Does the Humanitarian Sector Use Evidence-informed Standards? A Review of the 2011 Sphere Indicators for Wash, Food Security and Nutrition, and Health Action
Conclusion The Sphere Handbook was conceived in 1997 by a group of non-governmental organisations, in part to respond to the overall lack of accountability experienced during, and in the aftermath of, the Rwandan genocide in 1994. The Sphere Project developed from a recognition amongst humanitarian actors of the need for greater accountability and effectiveness in humanitarian response. Twenty years later, these concepts that underpin the Sphere Handbook remain as relevant as ever, in a time when humanitarian actors require up-to-date guidance to assist in their response to established and emerging issues, such as the mana...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: jamessmith Source Type: research

Uganda at Glance of 5.7 Magnitude Earthquake: Lessons for Earthquake Risk Reduction
Introduction Earthquakes are spontaneous events that constitute one of the most deadly naturally triggered disasters, which can cause extensive fatalities, injuries, disabilities, displacement, physiological distress, extensive property damage and devastating economic losses1,2,3. Earthquakes are a result of sudden energy releases in the earth’s crust, which create seismic waves that result in the ground shaking4. They are often followed by a series of aftershocks or violent shakes, which can have a significant impact and do damage especially to already weakened buildings and other essential physical infrastructure. ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Balikuddembe Kimuli Joseph Source Type: research

Drought in the Semiarid Region of Brazil: Exposure, Vulnerabilities and Health Impacts from the Perspectives of Local Actors
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Aderita Sena Source Type: research

Impact of the 2013 Floods on the Incidence of Malaria in Almanagil Locality, Gezira State, Sudan
The objective of the study was to estimate the malaria incidence attributable to the 2013 flood in Almanagil Locality, Gezira State in central Sudan. Methods Study Area Gezira State is located in the east-central region of Sudan, is crossed by the Blue Nile and is irrigated by two canals of the Gezira and Managil agriculture schemes. Almanagil Locality was in 2013 one of the 8 localities that constituted the Gezira State and was situated in the south western part of the state. Almanagil Town, the capital of the locality, is 62 km away from Wadmedani, the capital of Gezira State, and 156 km from Khartoum, the capital o...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 8, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Yasir Elsanousi Source Type: research

Process of Development of a County-wide Crisis Care Plan – Riverside County, California, 2016-7
This article describes the process taken by the County of Riverside, California to construct its own crisis care plan, presently the 10th largest county in the United States by population, and to document the manner, methods, successes and challenges encountered during its design and systemization. Background Riverside County, California, with its county seat of Riverside approximately 60 miles east of Los Angeles, was established in 1893 as one of the state’s 58 counties. It is presided over by a five-member Board of Supervisors and serviced by an almost 25,000-employee municipal workforce. With a population of ove...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Cameron Kaiser Source Type: research

Behavioral, Normative and Control Beliefs about Earthquake Preparedness: A Deductive Content Analysis Study
Conclusion In the present study, the salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs of Tehran inhabitants about the earthquake preparedness are defined and discussed based on TPB. The fidings are indicative of the fact that the Tehranis’ preparedness behaviors can be influenced by these beliefs. Recognition of these beliefs may assist policy makers and executives to develop a better understanding of the origins of the attitudes, the subjective norms, and the perceived barriers to the preparedness. In the other words, with such an understanding, they may determine the factors that influence the public preparedness ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 28, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mehdi Najafi Source Type: research

Routine to Rare Risk – A Case Study of Firecracker Explosion Disaster in India
Conclusion The operationalization of firework public display in India is in a fragmented state and requires urgent attention to avoid disasters in the short and long run. The ‘foreman’s certificate’ is issued by the Controller of Explosive to a person who is conversant with safe manufacture, storage, transportation, handling of explosives. Explosive rules have not made it clear as to what kind of educational qualifications and training must be possessed by a person before he makes an application for ‘foreman’s certificate’. The basic chemistry of explosives and professional training on f...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Faisel T Illiyas Source Type: research

