The tooth of a giant sea creature Otodus (Megaselachus) in the material culture of Neolithic maritime hunter ‐gatherers at Sharbithat (Sultanate of Oman).
AbstractA mega ‐tooth belonging to a Miocene fossil shark was discovered along the shores of the Arabian Sea inside one of the Neolithic domestic settlements at Sharbithat (SHA‐10) (Sultanate of Oman). Attributed to a representative of the extinct genusOtodus (Megaselachus), this tooth is the first ever discovered in the Arabian Peninsula. In the field, research permitted the localization and study, a few kilometres away, of the palaeontological deposit where this retrieval was made. The shark, traditionally extensively hunted on the shores of the Arabian Sea, is well attested in the region's Neolithic ichthyological a...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - August 1, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vincent Charpentier, Sylvain Adnet, Henri Cappetta Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Wool sheep and purple snails – Long‐term continuity of animal exploitation in ancient Meninx (Jerba/Tunisia)
AbstractArchaeological research at the ancient city of Meninx in Jerba, Tunisia, carried out by the Institut National du Patrimoine Tunisie and Ludwig ‐Maximilians‐University (LMU) Munich produced more than 10,000 faunal specimens and shed light on subsistence activities spanning from the 4th century BCE until the 7th century CE. Despite its highly diverse fauna totalling at least 69 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and molluscs, domestic livestock formed the mainstay of the economy at Meninx. Throughout site occupation and compared to contemporaneous sites in coastal Tunisia and Libya, sheep were of prime imp...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Simon Trixl, Sami Ben Tahar, Stefan Ritter, Joris Peters Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A possible case of dystocia due to foetal macrosomia at Shuanghuaishu site (3500 –2900 BCE), Henan, China
AbstractChildbirth was a significant factor in ancient female mortality, but relatively few cases of death in childbirth have been reported in the bioarchaeological literature due to challenges of recovery and interpretation. Here, we report a possible case of dystocia from the late Neolithic (3500 –2900 BCE) settlement of Shuanghuaishu site (Gongyi City, Henan Province, China). An adult female skeleton was discovered in an inhumation burial with the remains of a foetus in the pelvis. The top of the foetal skull has exited the pelvic outlet, but most of the head remains in the pelvic cavity. The face is oriented away...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yawei Zhou, Ai Zhang, Sandra Garvie ‐Lok, Wanfa Gu, Yingjun Xin Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Deposition of modified human remains as evidence for complex mortuary treatment in East Africa during the first millennium AD
AbstractIn 2019 partial, disarticulated human remains with evidence of perimortem fractures and tool marks were excavated from the site of Kabusanza in southern Rwanda (first millennium AD). The nature and location of these modifications demonstrate that some elements were subject to intentional dismemberment and defleshing, while the arrangement of the remains in the burial feature indicates that natural skeletonization had also occurred before final deposition. Human remains with similar patterns of modification and deposition have previously been recovered from the same site and here we consider the potential behaviors ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 21, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Rebecca Watts, Maurice Mugabowagahunde, Andr é Ntagwabira, John Giblin Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A probable case of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) from an early modern crypt in Eastern Germany
AbstractDiffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a non ‐inflammatory joint disease mainly characterised by the ossification of the right anterior longitudinal ligament and the presence of enthesopathies. Studies have shown that the disease typically affects males of advanced age. This is a case report of a female individual, aged between 40‐60 years , dating to 1472‐1635 AD and found in Eastern Germany. A differential diagnosis was completed following macroscopic examination and radiographic imaging of the affected bones. The results show several pathological features that resemble skeletal characteristics ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 21, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lara I. Indra, Amelie Alterauge, Sandra L ösch Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Testing the damage caused by a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) on a primate skull: A taphonomic case study of the bone damage observed after a simulated predatory attack
