Pharmacological Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
CONCLUSION: The studies identify the acid sphingomyelinase as a novel therapeutic target for treating MS patients. PMID: 31778303 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Walter S, Gulbins E, Halmer R, Jahromi NH, Becker KA, Schottek A, Blatti C, Davies L, Schnoeder L, Bertsch T, Engelhardt B, Fassbender K Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

The Acid Sphingomyelinase/ Ceramide System as Target for Ischemic Stroke Therapies.
Abstract In this review, we summarize implications of the acid sphingomyelinase/ ceramide system in ischemic stroke. Acid sphingomyelinase catalyzes the formation of the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide which coalesces into membrane platforms and has a pivotal role in inflammation, cell signaling and death. Cerebral ischemia increases acid sphingomyelinase activity and elevates brain ceramide levels, which has been associated with the exacerbation of ischemic injury and deterioration of stroke outcome. In view of the fact that lowering acid sphingomyelinase activity and ceramide level was shown to protect against i...
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohamud Yusuf A, Hagemann N, Hermann DM Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

1,25(OH)2D3 in Brain Function and Neuropsychiatric Disease.
Abstract 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 = calcitriol) is a powerful regulator of mineral metabolism. The hormone increases calcium and phosphate plasma concentrations in part by stimulation of intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium and phosphate. It is primarily, but not exclusively, produced in the kidney. Renal 1,25(OH)2D3 formation is stimulated by calcium and phosphate deficiency and by parathyroid hormone which is up-regulated by hypocalcemia. 1,25(OH)2D3 formation is inhibited by fibroblast growth factor FGF23, which is up-regulated by phosphate excess and requires Klotho to become e...
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lang F, Ma K, Leibrock CB Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Swiprosin-1/ EFhd2: from Immune Regulator to Personality and Brain Disorders.
CONCLUSION: Dysregulated activity of EFhd2 is increasingly considered as a contributing factor for the development of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Whether EFhd2 can be used as biomarker or in therapeutic approaches has to be addressed in future research. PMID: 31742960 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kogias G, Kornhuber J, Reimer D, Mielenz D, Müller CP Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

The Link Among Neurological Diseases: Extracellular Vesicles as a Possible Brain Injury Footprint.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs), referred as membranous vesicles released into body fluids from all cell types, represent a novel model to explain some aspects of the inter-cellular cross talk. It has been demonstrated that the EVs modify the phenotype of target cells, acting through a large spectrum of mechanisms. In the central nervous system, the EVs are responsible of the wide range of physiological processes required for normal brain function and neuronal support, such as immune signaling, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. Growing evidences link the EV functions to the pathogenic ...
Source: Neuro-Signals - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ciccocioppo F, Lanuti P, Centonze D, Miscia S, Marchisio M Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Postpartal Neural Plasticity of the Maternal Brain: Early Renormalization of Pregnancy-Related Decreases?
CONCLUSION: The results reveal the potential for plasticity in the adult female brain following pregnancy. They support the assumption that the volume reductions during pregnancy renormalize at least partly in the early postpartal phase. The course of renormalization seems to differ between participants of different ages. Future studies are needed to further investigate inter-individual variability and the time course of postpartal neural change. PMID: 31112016 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lisofsky N, Gallinat J, Lindenberger U, Kühn S Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Increased Levels of Kynurenic Acid in the Cerebrospinal Fluid in Patients with Hydrocephalus.
Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a potentially reversible neurological syndrome commonly characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and dementia. Hydrocephalus e-vacuo (He-v) is also characterized by the occurrence of dementia but does not show gait disturbance or urinary incontinence and has no evident cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure elevation. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous metabolite of the L-kynurenine (L-KYN) pathway of L-tryptophan (L-TRP) degradation, is an antagonist of glutamate Nmethyl-D-aspartic acid and alpha 7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors that ...
Source: Neuro-Signals - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kepplinger B, Baran H, Kronsteiner C, Reuss J Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Targeting Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels with Pregabalin Exerts a Direct Neuroprotective Effect in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.
