Roger Muñoz‐Navarro, Juan Antonio Moriana, Paloma Ruíz‐Rodríguez, Leonardo Adrián Medrano, Ludovica Ventura, César González‐Blanch Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

When less is more: The perception of psychotherapy techniques as a function of patient personality disorder
ConclusionConsistent with psychopathology research, the findings suggest that patients with PDs tend to experience techniques as more intense than the therapist, in comparison with patients without PD.Practitioner points There are indications that patients with higher levels of personality disorder traits will tend to experience the techniques in psychotherapy in a more intense manner than patients with lower level personality disorder traits. It is likely that patients with higher levels of personality disorder traits will experience their therapists as more active than therapists think they are. Therapists of patient...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - May 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ilana Lipsitz ‐Odess, Hadar Fisher, Ori Kartaginer, Liat Leibovich, Sigal Zilcha‐Mano Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice)
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - May 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Understanding the illness representations of young people with anxiety and depression: A qualitative study
This study aimed to provide a qualitative account of illness perceptions among youth with anxiety and depression by applying the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM), which was developed in physical health contexts.MethodsSemi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 young people (aged 16 –24, 73% female) with a history of anxiety and/or depression. Interviews were analysed using a combination of theory- and data-driven analysis techniques, consisting primarily of deductive thematic analysis.ResultsThe five themes broadly mapped onto the dimensions of the CSM, suggesting parallels in how mental and physica...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - May 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Holly Alice Bear, Karolin Rose Krause, Julian Edbrooke ‐Childs, Miranda Wolpert Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessments of therapeutic alliance predict work performance in vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia
ConclusionsDiscrepancy in scores was also shown to be predictive of work performance during the program. Clinicians are advised to routinely assess the therapeutic alliance from both client and therapist perspectives and calculate the discrepancy between them as they may indicate ruptures are occurring and thus hamper the intervention.Practitioner points Clinicians are advised to regularly assess the therapeutic alliance from both their own and the client ’s perspective. Growing discrepancy in scores may impede intervention effectiveness. Therapeutic alliance may help buffer against work stresses experienced by p...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - May 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Steven de Jong, Ilanit Hasson ‐Ohayon, Adi Lavi‐Rotenberg, Sarah A. Carter, Stynke Castelein, Paul H. Lysaker Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessments of therapeutic alliance predict work performance in vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia
ConclusionsDiscrepancy in scores was also shown to be predictive of work performance during the program. Clinicians are advised to routinely assess the therapeutic alliance from both client and therapist perspectives and calculate the discrepancy between them as they may indicate ruptures are occurring and thus hamper the intervention.Practitioner points Clinicians are advised to regularly assess the therapeutic alliance from both their own and the client ’s perspective. Growing discrepancy in scores may impede intervention effectiveness. Therapeutic alliance may help buffer against work stresses experienced by p...
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - April 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Steven de Jong, Ilanit Hasson ‐Ohayon, Adi Lavi‐Rotenberg, Sarah A. Carter, Stynke Castelein, Paul H. Lysaker Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice)
Source: Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice - April 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research