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Community ’s Emergency Preparedness for Flood Hazards in Dire-dawa Town, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study
CONCLUSIONS In the history of Dire Dawa town, the flood disaster of 2006 was the turning point in prompting some emergency preparedness actions. The local government in collaboration with the federal government initiated the construction of flood protection dams in some flood prone areas of the town. However, according to this study’s findings, some of the already constructed dams had already collapsed and the residents had no confidence in those dams. In Kebele-05 where an NGO existed to operate on flood hazards prevention and mitigation, some emergency preparedness actions were undertaken by the communities. These ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Luche Tadesse Ejeta Source Type: research

Humanitarian Needs in Government Controlled Areas of Syria
Introduction With an estimated 13.5 million people in need (PiN) of humanitarian assistance and 6.6 million internally displaced people (IDPs), Syria is the country with the world’s largest IDP population and among the most severe ongoing emergencies.1,2 At the start of 2016, of the 13.5 million PiN, 6.5 million (48%) resided in areas controlled by the Government of Syria, 4.5 million PiN were in hard-to-reach areas, and an estimated 8.7 million people had acute needs across multiple sectors.2 Humanitarian needs are ever-increasing while an inability to maintain humanitarian corridors and ceasefires continue to limit...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shannon Doocy Source Type: research

Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience
Conclusions Access to EPI vaccination for children is a key example of preventative public health interventions that have been curtailed in Northern Syria since the start of the conflict. These findings demonstrate that collapse of the formal public health system has led to an increasingly large group of children who are susceptible to infectious diseases with serious consequences, with younger children most vulnerable. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of EPI activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan de Lima Pereira Source Type: research

Rio ’s Mountainous Region (“Região Serrana”) 2011 Landslides: Impact on Public Mental Health System
This study reviewed the consequences of the 2011 disaster in the Serrana Region, evaluating the demand for mental health care in the SUS, comparing public mental health assistance data from two time periods – two years before and two years after the event. With that we aimed to identify changes on the demand for mental health services provided by the SUS in the affected region. METHODS Study design: We performed an ecologic study, analysing the aggregate data from Serrana Region during the period before (Jan 2009 to Dec 2010) and after the disaster (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012). We used the aggregate data from the other 8...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dell'Aringa Source Type: research

The United Nations Material Assistance to Survivors of Cholera in Haiti: Consulting Survivors and Rebuilding Trust
Conclusion A consultation process to inform the Material Assistance program for survivors of the cholera epidemic would offer the best chance to “get it right for victims and survivors” and design a program that is responsive to survivors’ needs and priorities while achieving broader goals of recognition of harm, mending relationships, and rebuilding trust. It is an opportunity for the U.N. to counter the perception that MINUSTAH has acted with impunity on Haitian territory. Importantly, this consultation must be seen as only the first step toward a meaningful engagement with communities. Lessons learned ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: ngibbons Source Type: research

Discussion Informed by Recurrent Lessons from a Systematic Review on Targeting Practices in Urban Humanitarian Crises
Conclusions and Recommendations The current evidence and recurrent lessons above do not point to one single best approach for targeting vulnerable populations in urban crises. As humanitarian programs have a wide variety of goals and urban contexts and crises vary, the complex nature of vulnerability makes it impossible to have one best approach for each situation. Any approach will have strengths and limitations and none will be perfect as needs may often exceed available resources. In addition to these technical limitations, the security situation and political context can also impact the selection of a targeting approac...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: rbpatel Source Type: research

The Effect of Armed Conflict on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services in Uganda: A Population-based Study
This study compared aggregated population-level data from the 13 districts in the Northern Uganda region, with data from the rest of the country, for statistically significant differences in the utilization of maternal healthcare services. The main hypothesis was that living in a conflict-affected region negatively impacts maternal healthcare utilization; the 5 time points of data served to provide a trend across the 20-year conflict period and beyond, to assess whether there were differences in maternal healthcare utilization during the conflict, compared to after, as well as at different time points during the conflict. ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Amrita Namasivayam Source Type: research

