Cycloastragenol Is a Potent Telomerase Activator in Neuronal Cells: Implications for Depression Management.
In conclusion, CAG stimulates telomerase activity in human neonatal keratinocytes and rat neuronal cells, and induces CREB activation followed by tert and bcl2 expression. Furthermore, CAG may have a novel therapeutic role in depression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID: 25095809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - July 31, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ip FC, Ng YP, An HJ, Dai Y, Pang HH, Hu YQ, Chin AC, Harley CB, Wong YH, Ip NY Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Regulator of G Protein Signaling Transcript Expression in Human Neural Progenitor Differentiation: R7 Subfamily Regulation by DNA Methylation.
Abstract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands are critical regulators of neural progenitor differentiation, and GPCR signaling pathways are regulated by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. RGS protein expression is dynamically regulated, and we have recently described the epigenetic regulation of RGS transcript expression. Given the potential of RGS proteins to regulate GPCR signaling and the established role of epigenetic regulation in progenitor differentiation, we explored the impact of epigenetic regulation of RGS transcripts during in vitro differentiation of human neural progeni...
Source: Neuro-Signals - June 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuggle K, Ali MW, Salazar H, Hooks SB Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

AxonQuant: A Microfluidic Chamber Culture-Coupled Algorithm That Allows High-Throughput Quantification of Axonal Damage.
Abstract Published methods for imaging and quantitatively analyzing morphological changes in neuronal axons have serious limitations because of their small sample sizes, and their time-consuming and nonobjective nature. Here we present an improved microfluidic chamber design suitable for fast and high-throughput imaging of neuronal axons. We developed the AxonQuant algorithm, which is suitable for automatic processing of axonal imaging data. This microfluidic chamber-coupled algorithm allows calculation of an 'axonal continuity index' that quantitatively measures axonal health status in a manner independent of neu...
Source: Neuro-Signals - February 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Yang M, Huang Z, Chen X, Maloney MT, Zhu L, Liu J, Yang Y, Du S, Jiang X, Wu JY Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Hedgehog and Notch Signaling in Enteric Nervous System Development.
Abstract The enteric nervous system (ENS) in mammals is derived from a small pool of progenitor cells, namely enteric neural crest cells (NCCs). These precursor cells proliferate extensively to expand, migrate over a long distance to fully colonize the developing gut and differentiate into millions of neurons and glia to form a functional ENS for regulating the complex behaviors of the gut. This developmental process relies on a precise regulation of the neuronal and glial differentiation and requires an appropriate balance between the migration, proliferation and differentiation of enteric NCCs and their progeny....
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 14, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu JA, Ngan ES Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Depressing Interleukin-1β Contributed to the Synergistic Effects of Tramadol and Minocycline on Spinal Nerve Ligation-Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Depressing Interleukin-1β Contributed to the Synergistic Effects of Tramadol and Minocycline on Spinal Nerve Ligation-Induced Neuropathic Pain. Neurosignals. 2013 Oct 23; Authors: Mei XP, Sakuma Y, Xie C, Wu D, Ho I, Kotani J, Xu LX Abstract Our previous study indicated that coadministration of tramadol and minocycline exerted synergistic effects on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic mechanical allodynia. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent reports indicated that spinal proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) contributed to the development of neuro...
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 23, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Mei XP, Sakuma Y, Xie C, Wu D, Ho I, Kotani J, Xu LX Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

The Golgi Apparatus: Panel Point of Cytosolic Ca2+ Regulation.
Abstract The Golgi apparatus (GA), an intermediate organelle of the cell inner membrane system, plays a key role in protein glycosylation and secretion. In recent years, this organelle has been found to act as a vital intracellular Ca(2+) store because different Ca(2+) regulators, such as the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase, were demonstrated to localize on their membrane. The mechanisms involved in Ca(2+) release and uptake in the GA have now been established. Here, based on careful backward looking on compartments and patterns in...
Source: Neuro-Signals - June 22, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Li LH, Tian XR, Jiang Z, Zeng LW, He WF, Hu ZP Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Brain-Site-Specific Proteome Changes Induced by Neuronal P60TRP Expression.
Abstract p60 transcription regulator protein (p60TRP) facilitates the processing of the amyloid precursor protein towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway by inhibiting the β-secretase action. This protein was initially identified to be downregulated in the temporal lobe of brains from Alzheimer's disease patients. p60TRP is one of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-associated proteins which directly influences the signalling capacity of GPCRs. In the present study, we investigated the brain-region-specific proteome profile of transgenic p60TRP mice to gain an insight into the molecular events mediated by the...
Source: Neuro-Signals - February 6, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Manavalan A, Mishra M, Sze SK, Heese K Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research