CONCLUSION: The presented data suggest that pregabalin primarily acts on neuronal Ca2+ channel trafficking thereby reducing Ca2+-mediated cytotoxicity and neuronal damage in an animal model of MS. Future clinical trials need to assess the benefit for neuronal survival by expanding the indication for pregabalin administration to MS patients in further disease phases. PMID: 30481775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hundehege P, Fernandez-Orth J, Römer P, Ruck T, Müntefering T, Eichler S, Cerina M, Epping L, Albrecht S, Menke AF, Birkner K, Göbel K, Budde T, Zipp F, Wiendl H, Gorji A, Bittner S, Meuth SG Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

The Critical Role of Intrinsic Membrane Oscillations.
Abstract Intrinsic, rhythmic subthreshold oscillations have been described in neurons of regions throughout the brain and have been found to influence the timing of action potentials induced by synaptic inputs. Some oscillations are sodium channel-dependent while others are calcium channel-dependent. These oscillations allow neurons to fire coherently at preferred frequencies and represent the main mechanism for maintaining high frequency network activity, especially in the cortex. Because cortical circuits are incapable of maintaining high frequency activity in the gamma range for prolonged periods, those process...
Source: Neuro-Signals - September 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee SH, Urbano FJ, Garcia-Rill E Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Inhibits Vibrio Vulnificus-Induced Dendritic Cell Apoptosis by Lowering [Ca2+]i.
CONCLUSIONS: EDTA inhibits V. Vulnificus-induced DC apoptosis by lowering [Ca2+]i via m-Tor-STAT3-Bcl-2 signaling pathway. PMID: 29804114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Qian P, Hu B, Zhu Y, Shao D, Zhang H, Huang H, Wang L, Shen R Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Endomorphin-2 Inhibits the Activity of the Spinoparabrachial Projection Neuron through Presynaptic Mechanisms in the Spinal Dorsal Horn in Rats.
CONCLUSION: Applying EM2 to the SDH could produce analgesia through inhibiting the activities of the spinoparabrachial PNs in lamina I by reducing presynaptic neurotransmitters release from the primary afferent terminals. PMID: 29554653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - March 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yin JB, Lu YC, Feng B, Wu ZY, Chen YB, Zhang T, Kou ZZ, Zhang MM, Zhang H, Li JL, Li H, Chen T, Dong YL, Li YQ Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Brain Beta-Catenin Signalling During Stress and Depression.
Abstract Beta-catenin is a protein with dual functions in the cell, playing a role in both adhesion between cells as well as gene transcription via the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, beta-catenin again plays multiple roles. In the embryonic stage, the regulation of beta-catenin levels activates genes that govern cell proliferation and differentiation. In an adult organism, beta-catenin continues to regulate the cell cycle - as a result over-expression of beta-catenin may lead to cancer. In the brain, dysfunctions in Wnt signalling related to beta-catenin levels may also ...
Source: Neuro-Signals - February 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Teo CH, Soga T, Parhar IS Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

The Myth of Blunted Gamers: No Evidence for Desensitization in Empathy for Pain after a Violent Video Game Intervention in a Longitudinal fMRI Study on Non-Gamers.
CONCLUSIONS: The present results provide strong evidence against the frequently proclaimed negative effects of playing violent video games and will therefore help to communicate a more realistic scientific perspective of the effects of violent video gaming in real life. PMID: 29421781 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - January 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kühn S, Kugler D, Schmalen K, Weichenberger M, Witt C, Gallinat J Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Introducing a Virtual Lesion Model of Dysphagia Resulting from Pharyngeal Sensory Impairment.
r S Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: Performing neurophysiological and functional imaging studies in severely affected patients to investigate novel neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia is difficult. Therefore, basic research needs to be conducted in healthy subjects. Swallowing is a motor function highly dependent on sensory afferent input. Here we propose a virtual peripheral sensory lesion model to mimic pharyngeal sensory impairment, which is known as a major contributor to dysphagia in neurological disease. METHODS: In this randomized crossover study on 11 healthy volunteers, co...