Listening to the Voices of the People: Community ’s Assessment of Disaster Responder Agency Performance During Disaster Situations in Rural Northern Ghana
Conclusion This study used a combined qualitative methodological approach of focus group discussions and the community score card in four communities in Northern Ghana to evaluate the performance of the main disaster responder agency. All four communities identified NADMO as the main responder agency during the last disasters with community members identifying education/awareness, selection process of beneficiaries, networking/collaboration, timing of response, quantity of relief items, appropriateness of relief items, mode of distribution of relief items, investigation and overall performance as the main evaluative indica...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: apanga Source Type: research

A Rights-based Approach to Information in Humanitarian Assistance
Humanitarian use of digital data: the coming crisis Humanitarian assistance is increasingly digital data-driven and dependent on information communication technologies (ICTs). Humanitarian actors increasingly use ICTs as a core component of their work, including satellite and drone imagery analysis and mobile surveys. Meanwhile, crisis-affected populations increasingly rely on mobile technology to maintain contact with loved ones and diasporas, locate and access aid, transfer money, and identify migration routes.1 These developments, represent a pivot point in the history of the humanitarian project that requires new doct...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Daniel Scarnecchia Source Type: research

The Theory of Planned Behavior and Disaster Preparedness
Introduction A disaster is “a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources”1. Although the categories and causes of disasters may differ, their impacts are common; therefore, a disaster plan should address disaster impacts2. Disaster preparedness is defined as actions that ensure resources necessary to carry out an effective response are available before a disaster, or they can be obtained promptly when needed3. Di...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mehdi Najafi Source Type: research

The Enduring Health Challenges of Afghan Immigrants and Refugees in Iran: A Systematic Review
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author. Data Availability All national (MagIran, Science Information Database (SID) and Iranmedex) and international (PubMed, Scopus) databases were searched from November 2010 to November 2016 using keywords both in English and Persian: Afghan immigrants, Afghan refugees, Iran, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, HIV, Hepatitis B and C, non-communicable disease, food security, mental health, barriers, health insurance, access to health service. All related websites and webpages were also searched by Google with the same keywords ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: nasim Source Type: research

[DIS-17-0023] The Enduring Health Challenges of Afghan Immigrants and Refugees in Iran: A Systematic Review
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author. Data Availability All national (MagIran, Science Information Database (SID) and Iranmedex) and international (PubMed, Scopus) databases were searched from November 2010 to November 2016 using keywords both in English and Persian: Afghan immigrants, Afghan refugees, Iran, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, HIV, Hepatitis B and C, non-communicable disease, food security, mental health, barriers, health insurance, access to health service. All related websites and webpages were also searched by Google with the same keywords ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: nasim Source Type: research

Interventions for Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Humanitarian Settings: A Protocol for a Systematic Review
The objective of the systematic review is to identify existing IPV prevention interventions, strategies and programs among refugee, internally displaced, or conflict-affected female in humanitarian settings; and to assess their effects. It will seek to answer the following questions: What are the existing types of intervention for primary or secondary prevention of IPV against women in humanitarian settings? What is the effect of various types of interventions on prevention or reduction of physical, sexual or emotional IPV in humanitarian settings? How do various types of intervention related to IPV affect he...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marjan Delkhosh Source Type: research

Correction: A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience Composite Indicators
Correction The links for Annex 1 and Annex 2 are incorrect. The correct links are provided here. Annex 1 – LIST OF METHODS ANALYSED Link to external file Annex 2 – EXCLUDED METHODS Link to external file References Beccari B. A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience Composite Indicators. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2016 Mar 14 . Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.453df025e34b682e9737f95070f9b970. (Source: PLOS Currents Disasters)
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

Pilot Testing and Implementation of a mHealth tool for Non-communicable Diseases in a Humanitarian Setting
This study was designed using a mixed method approach with qualitative and quantitative data collected throughout. Patients were recruited at clinics and if they indicated willingness to participate, a follow up phone call was made. This verified consent and a baseline interview collected information on demographic characteristics; medical history and recent care seeking behaviors; and knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. Following enrollment, medical record reviews were also conducted for each patient recording information related to provider compliance with guidelines and qu...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Emily Lyles Source Type: research