Correction: Knowing What We Know – Reflections on the Development of Technical Guidance for Loss Data for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Correction The affiliation for the sixth author is incorrect. Zehra Zaidi is affiliated with the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change and Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. The following information is missing from the Funding section: ZZ was supported by the SMALLDIS project, which received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 707683. (Source: PLOS Currents Disasters)
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

The Impact of Hurricane Sandy on HIV Testing Rates: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis, January 1, 2011 ‒December 31, 2013
Conclusions Our results suggest that public health preparedness professionals in areas with high HIV disease prevalence should collaborate with HIV testing and treatment providers to enhance readiness in advance of natural or man-made disasters that could disrupt preventative healthcare services. Public health emergency preparedness professionals should consider reviewing their epidemiology data to determine if the populations they serve are at increased risk for HIV infection during an event and work with testing venues and treatment providers to establish testing and treatment provision plans. In high HIV burden areas, a...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Linda Ekperi Source Type: research

Exploratory Qualitative Study of Fire Preparedness Among High-rise Building Residents
This study involved a small number of participants from one residential high-rise building. Transferability of the findings to other residential high-rise buildings may be limited. Furthermore, findings may not pertain to emergency preparedness for other types of high-rise buildings, such as commercial office buildings or hotels. Additionally, one member of the research team was a resident of the building from which participants were recruited. Some participants knew the researcher prior to the study, which may have introduced some bias into the study’s findings. Conversely, as a result of knowing the researcher, par...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: garyglauberman Source Type: research

Earthquakes to Floods: A Scoping Review of Health-related Disaster Research in Low- and Middle-income Countries
Conclusion Our scoping review assessed the characteristics of peer-reviewed publications of empirical health-related disaster research conducted in LMICs and published in 2003-2012. To our knowledge, this is the first synthesis to focus exclusively on health-related empirical research conducted during disasters. We found that many health-related research publications focus on the most devastating events, namely those that affect the largest number of people and those with the highest mortality rates. The most common research topics were those requiring the most immediate attention, such as traumatology, wounds, and the res...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Catherine M. Tansey Source Type: research

Vulnerabilities Associated with Post-disaster Declines in HIV-testing: Decomposing the Impact of Hurricane Sandy
Introduction Emergency preparedness plans aim to anticipate and mitigate the direct and indirect effects of large scale disasters on the public’s health. Often, these plans deal with the direct impact of a natural disaster or its indirect effects on disease transmission. However, the prospect of natural disasters, such as severe weather events, also has broader implications for prevention strategies. When Hurricane Sandy made landfall in October of 2012, the storm caused damage to homes and businesses, displaced survivors and crippled vital infrastructure systems such as power, transportation, water treatment and he...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: erinvthomas Source Type: research

Earthquake in Western Iran: Renovation Kills
BRIEF INCIDENT REPORT At 21:48 local time, on Nov. 12, 2017, western Kermanshah Province in Iran was shaken by an earthquake of moment magnitude Mw7.3 for about 30 s1 . The epicenter has been reported at the 34.88°N and 45.84°E coordination near the Iran–Iraq border and the depth at 23 km. Based on the active fault map of Iran, this earthquake can be triggered by the movement of the Zagros Mountain Front Fault in Pol-e-Zahab Region11 . In addition, more than 500 aftershocks, greatest of which with magnitude of 4.9 have been recorded by the Iranian Seismological Center. Due to this earthquake, 620 people di...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: abbas Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Global Hazard Communication with Ethical Considerations
This article therefore provides an opportunity to examine the resource in more detail and suggest areas which could be improved. Moreover, on a larger scale, these improvements may be applicable to similar communication tools produced by other agencies worldwide whether they cover hazards or not 18,19,20. The global hazards weekly bulletin at Public Health England (PHE) was designed to provide an easy to use, informative weekly guide on natural and technological hazards that have occurred in the previous week 21. Information is gathered via a Google Alerts system with over thirty search terms used to identify any news art...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Thomas Richardson Source Type: research

Knowing What We Know – Reflections on the Development of Technical Guidance for Loss Data for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Conclusion Transparent monitoring is essential to ensure that political and financial efforts to implement the 2030 agenda align with accepted goals and foster an effective evidence base. It is critical to offer support to the institutions tasked with doing so. Technical guidance literature is an essential part of this, which the February 2017 loss data workshop and recent publication of UNISDR technical guidance have revealed. Across Sendai Framework Global Targets A-D, there remain specific issues that the academic community can support with innovating methods for improving estimation and accurate record of the impacts o...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lorcan Clarke Source Type: research