Source: Neuro-Signals - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Muhle P, Claus I, Marian T, Schröder JB, Wollbrink A, Pantev C, Warnecke T, Dziewas R, Suntrup-Krueger S Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Association between COMT Polymorphism Val158Met and Opioid Consumption in Patients with Postoperative Pain: A Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: Patients with Val/Met but not Met/Met allele variant consumed less opioid, though larger and better-designed studies are required to obtain an exclusive conclusion about the correlation between postoperative pain and COMT Val158Met polymorphism. PMID: 29402857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - January 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu B, Zhang X, Xu G, Zhang Q, Qian P, Liu S, Zhu J, Shen R Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Decreased Fronto-Parietal and Increased Default Mode Network Activation is Associated with Subtle Cognitive Deficits in Elderly Controls.
CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that brain functional changes in FPN and DMN anticipate differences in cognitive performance in healthy elderly individuals with subsequent subtle cognitive decline. PMID: 29268260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zanchi D, Montandon ML, Sinanaj I, Rodriguez C, Depoorter A, Herrmann FR, Borgwardt S, Giannakopoulos P, Haller S Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Neurons, Erythrocytes and Beyond -The Diverse Functions of Chorein.
In conclusion, much has been learned about the function of chorein and the molecular pathophysiology of chorea-acanthocytosis. Most importantly, a treatment halting or delaying the clinical course of this devastating disease may become available. A controlled clinical study is warranted, in order to explore whether the in vitro observations indeed reflect the in vivo pathology of the disease. PMID: 29179176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lang F, Pelzl L, Schöls L, Hermann A, Föller M, Schäffer TE, Stournaras C Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Endomorphins: Promising Endogenous Opioid Peptides for the Development of Novel Analgesics.
Abstract Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many major physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information. The distinguished an...
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu ZH, Wang B, Kou ZZ, Bai Y, Chen T, Dong YL, Li H, Li YQ Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Blockade of Experimental Multiple Sclerosis by Inhibition of the Acid Sphingomyelinase/Ceramide System.
CONCLUSION: Activation of the Asm/ceramide system is a central step for the development of EAE. Our findings may serve to identify novel therapeutic strategies for MS patients. PMID: 29131010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Becker KA, Halmer R, Davies L, Henry BD, Ziobro-Henry R, Decker Y, Liu Y, Gulbins E, Fassbender K, Walter S Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Depression in the Context of Medical Disorders: New Pharmacological Pathways Revisited.
In conclusion a hypothetic model for the implication of actual findings in everyday clinical practice is proposed. In this context personalized treatment could be used to tailor treatment to specific individuals according to their clinical endophenotypes. Moreover a potential target for the development of novel intervention strategies might be used. PMID: 29041003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Lang UE, Walter M Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Increase of Substance P Concentration in Saliva after Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation in Severely Dysphagic Stroke Patients - an Indicator of Decannulation Success?
CONCLUSIONS: The physiological mechanism of PES may consist in restoration of sensory feedback, which is known to be crucial for the execution of a safe swallow. SP possibly acts as a biomarker for indicating response to PES. PMID: 29041008 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Muhle P, Suntrup-Krueger S, Bittner S, Ruck T, Claus I, Marian T, Schröder JB, Minnerup J, Warnecke T, Meuth SG, Dziewas R Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Stimulation of Anxiety-Like Behavior via ERK Pathway by Competitive Serotonin Receptors 2A and 1A in Post-Traumatic Stress Disordered Mice.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest competive interaction between 5HT2AR and 5HT1AR actively affects anxiety-like behavior in the hippocampi of PTSD mice via the ERK pathway. PMID: 28977803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Xiang M, Jiang Y, Hu Z, Yang Y, Botchway BOA, Fang M Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Targeting the Potassium Channel Kv1.3 Kills Glioblastoma Cells.