In the Field Feasibility of a Simple Method to Check for Radioactivity in Commodities and in the Environment
Discussion The current smartphone technology could open up to a massive radiation monitoring, with some limitations due to low sensitivity, where the number of data could compensate for the possible lack of precision and puts in the hands of the average citizen a direct knowledge that previously only specialized entities could access. Furthermore, the fact that anyone can check for the safety of the nearby environment leads to a new kind of bottom-up control of the information released by interested stake-holders and by the public authorities, allowing more transparent decision making. According to the United Nations Sci...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Stefano Alessandri Source Type: research

Causal Pathways of Flood Related River Drowning Deaths in Australia
This study aims to: Describe the incidence of unintentional fatal drowning during periods of river flooding in Australia between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2012; discuss risk factors associated with river flood related drowning; and propose potential strategies for prevention. Methods Ethical approval for this study was provided by the Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation (Department of Justice and Regulation Human Research Ethics Committee – CF/15/13552) and James Cook University (James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee – H6282). Informed consent has not been obtained as the human subject...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: amyepeden Source Type: research

Risk Criteria in Hospital Site Selection: A Systematic Review
Conclusions Despite the critical role of hospitals in health service delivery in disasters and emergencies and the effect of hospital location on the quality of these services, few articles have considered hazards as the criteria for hospital site selection (HSS). Cost and demand are two groups of criteria that have been addressed more frequently in HSS studies. The decision makers should prospectively match the main objectives of hospital building with the HSS criteria according to the strategy of site selection and the availability of data and resources. Undoubtedly, being safe and remaining functional in emergencies and...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Moradian MJ Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Identification of Potential Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Sites: A Case Study of Shizuoka City, Japan
Conclusions Our approach has shown that the attributes of building population and tsunami severity affect the way buildings can serve as vertical evacuation sites in a spatiotemporal way. The inundation of buildings differs between the 5 meter and 10 meter scenarios not only number of buildings within their flood zones, but also in the way buildings are extensively flooded or not in overlapping areas of the scenarios, indicating discreet spatial variations. Using Greger’s29 building population estimation method has revealed a temporal aspect of vertical evacuation due to the mobility of Shizuoka’s population o...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: gvsquall Source Type: research

Constructing the Indicators of Assessing Human Vulnerability to Industrial Chemical Accidents: A Consensus-based Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP Approach
Conclusions The main contribution of this paper was to identify a draft of effective indicators for assessing human vulnerability to a chemical accident. This study explored the application of the Fuzzy Delphi-AHP Method to quantify the expert views to human vulnerability of the residents living near chemical plants and warehouses. Also, the other possible factors affecting human vulnerability to industrial chemical accidents were considered and two sets of indicators in social and physical domains were constructed. Then, human vulnerability indicators were selected and weighted using the Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP method,...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 10, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: farin fatemi Source Type: research

The Life Process of Children Who Survived the Manjil Earthquake: A Decaying or Renewing Process
Conclusion According to the results of the present study, providing non-specific and temporary services is one of the factors affecting the life processes of children who have survived the Manjil earthquake. Training aid workers to consider the specific needs of children at the time of rescue operations could contribute to improving the health of this group in different aspects. Considering effective and comprehensive rehabilitation programs in Disaster Management policymaking can prevent persistent complications caused by earthquakes and other natural disasters. The results of this study also showed that some of the facto...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 4, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: abbasshamsalinai at yahoo.com Source Type: research

Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs
Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: En los primeros meses del 2016, la Ciudad de México y su zona metropolitana conurbada ha experimentado una de las peores crisis de contaminación del aire de la última década, urgiendo a las autoridades a tomar medidas drásticas a corto plazo. A fin de proporcionar elementos para investigaciones de sostenibilidad a largo plazo quisimos dar a conocer nuestros resultados de monitoreo de captura de carbono por plantas de azoteas verdes. Estas azoteas son una forma de naturación a gran escala, que constituyen una alternativa para mitigar parcialmente el incr...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 31, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: mague.collazo at ciencias.unam.mx Source Type: research