Attachment, Bushfire Preparedness, Planning, and Response among Animal Guardians: A South Australian Case Study
Introduction Animal ownership has been identified as a risk factor for human survivability of natural disasters. Animal guardians have been reported to react or act in ways that may put their own safety and that of emergency services personnel at risk when faced with a natural disaster 1,2,3,4. Recent research has suggested that this risk factor could be reconfigured as a protective factor, whereby desires to save animals from natural disaster harm could motivate increased planning and preparedness behaviours amongst animal guardians. Whilst the primary beneficiaries are humans and animals, improving the natural disaster s...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lisel O'Dwyer Source Type: research

Bushfire Preparedness, Planning, and Response among Animal Guardians: A South Australian Case Study
Introduction Animal ownership has been identified as a risk factor for human survivability of natural disasters. Animal guardians have been reported to react or act in ways that may put their own safety and that of emergency services personnel at risk when faced with a natural disaster 1,2,3,4. Recent research has suggested that this risk factor could be reconfigured as a protective factor, whereby desires to save animals from natural disaster harm could motivate increased planning and preparedness behaviours amongst animal guardians. Whilst the primary beneficiaries are humans and animals, improving the natural disaster s...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - August 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lisel O'Dwyer Source Type: research

Community Perspective on Policy Options for Resettlement Management: A Case Study of Risk Reduction in Bududa, Eastern Uganda
Conclusions From the consultations using the deliberative poll method with the community, it can be generally agreed that resettlement is a highly complex issue. Policy makers have to be aware that resettlement and economic displacement of people can have significant adverse impacts on their future life, social fabric and livelihoods. If consultations are not adequately conducted, success determining issues are swept under the carpet. Ineffective consultations can leave the affected community feeling aggravated,hence do not adhere to the “agreed” position because some facts are only known to the technical peopl...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: stellaneema Source Type: research

Development and Implementation of the World Health Organization Emergency Medical Teams: Minimum Technical Standards and Recommendations for Rehabilitation
Conclusion The WHO EMT Initiative aims to improve the professionalization and quality of emergency medical response through improved standardization, coordination and accountability. The rehabilitation standards support these aims, by addressing by integrating delivery of rehabilitation into the acute emergency response capacity of EMTs. Required for EMT verification, the standards fill a significant in the scope and quality of care EMTs have historically provided. The standards also emphasize the importance of continuity of care and long-term functional outcomes by beneficiaries. A need exists for further awareness raisin...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jody-Anne Mills Source Type: research

The Promotion of ‘Grab Bags’ as a Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy
Conclusion The results of this study identified gaps in the evidence on the effectiveness of grab bags, and found variations in guidelines and promotion practices across different countries. With the implementation of the Sendai Framework and its emphasis on an all-of-society approach to DRR1, there is an opportunity to raise widespread awareness of the importance of household preparedness. Grab bags are recognized as an important strategy to support DRR, however the need for an evidence base must be addressed to support investments in this area. 7.0 Appendix Table 2: Embase search strategy # Searches Results ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Christina J. Pickering Source Type: research

The Flood-Related Behaviour of River Users in Australia
This study forms part of a wider study on river usage 15 and alcohol consumption 6, 16. The survey was administered as both paper-based forms and online through SurveyGizmo (www.surveygizmo.com) using iPads. Those surveys completed on paper were then transferred into SurveyGizmo on the same day the paper-based survey was undertaken. The final dataset was downloaded from SurveyGizmo into IBM SPSS V20 for analysis. To check accuracy of data entry, every tenth paper-based survey (n=56) was checked (by authors AEP and RCF). This resulted in the checking of 56 x 34 questions, resulting in a 0.7% error rate. These errors were c...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: amyepeden Source Type: research