CONCLUSION: These data serve as proof of principle that Kv1.3 inhibitors kills GBM cells, but drugs that act in vivo against glioblastoma must be developed to translate these findings in vivo. PMID: 28869943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - September 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Venturini E, Leanza L, Azzolini M, Kadow S, Mattarei A, Weller M, Tabatabai G, Edwards MJ, Zoratti M, Paradisi C, Szabò I, Gulbins E, Becker KA Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

The Spatial Extent of Epiretinal Electrical Stimulation in the Healthy Mouse Retina.
CONCLUSION: The existence of significant hysteresis requires that future investigations of electrical retinal stimulation control for such long-memory adaptation. The spread of electrical activation beyond 200 µm suggests that neighbouring electrodes in epiretinal implants based on indirect stimulation of RGCs may be indiscriminable at interelectrode spacings as large as 400 µm. PMID: 28743131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hosseinazdeh Z, Jalligampala A, Zrenner E, Rathbun DL Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Improved Neural Regeneration with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Inoculated PLGA Scaffolds in Spinal Cord Injury Adult Rats.
This study investigated the potential for poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) complex inoculated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) to treat spinal cord injury in a rat model. METHODS: OECs were identified by immunofluorescence based on the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score, together with an inclined plane (IP) test were used to detect functional recovery. Nissl staining along with the luxol fast blue (LFB) staining were independently employed to illustrate morphological alterations. More so, immunofluorescence labeling of the glial fibrillary acidic protein ...
Source: Neuro-Signals - March 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang C, Sun C, Hu Z, Huo X, Yang Y, Liu X, Botchway BO, Davies H, Fang M Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

SGK3 Sensitivity of Large-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel.
CONCLUSION: SGK3 is a novel positive regulator of BK channels, and thus participates in the regulation of cell volume and excitability. PMID: 27898416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - November 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmed M, Fezai M, Lang F Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Leptin Regulates Tau Phosphorylation through Wnt Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells.
CONCLUSION: The data indicate that Leptin may provide a novel therapeutic approach to AD treatment via wnt signaling. PMID: 27771721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Guo M, Zhang J, Du C, Xing Y Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Cortical Responses and Shape Complexity of Stereoscopic Image - A Simultaneous EEG/MEG Study.
CONCLUSION: It seems that the relative disparity in complex stereoscopic images may increase cognitive processing (N300) and cortical load (alpha inhibition) in the ventral area. PMID: 27771723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cho H, Kang MK, Ahn S, Kwon M, Yoon KJ, Kim K, Jun SC Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Leptin-Sensitive JAK2 Activation in the Regulation of Tau Phosphorylation in PC12 Cells.
CONCLUSION: The data suggest that JAK2 is involved in AD-related pathways. PMID: 27603322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - September 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo M, Li D, Shen H, Jin B, Ren Y, Li M, Xing Y Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Curcumin Protects against Monosodium Glutamate Neurotoxicity and Decreasing NMDA2B and mGluR5 Expression in Rat Hippocampus.
CONCLUSION: We concluded that CUR as flavor enhancer protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. PMID: 27529496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - August 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Khalil RM, Khedr NF Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Role of Janus-Kinases in Major Depressive Disorder.
CONCLUSION: Our data show that Jak-3 is activated by stress at least partially via the acid sphingomyelinase and is involved in the mediation of stress-induced major depression. PMID: 27487096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - August 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gulbins A, Grassmé H, Hoehn R, Kohnen M, Edwards MJ, Kornhuber J, Gulbins E Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Gut Taste Stimulants Alter Brain Activity in Areas Related to Working Memory: a Pilot Study.
CONCLUSIONS: in this pilot trial, we demonstrate that acute intragastric administration of different taste substances does not affect working memory performance in humans. However, "umami" and "bitter" have effects on brain areas involved in neural working memory, overpowering the effects of "sweet", "salty" and "sour" reception. PMID: 27459713 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - July 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Meyer-Gerspach AC, Suenderhauf C, Bereiter L, Zanchi D, Beglinger C, Borgwardt S, Wölnerhanssen BK Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Melatonin Acts as an Antidepressant by Inhibition of the Acid Sphingomyelinase/Ceramide System.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the antidepressive effects of melatonin as well as the induction of neurogenesis triggered by this drug are mediated by an inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system. This is the first study to identify melatonin as an inhibitor of the acid sphingomyelinase. PMID: 27398923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - July 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hoehn R, Monse M, Pohl E, Wranik S, Wilker B, Keitsch S, Soddemann M, Kornhuber J, Kohnen M, Edwards MJ, Grassmé H, Gulbins E Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Wnt / ß-Catenin Signaling Pathway Against Aβ Toxicity in PC12 Cells.