The Development of a Veterans Health Administration Emergency Management Research Agenda
Conclusions Using a systematic evidence base and consensus development process among stakeholders within and outside VA, we report on the first national VA comprehensive emergency management program evaluation and research agenda. VA provides a unique national laboratory for the conduct of high quality research that will improve VA’s and our Nation’s emergency medical and public health preparedness and the role of health delivery systems in that endeavor. To effectively foster the conduct and expansion of emergency management evaluation and research within VA, the consensus was that VA needs to build program ev...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 23, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Aram Dobalian Source Type: research

The Demand for Disaster Microinsurance for Small Businesses in Urban Slums: The Results of Surveys in Three Indian Cities
This study investigates the concerns noted above and looks at the potential for microinsurance in poor urban areas. In each surveyed region, we gauged knowledge of microinsurance and small business owners’ desire for programs. This initial study report contextualizes those findings and assesses the potential success of microinsurance programs. Methodology The study was conducted in partnership between the All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI), an NGO based in Gujarat, India and Stanford University in California, USA supported by the Humanitarian Innovation Fund. The study sites include urban slums in three...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: rbpatel Source Type: research

Current State and Problems of Radiation Risk Communication: Based on the Results of a 2012 Whole Village Survey
This study analyzed data from a questionnaire sent to all Iitate residents after the evacuation to determine what residents wanted in risk communication. Methods 1. Survey Method An anonymous self-response survey was sent out by the Iitate local government by mail from 22 May to 1 June 2012 to 2914 heads of households (or main income earners) with addresses registered in Iitate. This study used some of the results of that survey. 2. Survey Items The survey comprised 30 items on opinions regarding life after evacuation, contamination in the village, and returning to the village. This report focused on 2 items rele...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: kurodasan Source Type: research

The Current State and Problems of Radiation Risk Communication: Based on the Results of a 2012 Whole Village Survey
This study analyzed data from a questionnaire sent to all Iitate residents after the evacuation to determine what residents wanted in risk communication. Methods 1. Survey Method An anonymous self-response survey was sent out by the Iitate local government by mail from 22 May to 1 June 2012 to 2914 heads of households (or main income earners) with addresses registered in Iitate. This study used some of the results of that survey. 2. Survey Items The survey comprised 30 items on opinions regarding life after evacuation, contamination in the village, and returning to the village. This report focused on 2 items rele...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: kurodasan Source Type: research

The Most Effective Methods for Delivering Severe Weather Early Warnings to Fishermen on Lake Victoria
CONCLUSION Exposure to the lake was common with fishing in the lake being a major occupation in the study population. Over half of the respondents were aware of at least one community member who had been injured due to lightning and a significant number of respondents were willing to pay for a smart phone based commercial severe weather early warning system service. This will enable timely dissemination of sever weather alerts against hazards like lightning and thunderstorms hence giving lead time to those exposed to take actions to prevent, mitigate, or prepare for such risks. The sever weather early warning system will ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 22, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: richadt2002 at yahoo.com Source Type: research

Women ’s Challenges and Capabilities in Disasters: A Case Report of the Twin Earthquakes of Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran
This study was approved by the ethics committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). All participants were informed about confidentially of their names and other private information in the related reports. Corresponding Author Katayoun Jahangiri (k.jahangiri@sbmu.ac.ir) Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Data Availability The data set contains interview transcripts and will only be shared upon request. For further information regarding data availability please contact Sanaz Sohrabizadeh at sohrabizadeh@sbmu.ac.ir (Source: PLOS Currents Disasters)
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 22, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sanaz Sohrabizadeh Source Type: research

Correction: Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models
Correction The thirteenth author’s name is spelled incorrectly. The correct name is: Elie A Akl References Lotfi T, Bou-Karroum L, Darzi A, Hajjar R, El Rahyel A, El Eid J, et al. Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2016 Aug 3. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.95e78d5a93bbf99fca68be64826575fa. (Source: PLOS Currents Disasters)
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 10, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