A Typology of Secondary Stressors Among Refugees of Conflict in the Middle East: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Jordan
This study (ER/KHTA20/3) have been approved by the Sciences & Technology Cross-Schools Research Ethics Committee at University of Sussex (crecscitec@sussex.ac.uk). Results We identified three main groups of secondary stressors (financial, environmental and social) among the participants, which they suggested were common among Syrian refugees in Jordan. Consistent with the literature20, the interviews suggested that these participants struggled more with the secondary stressors than the memory of war or its direct effect on their life (e.g., deaths of relatives in Syria). Financial Stressors This group of stressor...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: alfadhli Source Type: research

Do Natural Disasters Affect Voting Behavior? Evidence from Croatian Floods
Introduction Some of the ongoing questions regarding voting behaviour are related to voters’ competencies. Can citizens correctly perceive information or are they prone to biases 1,2, are they informed enough3,4,5 , are they motivated to participate in politics6 , etc.? These questions relate to the idea, or the norm, of a rational citizenry. They are of great importance because assumptions and findings on voters’ rationality are used to justify different political institutions and systems7. If voters are rational, their broad political participation and inclusion should be warranted; if they are not, their rol...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Kosta Bovan Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Depression Among Civilians After the 9/11 World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions This meta-analysis identified risk factors for probable depression associated with the WTC terrorist attacks among mixed-exposure groups from the civilian population in the NYC metro area that was not directly involved in rescue or recovery efforts. We found that social isolation, change in employment, and not being married after the WTC terrorist attacks were three of the four most strongly associated risk factors for probable depression. Furthermore, we found that direct exposure to WTC related traumatic events was not significantly associated with probable depression, while knowing someone injured or killed ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Abhinaba Chatterjee Source Type: research

Comparison of Jurisdictional Seismic Resilience Planning Initiatives
Conclusion The performance measurement frameworks (recovery timetables) developed as part of the SPUR, RWS, and ORP initiatives are one of the most notable and innovative features the work and so is the primary focus of conclusion. This innovation is sure to live on and evolve because it is the core feature of the NIST guide. SPUR’s performance measurement framework timetable undoubtedly the primary persuasive force behind initiation of the RWS and ORP efforts. SPUR’s framework was easy to communicate and compelling to WASSC and OSSPAC. Interestingly, the SPUR performance measurement framework played a prominen...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Scott B. Miles Source Type: research

Community ’s Emergency Preparedness for Flood Hazards in Dire-dawa Town, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study
CONCLUSIONS In the history of Dire Dawa town, the flood disaster of 2006 was the turning point in prompting some emergency preparedness actions. The local government in collaboration with the federal government initiated the construction of flood protection dams in some flood prone areas of the town. However, according to this study’s findings, some of the already constructed dams had already collapsed and the residents had no confidence in those dams. In Kebele-05 where an NGO existed to operate on flood hazards prevention and mitigation, some emergency preparedness actions were undertaken by the communities. These ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Luche Tadesse Ejeta Source Type: research

Humanitarian Needs in Government Controlled Areas of Syria
Introduction With an estimated 13.5 million people in need (PiN) of humanitarian assistance and 6.6 million internally displaced people (IDPs), Syria is the country with the world’s largest IDP population and among the most severe ongoing emergencies.1,2 At the start of 2016, of the 13.5 million PiN, 6.5 million (48%) resided in areas controlled by the Government of Syria, 4.5 million PiN were in hard-to-reach areas, and an estimated 8.7 million people had acute needs across multiple sectors.2 Humanitarian needs are ever-increasing while an inability to maintain humanitarian corridors and ceasefires continue to limit...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shannon Doocy Source Type: research

Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience
Conclusions Access to EPI vaccination for children is a key example of preventative public health interventions that have been curtailed in Northern Syria since the start of the conflict. These findings demonstrate that collapse of the formal public health system has led to an increasingly large group of children who are susceptible to infectious diseases with serious consequences, with younger children most vulnerable. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of EPI activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 2, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan de Lima Pereira Source Type: research