CONCLUSION: These findings are first to demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis. PMID: 27318974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - June 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng Y, Wang J, Li D, Guo M, Zhen M, Chang Q Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Nogo-p4 Suppresses TrkA Signaling Induced by Low Concentrations of Nerve Growth Factor Through NgR1 in Differentiated PC12 Cells.
CONCLUSION: Nogo-p4 binding with NgR1 suppresses TrkA signaling induced by low concentrations of NGF in differentiated PC12 cells. Suppression of NGF-induced TrkA signaling may be another mechanism by which Nogo inhibits neurite growth. PMID: 27300021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - June 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan YM, Huang QY, Wu YA, Harvey AR, Cui Q, Gao YQ Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Early Postoperative Nociceptive Threshold and Production of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Induced by Plantar Incision Are Not Influenced with Minocycline in a Rat: Role of Spinal Microglia.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that spinal microglia does not contribute substantially to post-incisional nociceptive threshold. The BDNF overexpression response that may contribute to postoperative hyperalgesia and allodynia is likely derived from other sources. PMID: 26939116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - March 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Masaki E, Mizuta K, Ohtani N, Kido K Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Role of Serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Central N-Acetylaspartate for Clinical Response under Antidepressive Pharmacotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Our data confirm serum BDNF as a biomarker of depression with a possible role in response prediction. However, our findings argue against serum BDNF increase being a prerequisite to depressive symptom reduction. PMID: 26859851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - February 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Nase S, Köhler S, Jennebach J, Eckert A, Schweinfurth N, Gallinat J, Lang UE, Kühn S Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Brain Diffusion Changes in Emerging Psychosis and the Impact of State-Dependent Psychopathology.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed increased FA and decreased MD in early stages of psychosis in widespread white matter tracts including the SLF. Our findings further suggest that microstructural changes in the SLF are probably related to state-dependent psychopathology. PMID: 26682550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Schmidt A, Lenz C, Smieskova R, Harrisberger F, Walter A, Riecher-Rössler A, Simon A, Lang UE, McGuire P, Fusar-Poli P, Borgwardt SJ Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase by Antidepressants Counteracts Stress-Induced Activation of P38-Kinase in Major Depression.
CONCLUSION: Stress induces p38K phosphorylation/activation in the hippocampus and thereby reduces neurogenesis and induces depression-like symptoms, events that are prevented by antidepressants via inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system. PMID: 26682751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Grassmé H, Jernigan PL, Hoehn RS, Wilker B, Soddemann M, Edwards MJ, Müller CP, Kornhuber J, Gulbins E Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Sphingolipids in Major Depression.
Gulbins E Abstract Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression. However, mol...
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Jernigan PL, Hoehn RS, Grassmé H, Edwards MJ, Müller CP, Kornhuber J, Gulbins E Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Up-Regulation of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 by ß-Klotho.
CONCLUSION: ß-Klotho up-regulates the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 and thus participates in the regulation of neuronal excitation. PMID: 26684854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Warsi J, Abousaab A, Lang F Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Kir2.1 K+ Channels.
CONCLUSIONS: SPAK and OSR1 are both stimulators of Kir2.1 activity. They are presumably effective by enhancing channel insertion into the cell membrane. PMID: 26673921 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Fezai M, Ahmed M, Hosseinzadeh Z, Elvira B, Lang F Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Lithium- Sensitive Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry in the Regulation of FGF23 Release.
CONCLUSION: Lithium stimulates FGF23 release at least in part by NF-x03BA;B dependent up-regulation of Orai1 transcription and store operated Ca2+ entry. PMID: 26674092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang B, Yan J, Schmidt S, Salker MS, Alexander D, Föller M, Lang F Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) by the Janus Kinase JAK3.