Correction: Focused Training for Humanitarian Responders in Regional Anesthesia Techniques for a Planned Randomized Controlled Trial in a Disaster Setting
Correction The second author’s name is spelled incorrectly. The correct name is: Carrie Teicher. The correct citation is: Aluisio AR, Teicher C, Wiskel T, Guy A, Levine A. Focused Training for Humanitarian Responders in Regional Anesthesia Techniques for a Planned Randomized Controlled Trial in a Disaster Setting. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2016 Nov 16 . Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.e75f9f9d977ac8adededb381e3948a04. References Aluisio AR, Teicher C, Wiskel T, Guy A, Levine A. Focused Training for Humanitarian Responders in Regional Anesthesia Techniques for a Planned Randomized Controlled Trial in a Disaster S...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

Health Consequences of Typhoon Haiyan in the Eastern Visayas Region Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database
This study analyzes SPEED data from health facilities in the Eastern Visayas region, one of the four regions affected by Typhoon Haiyan, from November 8, 2013 to March 28, 2014.6 The database comprises reports that detail the number of consultations per day by health facility for two age groups (60 days) as this was identified to separate response and recovery.10 As this is a descriptive study of an existing database using aggregated data, the Institutional Review Board of Heidelberg University deemed the study exempt from full review. Prior to the start of the study, the SPEED database for Typhoon Haiyan was requested f...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 6, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Miguel Antonio Salazar Source Type: research

Rural Women ’s Experience of Living and Giving Birth in Relief Camps in Pakistan
This study aimed to explore birthing experiences in relief camps of women who resides in disaster prone areas. The study findings can be used by the National Disaster Management Authorities and humanitarian agencies to make informed decisions about the provision of maternity care services in disaster or humanitarian emergency settings in rural Pakistan. Methodology Study site The study was conducted in five rural villages located along the bank of the Indus River of the Sindh Province of Pakistan. Due to their geographical location, the relative exposure to annual monsoon flooding is high in these villages. The human ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 31, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Humaira Maheen Source Type: research

The Solidarity and Health Neutrality of Physicians in War & Peace
Commentary As physicians, we are reminded of Sir William Osler’s 1906 speech to graduating medical students when he asserted that: “Medicine is the only world-wide profession, following everywhere the same methods, actuated by the same ambitions, and pursuing the same end. This homogeneity, its most characteristic feature, is not shared by the law or religion”, nor the “extraordinary solidarity which makes the physician at home in any country.”1 In the century that followed, no other profession has exhibited the influential number of international associations, societies and collaborative eff...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 20, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Frederick M. Burkle, Jr. Source Type: research

Facebook Enables Disaster Research Studies: The Use of Social Media to Recruit Participants in a Post-Disaster Setting
Conclusions Social media was a useful strategy to recruit participants for a self-selected Internet sample for disaster research and did limit several of the practical and ethical challenges connected to disaster research. However, the method demands access to Internet connection in the disaster area, several strategic considerations, and an active approach from the researcher. The method does not eliminate the problem with non-probability samples, which is common in disaster research. To fully understand the potential and use of social media for recruiting participants for disaster research, the strategy needs to be furth...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 19, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Hugelius Karin Source Type: research

Emergency Preparedness and Management at the University of L ’aquila (Central Italy) and the Role of Students’ Associations in the April 6th 2009 Earthquake
Introduction At 3:32 a.m. (UTC+1) on 6 April 2009 an earthquake of Mw=6.3 hit the historical downtown of L’Aquila and its hinterland. The mainshock was anticipated by a long lasting seismic cluster (Ml
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 12, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Michele Magni Source Type: research

Survivors ’ Solidarity and Attachment in the Immediate Aftermath of the Typhoon Haiyan (Philippines)
Introduction Many myths and incorrect beliefs are common about disasters; anti-social and irrational behaviors are usually assumed to be the most common response to danger and disasters1,2,3,4,5 panic, for example, is frequently and erroneously used to describe disaster response6,7, despite it is a rare phenomenon that occurs only in presence of specific affective/cognitive factors8. Decades of research and empirical assessment on disasters and emergencies revealed that what really happens after a disaster frequently differs from what the conventional wisdom would suggest: victims tend to respond effectively and creatively...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 9, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Andrea Bartolucci Source Type: research