AbstractThe present case study proposes an experimental approach to the taphonomic characterization of modifications that are produced on bone surfaces by eagles during the attack and capture of their prey. Under these circumstances, a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) attack on a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) skull was simulated. The macaque specimen was analyzed from a taphonomic perspective, which allowed for the comparison of traces left on the skull against the data that have already been published on past and present primate attacks by eagles. The results of the experiment confirmed the presence of some modificati...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 21, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Anna Ruf à, Goizane Alonso, Ruth Blasco, Marián Cueto, Edgard Camarós Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

“Brothers in arms”: Activity‐related skeletal changes observed on the humerus of individuals buried with and without weapons from the 10th‐century CE Carpathian Basin
AbstractInvestigation of warfare ‐related lifestyle based on the activity‐induced skeletal changes is of great interest for bioarchaeologists. Numerous studies have described various skeletal traces connected to the regular practice of different types of weapons. However, methodological problems, such as the multi‐factorial a etiology of these presumed activity‐related skeletal changes, make it difficult to evaluate which changes are reliable in the identification and characterisation of a given class of individuals in a population. This paper aims to find significant morphological and metric differences on the hum...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 21, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bal ázs Tihanyi, William Berthon, Luca Kis, Orsolya Anna Váradi, Olivier Dutour, László Révész, György Pálfi Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Dental caries and isotope studies in the population of Radom (Poland) between the 11th and 19th centuries
This study aims to assess changes in the diet of individuals from Radom (Poland) by applying odontological and physicochemical methods. We evaluated the intensity of dental caries and quality of diet through isotope analyses ( δ13C, δ15N). Three consecutive time periods were selected: the early Medieval (EMP, 11th–12th c.), late Medieval/early Modern (LMP, 14th–17th c.); and Modern (MP, 18th–19th c.) periods. The dental remains of 247 adult individuals comprising a total of 3850 permanent teeth were analyzed. The intensity of dental caries increased in subsequent historical periods (EMP 38%, L...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jacek Tomczyk, Krzysztof Szostek, Aleksandra Lisowska ‐Gaczorek, Barbara Mnich, Marta Zalewska, Maciej Trzeciecki, Dorota Olczak‐Kowalczyk Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

First metacarpal fractures from Chalcolithic Cyprus: a fall or a fist?
This study aims to characterise MCI trauma from the Middle Chalcolithic (c. 3000 BC) cemetery of Souskiou ‐Laona in southwestern Cyprus, an island in the Eastern Mediterranean. 58 MCIs out of 67 were complete enough for the assessment of fractures. A total of eight MCI fractures are displayed by six individuals: four adult males discovered as articulated skeletons, and two individuals from commingled contexts. These traumas were assessed macroscopically, metrically, and radiographically. Differential diagnoses of these fractures identified four extra ‐articular fractures of the diaphysis of the MCI. Three intra‐artic...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kirsi Lorentz, Bianca Casa Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The correlation between the tooth wear of the first molar and the estimated age from the auricular surfaces in a Joseon Dynasty population, South Korea
AbstractDental wear is widely accepted as a physiological consequence of aging, and its evaluation can be a simple tool with which to estimate the age at death of an adult. However, previous studies indicate that age estimation based solely on dental wear is not reliable and does not clarify how the degrees of dental wear are used to reach a final age estimation. Furthermore, most techniques used to measure dental wear rely on an ordinal scale despite the fact that dental wear is a gradual loss. In the present study we measured the area of exposed occlusal dentine using digital photographs and compared it to estimated age ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chae ‐Lin Jeon, Sunyoung Pak, Eun Jin Woo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Testing Inter ‐ and Intra‐Observer Agreement of the Original and Revised Coimbra Methods
AbstractIn 2009 the Coimbra Method was created to standardized observations of entheseal changes, which are often studied as markers of vigorous physical activity formed during life. Low percentage agreement rates of inter ‐observer replicability led to a revised version of the Coimbra Method published in 2016. Robust statistical significance should be expected of a standardized method, yet neither published method statistically tested inter‐ and intra‐observer agreement. This paper tests reliability of both Coi mbra Method versions using Cohen’s Kappa, and percentage of agreement for comparison to the original...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kelsey C. Jorgensen, Laura Mallon, Elena F. Kranioti Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Possible Case of Dystocia Due to Foetal Macrosomia at Shuanghuaishu site (3500 ‐2900 BCE), Henan, China