CONCLUSION: JAK3 is a powerful negative regulator of the creatine transporter CreaT. PMID: 26666525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Fezai M, Warsi J, Lang F Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Chorein Sensitive Dopamine Release from Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Chorein deficiency down-regulates VAMP8 expression, vesicle numbers and dopamine release in pheochromocytoma cells. PMID: 26656295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - December 10, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Honisch S, Fehrenbacher B, Lebedeva A, Alesutan I, Castor T, Alkahtani S, Alarifi S, Schaller M, Stournaras C, Lang F Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Electrophysiological Features of Neurons in the Mesencephalic Trigeminal Nuclei.
Abstract Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes V) neurons represent an uncommon class of primary sensory neurons. Besides receiving somatosensory information, Mes V neurons are also involved in regulating multisensory information. The present review first describes the passive features as well as three important currents, followed by a distinct excitability classification and a description of the excitability transition of Mes V neurons. Furthermore, their resonance property, the existence of membrane oscillation and electrical coupling which may promote strong synchronization, as well as their function in control...
Source: Neuro-Signals - January 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Xing JL, Hu SJ, Yang J Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Targeting the Small- and Intermediate-Conductance Ca-Activated Potassium Channels: The Drug-Binding Pocket at the Channel/Calmodulin Interface.
Abstract The small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK/IK) channels play important roles in the regulation of excitable cells in both the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Evidence from animal models has implicated SK/IK channels in neurological conditions such as ataxia and alcohol use disorders. Further, genome-wide association studies have suggested that cardiovascular abnormalities such as arrhythmias and hypertension are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur within the genes encoding the SK/IK channels. The Ca(2+) sensitivity of the SK/IK channels stems ...
Source: Neuro-Signals - October 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Cui M, Qin G, Yu K, Bowers MS, Zhang M Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Cycloastragenol Is a Potent Telomerase Activator in Neuronal Cells: Implications for Depression Management.
In conclusion, CAG stimulates telomerase activity in human neonatal keratinocytes and rat neuronal cells, and induces CREB activation followed by tert and bcl2 expression. Furthermore, CAG may have a novel therapeutic role in depression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID: 25095809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuro-Signals)
Source: Neuro-Signals - July 31, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Ip FC, Ng YP, An HJ, Dai Y, Pang HH, Hu YQ, Chin AC, Harley CB, Wong YH, Ip NY Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

Regulator of G Protein Signaling Transcript Expression in Human Neural Progenitor Differentiation: R7 Subfamily Regulation by DNA Methylation.
Abstract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands are critical regulators of neural progenitor differentiation, and GPCR signaling pathways are regulated by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. RGS protein expression is dynamically regulated, and we have recently described the epigenetic regulation of RGS transcript expression. Given the potential of RGS proteins to regulate GPCR signaling and the established role of epigenetic regulation in progenitor differentiation, we explored the impact of epigenetic regulation of RGS transcripts during in vitro differentiation of human neural progeni...
Source: Neuro-Signals - June 4, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuggle K, Ali MW, Salazar H, Hooks SB Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research

AxonQuant: A Microfluidic Chamber Culture-Coupled Algorithm That Allows High-Throughput Quantification of Axonal Damage.
Abstract Published methods for imaging and quantitatively analyzing morphological changes in neuronal axons have serious limitations because of their small sample sizes, and their time-consuming and nonobjective nature. Here we present an improved microfluidic chamber design suitable for fast and high-throughput imaging of neuronal axons. We developed the AxonQuant algorithm, which is suitable for automatic processing of axonal imaging data. This microfluidic chamber-coupled algorithm allows calculation of an 'axonal continuity index' that quantitatively measures axonal health status in a manner independent of neu...
Source: Neuro-Signals - February 28, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Yang M, Huang Z, Chen X, Maloney MT, Zhu L, Liu J, Yang Y, Du S, Jiang X, Wu JY Tags: Neurosignals Source Type: research