The Politics of Global Public Health in Fragile States and Ungoverned Territories
Article In 2004 I was honored to be interviewed for the Lancet medical journal’s Lifeline Series.1 I had just come away from a disastrous short tenure as the Interim Minister of Health in Iraq following the 2003 war. I had support from former Secretary of State Colin Powell to rapidly mitigate and recover the war related destruction of essential public health infrastructure and protections required as Occupiers under Articles 55 and 56 of the Geneva Convention (GC) that follow every war. Predictably, the loss of essential public health protections in food, water, sanitation, shelter, health, and energy leads to exces...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 9, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Frederick M. Burkle, Jr. Source Type: research

Reducing Disaster Exacerbated Non-communicable Diseases Through Public Health Infrastructure Resilience: Perspectives of Australian Disaster Service Providers
Conclusion Disaster service providers can play a vital role in reducing the risk of disaster exacerbated NCDs through PHI resilience. They are often employed in communities where disasters occur and the core elements of their work are directly linked to enhancing PHI resilience to maximize treatment and care at a local level. This combined with the wide range of disciplines demonstrates they can provide the leadership required to systematically expand the focus of disaster systems to include NCDs. Specific measures include: increasing the use of telemedicine; preplanning with medical suppliers; effective town planning; hea...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - December 21, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: jc164421 Source Type: research

Prevalence of Hypertension among Patients Attending Mobile Medical Clinics in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan
This report presents a post disaster evaluation of the burden of hypertension among victims of Super Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Methods A retrospective observational study was completed in order to determine the prevalence of hypertension among patients attending clinics conducted by mobile medical teams (MMTs) in 40 barangays located in central Leyte and Western and Eastern Samar, island provinces within the Philippine Archipelago. Medical records were kept for all patients. Patient evaluations included a history and physical, during which vital signs were measured and recorded. Blood pressure readings were taken...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - December 20, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: lindamob01 Source Type: research

Exploring the Role of Ad Hoc Grassroots Organizations Providing Humanitarian Aid on Lesvos, Greece
Conclusion Our study characterizes the emergent citizen humanitarian aid response present in AHGOs on Lesvos. They may prove effective at providing humanitarian aid in a surge response when INGOs are unable to respond quickly. In future complex disasters AHGOs should be recognized as new humanitarian actors and conditions should be made favourable for their operations. Data Availability Statement Anonymized interview transcripts are available with DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.4213425.v1 Corresponding Author George T. Kitching: georgki@stud.ntnu.no Appendix A: Interview Guide Questions What is the name of your organizat...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - November 17, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: George Tjensvoll Kitching Source Type: research

Focused Training for Humanitarian Responders in Regional Anesthesia Techniques for a Planned Randomized Controlled Trial in a Disaster Setting
This study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition for simulated lower extremity RA performed both with and without ultrasound guidance by a cohort of MSF association members and describes the focused training methodology used. Methods Ethics The RAPID study has received ethical approval from the Médecins Sans Frontières Ethical Review Board (Reference number: 1524) and has been preregistered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number: NCT02698228)21. All training participants provided written informed consent for study activities which were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. S...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - November 16, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: raluisio Source Type: research

Quality of Life of Persons Injured on 9/11: Qualitative Analysis from the World Trade Center Health Registry
Conclusions In this study we were able to identify serious long-term health and mental health effects related to the WTCD. Among those injured, quality of life was seriously and negatively affected. Public health and disaster response efforts have a responsibility to aid survivors and community members both immediately following a disaster event and, importantly, in the long-term. Because both natural and human-caused disasters are increasing in frequency and severity, communities and government agencies should prepare now with respect to the provision of short and long-term assessment and treatment for victims of these ty...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: lgargano1 Source Type: research

Developing the Philippines as a Global Hub for Disaster Risk Reduction – A Health Research Initiative as Presented at the 10th Philippine National Health Research System Week Celebration
Conclusion As a consequence of its disaster incidence, especially with regards to the frequency and intensity of climate-related extreme events, the Philippines is widely recognised as one of the most at-risk countries in the world, with a developed strength and experience in DRR. This conference demonstrated the emergence of commitment towards using these experiences to strengthen DRR at Barangay, local, regional and national levels. The equal commitment demonstrated towards sharing these outputs with other at-risk countries globally is the driving force behind developing a global hub in the Philippines. The event also hi...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 25, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Nicola Banwell Source Type: research