Rio ’s Mountainous Region (“Região Serrana”) 2011 Landslides: Impact on Public Mental Health System
This study reviewed the consequences of the 2011 disaster in the Serrana Region, evaluating the demand for mental health care in the SUS, comparing public mental health assistance data from two time periods – two years before and two years after the event. With that we aimed to identify changes on the demand for mental health services provided by the SUS in the affected region. METHODS Study design: We performed an ecologic study, analysing the aggregate data from Serrana Region during the period before (Jan 2009 to Dec 2010) and after the disaster (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012). We used the aggregate data from the other 8...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - January 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dell'Aringa Source Type: research

The United Nations Material Assistance to Survivors of Cholera in Haiti: Consulting Survivors and Rebuilding Trust
Conclusion A consultation process to inform the Material Assistance program for survivors of the cholera epidemic would offer the best chance to “get it right for victims and survivors” and design a program that is responsive to survivors’ needs and priorities while achieving broader goals of recognition of harm, mending relationships, and rebuilding trust. It is an opportunity for the U.N. to counter the perception that MINUSTAH has acted with impunity on Haitian territory. Importantly, this consultation must be seen as only the first step toward a meaningful engagement with communities. Lessons learned ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 23, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: ngibbons Source Type: research

Discussion Informed by Recurrent Lessons from a Systematic Review on Targeting Practices in Urban Humanitarian Crises
Conclusions and Recommendations The current evidence and recurrent lessons above do not point to one single best approach for targeting vulnerable populations in urban crises. As humanitarian programs have a wide variety of goals and urban contexts and crises vary, the complex nature of vulnerability makes it impossible to have one best approach for each situation. Any approach will have strengths and limitations and none will be perfect as needs may often exceed available resources. In addition to these technical limitations, the security situation and political context can also impact the selection of a targeting approac...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: rbpatel Source Type: research

The Effect of Armed Conflict on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services in Uganda: A Population-based Study
This study compared aggregated population-level data from the 13 districts in the Northern Uganda region, with data from the rest of the country, for statistically significant differences in the utilization of maternal healthcare services. The main hypothesis was that living in a conflict-affected region negatively impacts maternal healthcare utilization; the 5 time points of data served to provide a trend across the 20-year conflict period and beyond, to assess whether there were differences in maternal healthcare utilization during the conflict, compared to after, as well as at different time points during the conflict. ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - October 3, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Amrita Namasivayam Source Type: research

Listening to the Voices of the People: Community ’s Assessment of Disaster Responder Agency Performance During Disaster Situations in Rural Northern Ghana
Conclusion This study used a combined qualitative methodological approach of focus group discussions and the community score card in four communities in Northern Ghana to evaluate the performance of the main disaster responder agency. All four communities identified NADMO as the main responder agency during the last disasters with community members identifying education/awareness, selection process of beneficiaries, networking/collaboration, timing of response, quantity of relief items, appropriateness of relief items, mode of distribution of relief items, investigation and overall performance as the main evaluative indica...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: apanga Source Type: research

A Rights-based Approach to Information in Humanitarian Assistance
Humanitarian use of digital data: the coming crisis Humanitarian assistance is increasingly digital data-driven and dependent on information communication technologies (ICTs). Humanitarian actors increasingly use ICTs as a core component of their work, including satellite and drone imagery analysis and mobile surveys. Meanwhile, crisis-affected populations increasingly rely on mobile technology to maintain contact with loved ones and diasporas, locate and access aid, transfer money, and identify migration routes.1 These developments, represent a pivot point in the history of the humanitarian project that requires new doct...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Daniel Scarnecchia Source Type: research

The Theory of Planned Behavior and Disaster Preparedness
Introduction A disaster is “a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources”1. Although the categories and causes of disasters may differ, their impacts are common; therefore, a disaster plan should address disaster impacts2. Disaster preparedness is defined as actions that ensure resources necessary to carry out an effective response are available before a disaster, or they can be obtained promptly when needed3. Di...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - September 6, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mehdi Najafi Source Type: research

The Enduring Health Challenges of Afghan Immigrants and Refugees in Iran: A Systematic Review
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author. Data Availability All national (MagIran, Science Information Database (SID) and Iranmedex) and international (PubMed, Scopus) databases were searched from November 2010 to November 2016 using keywords both in English and Persian: Afghan immigrants, Afghan refugees, Iran, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, HIV, Hepatitis B and C, non-communicable disease, food security, mental health, barriers, health insurance, access to health service. All related websites and webpages were also searched by Google with the same keywords ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: nasim Source Type: research