AbstractChildbirth was a significant factor in ancient female mortality but relatively few cases of death in childbirth have been reported in the bioarchaeological literature due to challenges of recovery and interpretation. Here we report a possible case of dystocia from the late Neolithic (3500 ‐2900 BCE) settlement of Shuanghuaishu site (Gongyi city, Henan province, China). An adult female skeleton was discovered in an inhumation burial with the remains of a foetus in the pelvis. The top of the foetal skull has exited the pelvic outlet but most of the head remains in the pelvic cavity. The face is oriented away from t...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yawei Zhou, Ai Zhang, Sandra Garvie ‐Lok, Wanfa Gu, Yingjun Xin Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A rare case of a supernumerary tooth (mesiodens) in an Iron Age (2470 ± 35 bp) skeleton from Koziegłowy (Poland)
AbstractAlthough supernumerary teeth are well documented clinically, they are uncommon in contemporary and historical populations. The most common form of supernumerary tooth is the mesiodens. Despite radiological studies of historical dental materials, cases of mesiodens are rarely found. This paper presents the first case of a mesiodens in archeological material from Poland, belonging to an adult male from Kozieg łowy (Poland). The remains were dated to about 2470 ± 35bp, one of the oldest set of remains in Europe. The presence of a mesiodens was confirmed with computed tomography. The fully impacted mesiodens is...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 7, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jacek Tomczyk, Krzysztof Szostek, Aleksandra Lisowska ‐Gaczorek, Piotr Regulski Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Phenotypic diversity of skulls in the Merovingian population (Norroy ‐le‐Veneur cemetery, 7th century AD, Moselle, France) in the context of Early Medieval Europe
AbstractWestern Europe underwent a major sociocultural and economic transformation from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. This so ‐called Migration Period is characterized by invasions of various western and eastern non‐Romanized peoples, as well as by nomadic Huns. The Frankish state was the only Germanic state to successfully survive this period. Nevertheless, the arrival of unknown populations could have influenced the autochthonous Frankish population. Biological contacts between them are strongly reflected phenotypically in head/skull dimensions. The aim of this craniometric analysis of the Merovingian ceme...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - July 2, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alena Šefčáková, Milan Thurzo, Stanislav Katina, Jana Velemínská, Jaroslav Brůžek, Petr Velemínský Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Cover Image
The cover image is based on the Case ReportCase of pulp stones and dental wear in a Mesolithic (5900  ± 100BC) individual from Wo źna Wieś (Poland). by Jacek Tomczyk, Dorota Olczak ‐Kowalczyk, Anna Myszka et al.,https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.2856. (Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology)
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jacek Tomczyk, Anna Myszka, Piotr Regulski, Dorota Olczak ‐Kowalczyk Tags: COVER IMAGE Source Type: research

Issue Information
No abstract is available for this article. (Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology)
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 28, 2020 Category: Science Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION ‐ TOC Source Type: research

Burning by numbers: A pilot study using quantitative petrography in the analysis of Heat ‐Induced alteration in burned bone
AbstractIn the past, experimental research into the histomorphological examination of burned human bone has led to the creation of a criterion for assessing burning intensity, which can be used to infer firing conditions in both archaeological and forensic contexts. Current methods visually compare the microscopic alterations in burned bone with modern bone samples fired at known temperatures and durations. Despite the benefits of this approach, it is hindered by the use of qualitative analysis, which is subject to the expertise of the examiner. This paper reviews previous histomorphological studies of burned bone and pres...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 26, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Emily L. Carroll, Kirsty E. Squires Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Nonsacrificial violence at the Huacas de Moche, north coastal Peru