Education and Training of Emergency Medical Teams: Recommendations for a Global Operational Learning Framework
Conclusions Multiple attempts to standardise the education and training of disaster and emergency responders have been made; these focused mainly on an individual’s professional development rather than improved team operational performance. No agreed overarching framework currently guides EMTs through the principles of training or recommends suitable training methodologies. Since a systematic approach is needed, this report suggests a three-step operational learning framework for EMTs that could be implemented by EMT organizations globally. In addition, the importance of the training modalities used is highlighted; i...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 21, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: nievesamat Source Type: research

Laboratory Diagnosis for Outbreak-Prone Infectious Diseases after Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan), Philippines
Introduction Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) hit the central part of the Philippines on November 8, 2013, ­­which caused devastating damages including 6,300 reported deaths and 1,062 people missing1. After major disasters, outbreaks of communicable diseases may occur due to poor sanitation and crowded conditions 2,3. Furthermore, the risk of communicable disease outbreak is often exaggerated. Therefore, it is important to monitor if there are any outbreaks in affected areas after a disaster. However, laboratory confirmation is usually not available due to lack of electricity, necessary laboratory materials, and system for...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 21, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Mariko Source Type: research

Measuring Outcomes in a Community Resilience Program: A New Metric for Evaluating Results at the Household Level
Conclusion This analysis illustrates how to assess disaster resilience at the community level. Using the LACCDR community resilience index, we describe baseline neighborhood measures that can be used to track changes over time. These factor scores supplement qualitative evaluations that have been conducted throughout the course of the intervention. Once follow-up data is collected, we can use this index to investigate the impact of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience initiative. Corresponding Author David P Eisenman, MD MSHS, Professor of Medicine and Public Health, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 28, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: David P. Eisenman Source Type: research

Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/ Nuclear Incident: Further Guiding Principles
Conclusion This research programme can be used to inform best practice for managing casualties during mass decontamination. However, as noted in Cibulsky et al. (2016)1, there is a need for further research in this area to optimise casualty management strategies for mass decontamination. Ongoing work related to the development of optimal management strategies for mass decontamination is being carried out as part of the NIHR Emergency Preparedness and Response Health Protection Research Unit (EPR HPRU) (http://epr.hpru.nihr.ac.uk/). This research includes a qualitative study of factors which affect perceived public acceptab...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 15, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: hollycarter Source Type: research

Resilience and Disaster Trends in the Philippines: Opportunities for National and Local Capacity Building
Conclusion This paper assessed the extant research and practice of resilience and disaster preparedness in the Philippines, which serves as a good model on how to strengthen resilience and promote disaster risk reduction at the local level. Research and interventions are already identifying examples of best practice in disaster preparedness, response and recovery; however, important underlying drivers of disaster risk, such as a degrading environment and inequality, still remain over looked. With the frequency and intensity of disasters set to increase, communities are going to have to prepare more for worse events. This p...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 14, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tilly Alcayna Source Type: research

The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card: Both Failing Marks and Substantive Gains for an Increasingly Globalized Humanitarian Landscape
The 2016 World Humanitarian Summit Report Card The World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) in Istanbul took place on May 23-24, 2016 with 9000 attendees from humanitarian aid and disaster relief organizations, crisis-affected countries and governments. It was in part prompted by the terrific flow of refugees from the Middle East to Europe, the growing gap in being able to meet the needs of displaced peoples affected by conflict and disasters and the realization that broad reform is essential to move forward. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) conducted pre-WHS consultations with non-governmental org...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 30, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Deon Canyon Source Type: research

Mass Casualty Decontamination Guidance and Psychosocial Aspects of CBRN Incident Management: A Review and Synthesis
Introduction The likelihood of incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents has increased in recent years, due to advances in technology, and the increased willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons (1,2,3). While such incidents are still relatively low probability, evidence suggests that if an incident of this type were to occur, it would have a high impact on society. CBRN agents are invisible, consequences of exposure are often unknown, and there is the potential for delayed effects from contamination (4,5,6); they therefore score highly in terms of so-called dread risk (define...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 27, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: hollycarter Source Type: research