[DIS-17-0023] The Enduring Health Challenges of Afghan Immigrants and Refugees in Iran: A Systematic Review
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author. Data Availability All national (MagIran, Science Information Database (SID) and Iranmedex) and international (PubMed, Scopus) databases were searched from November 2010 to November 2016 using keywords both in English and Persian: Afghan immigrants, Afghan refugees, Iran, infectious diseases, tuberculosis, HIV, Hepatitis B and C, non-communicable disease, food security, mental health, barriers, health insurance, access to health service. All related websites and webpages were also searched by Google with the same keywords ...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: nasim Source Type: research

Interventions for Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Humanitarian Settings: A Protocol for a Systematic Review
The objective of the systematic review is to identify existing IPV prevention interventions, strategies and programs among refugee, internally displaced, or conflict-affected female in humanitarian settings; and to assess their effects. It will seek to answer the following questions: What are the existing types of intervention for primary or secondary prevention of IPV against women in humanitarian settings? What is the effect of various types of interventions on prevention or reduction of physical, sexual or emotional IPV in humanitarian settings? How do various types of intervention related to IPV affect he...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - July 12, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Marjan Delkhosh Source Type: research

Correction: A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience Composite Indicators
Correction The links for Annex 1 and Annex 2 are incorrect. The correct links are provided here. Annex 1 – LIST OF METHODS ANALYSED Link to external file Annex 2 – EXCLUDED METHODS Link to external file References Beccari B. A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience Composite Indicators. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2016 Mar 14 . Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.dis.453df025e34b682e9737f95070f9b970. (Source: PLOS Currents Disasters)
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 29, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

Pilot Testing and Implementation of a mHealth tool for Non-communicable Diseases in a Humanitarian Setting
This study was designed using a mixed method approach with qualitative and quantitative data collected throughout. Patients were recruited at clinics and if they indicated willingness to participate, a follow up phone call was made. This verified consent and a baseline interview collected information on demographic characteristics; medical history and recent care seeking behaviors; and knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. Following enrollment, medical record reviews were also conducted for each patient recording information related to provider compliance with guidelines and qu...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - June 5, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Emily Lyles Source Type: research

In the Field Feasibility of a Simple Method to Check for Radioactivity in Commodities and in the Environment
Discussion The current smartphone technology could open up to a massive radiation monitoring, with some limitations due to low sensitivity, where the number of data could compensate for the possible lack of precision and puts in the hands of the average citizen a direct knowledge that previously only specialized entities could access. Furthermore, the fact that anyone can check for the safety of the nearby environment leads to a new kind of bottom-up control of the information released by interested stake-holders and by the public authorities, allowing more transparent decision making. According to the United Nations Sci...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 30, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Stefano Alessandri Source Type: research

Causal Pathways of Flood Related River Drowning Deaths in Australia
This study aims to: Describe the incidence of unintentional fatal drowning during periods of river flooding in Australia between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2012; discuss risk factors associated with river flood related drowning; and propose potential strategies for prevention. Methods Ethical approval for this study was provided by the Victorian Department of Justice and Regulation (Department of Justice and Regulation Human Research Ethics Committee – CF/15/13552) and James Cook University (James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee – H6282). Informed consent has not been obtained as the human subject...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 18, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: amyepeden Source Type: research

Risk Criteria in Hospital Site Selection: A Systematic Review
Conclusions Despite the critical role of hospitals in health service delivery in disasters and emergencies and the effect of hospital location on the quality of these services, few articles have considered hazards as the criteria for hospital site selection (HSS). Cost and demand are two groups of criteria that have been addressed more frequently in HSS studies. The decision makers should prospectively match the main objectives of hospital building with the HSS criteria according to the strategy of site selection and the availability of data and resources. Undoubtedly, being safe and remaining functional in emergencies and...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - May 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Moradian MJ Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Identification of Potential Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Sites: A Case Study of Shizuoka City, Japan
Conclusions Our approach has shown that the attributes of building population and tsunami severity affect the way buildings can serve as vertical evacuation sites in a spatiotemporal way. The inundation of buildings differs between the 5 meter and 10 meter scenarios not only number of buildings within their flood zones, but also in the way buildings are extensively flooded or not in overlapping areas of the scenarios, indicating discreet spatial variations. Using Greger’s29 building population estimation method has revealed a temporal aspect of vertical evacuation due to the mobility of Shizuoka’s population o...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: gvsquall Source Type: research

Constructing the Indicators of Assessing Human Vulnerability to Industrial Chemical Accidents: A Consensus-based Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP Approach
Conclusions The main contribution of this paper was to identify a draft of effective indicators for assessing human vulnerability to a chemical accident. This study explored the application of the Fuzzy Delphi-AHP Method to quantify the expert views to human vulnerability of the residents living near chemical plants and warehouses. Also, the other possible factors affecting human vulnerability to industrial chemical accidents were considered and two sets of indicators in social and physical domains were constructed. Then, human vulnerability indicators were selected and weighted using the Fuzzy Delphi and Fuzzy AHP method,...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 10, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: farin fatemi Source Type: research

The Life Process of Children Who Survived the Manjil Earthquake: A Decaying or Renewing Process
Conclusion According to the results of the present study, providing non-specific and temporary services is one of the factors affecting the life processes of children who have survived the Manjil earthquake. Training aid workers to consider the specific needs of children at the time of rescue operations could contribute to improving the health of this group in different aspects. Considering effective and comprehensive rehabilitation programs in Disaster Management policymaking can prevent persistent complications caused by earthquakes and other natural disasters. The results of this study also showed that some of the facto...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - April 4, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: abbasshamsalinai at yahoo.com Source Type: research

Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs
Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: En los primeros meses del 2016, la Ciudad de México y su zona metropolitana conurbada ha experimentado una de las peores crisis de contaminación del aire de la última década, urgiendo a las autoridades a tomar medidas drásticas a corto plazo. A fin de proporcionar elementos para investigaciones de sostenibilidad a largo plazo quisimos dar a conocer nuestros resultados de monitoreo de captura de carbono por plantas de azoteas verdes. Estas azoteas son una forma de naturación a gran escala, que constituyen una alternativa para mitigar parcialmente el incr...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 31, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: mague.collazo at ciencias.unam.mx Source Type: research

The Development of a Veterans Health Administration Emergency Management Research Agenda
Conclusions Using a systematic evidence base and consensus development process among stakeholders within and outside VA, we report on the first national VA comprehensive emergency management program evaluation and research agenda. VA provides a unique national laboratory for the conduct of high quality research that will improve VA’s and our Nation’s emergency medical and public health preparedness and the role of health delivery systems in that endeavor. To effectively foster the conduct and expansion of emergency management evaluation and research within VA, the consensus was that VA needs to build program ev...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 23, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Aram Dobalian Source Type: research

The Demand for Disaster Microinsurance for Small Businesses in Urban Slums: The Results of Surveys in Three Indian Cities
This study investigates the concerns noted above and looks at the potential for microinsurance in poor urban areas. In each surveyed region, we gauged knowledge of microinsurance and small business owners’ desire for programs. This initial study report contextualizes those findings and assesses the potential success of microinsurance programs. Methodology The study was conducted in partnership between the All India Disaster Mitigation Institute (AIDMI), an NGO based in Gujarat, India and Stanford University in California, USA supported by the Humanitarian Innovation Fund. The study sites include urban slums in three...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - March 1, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: rbpatel Source Type: research

Current State and Problems of Radiation Risk Communication: Based on the Results of a 2012 Whole Village Survey
This study analyzed data from a questionnaire sent to all Iitate residents after the evacuation to determine what residents wanted in risk communication. Methods 1. Survey Method An anonymous self-response survey was sent out by the Iitate local government by mail from 22 May to 1 June 2012 to 2914 heads of households (or main income earners) with addresses registered in Iitate. This study used some of the results of that survey. 2. Survey Items The survey comprised 30 items on opinions regarding life after evacuation, contamination in the village, and returning to the village. This report focused on 2 items rele...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - February 24, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Authors: kurodasan Source Type: research