AbstractThe analysis of traumatic injuries provides bioarchaeologists with unique insight into patterns of violence among past human societies. This analysis explores antemortem and perimortem skeletal trauma and what it suggests about the experiences of violence among the Moche of north coastal Peru (A.D. 200 –900). Violence among the Moche has been well documented, both by the Moche themselves in their iconographic communications and through the analysis of the skeletal remains of those they sacrificed. These sources provided us with an incomplete view. What has not been studied are the patterns of tr aumatic injur...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Celeste Marie Gagnon, Santiago Uceda Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Phenotypic diversity of skulls in the Merovingian population (Norroy ‐le‐Veneur cemetery, 7th c. AD, Moselle, France) in the context of Early Medieval Europe
AbstractWestern Europe underwent a major socio ‐cultural and economic transformation from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. This so‐called Migration Period is characterized by invasions of various western and eastern non‐Romanized peoples, as well as by nomadic Huns.The Frankish state was the only Germanic state to successfully survive this period. Nevertheless, the arrival of unknown populations could have influenced the autochthonous Frankish population.Biological contacts between them are strongly reflected phenotypically in head/skull dimensions. The aim of this craniometric analysis of the Merovingian cem...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alena Šefčáková, Milan Thurzo, Stanislav Katina, Jana Velemínská, Jaroslav Brůžek, Petr Velemínský Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Isotopic investigation of dietary patterns and locality at the mid ‐Shang Dynasty (1400 BC) site of Xiaoshuangqiao, China
AbstractHere we investigate human diet and origins using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios at the site of Xiaoshuangqiao in Henan Province which dates to the middle Shang Dynasty (1435 ‐1412 cal BC). A total of the 66 specimens (51 humans, 6 cattle, 5 pigs, 3 sheep, 1 dog) were isotopically analyzed forδ13C andδ15N values. The population (δ13C = ‐9.1±1.5‰, n=51) was found to consume a predominately C4 diet (millet), and no difference was observed between theδ13C (p=0.809) andδ15N (p=0.876) results of the males and females. The isotopic results were then examined by bu...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ning Wang, Siyuan Tao, Suting Li, Yi Si, Hongfei Li, Guoding Song Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Differences in Entheseal Changes in the Phalanges Between Ecotypes of Fennoscandian Reindeer
This study uses scoring of entheseal changes on the phalanges of these animals to investigate different mobility, foraging, and limb ‐use patterns between ecotypes. Our studies found both interesting differences in hoof use pattern betweenR.t. tarandus andR.t. fennicus that show that these ecotypes are both using their hooves differently, but in different patterns of fore ‐ versus hindlimb use. (Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology)
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Emily Hull, Sirpa Niinim äki, Anna‐Kaisa Salmi Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The supracondylar process in subadult skeletal remains from Northern Italy (15th –18th century A.D.)
AbstractThis paper presents five uncommon examples of the supracondylar process in subadult skeletal remains from archaeological contexts. Human skeletal remains were recovered from the Baptistery of Settimo Vittone (Italy) that date to the 15th –18th centuries. A bony process was noted at the distal end of five immature humeri. The specimens were examined morphologically, and the following measurements were taken: length of the process and distance from the tip of the process to the medial epicondyle. The distal end of three right and tw o left immature humeri, from three full‐term individuals and two adolescents,...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Andrea Palamenghi, Alessandra Cinti, Robert W. Mann, Giorgia Viano, Marilena Girotti, Francesca Garanzini, Ezio Fulcheri, Rosa Boano Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Proximal femur fractures among a medieval Christian population of northern Sudan: prevalence and aetiology
AbstractThe current paper investigates the prevalence and aetiology of proximal femur fractures in two temporally distinctive groups of medieval Christian Nubia: the monastic community (ca. late 7th to half of 13th c. AD) and a later group of post ‐monastic, intrusive interments (ca. 13th c. AD) from Cemetery 2 at Ghazali, northern Sudan. Four cases of proximal femur fractures were identified macroscopically among the skeletal remains of 86 adult individuals, and subjected to detailed investigation of underlying aetiology due to the unusual demographic characteristics of the individuals. The proximal femora were subjecte...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Joanna A. Ciesielska, Robert J. Stark Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The third dimension in palaeopathology: How can three ‐dimensional imaging by computed tomography bring an added value to retrospective diagnosis?
AbstractThree ‐dimensional (3D) imaging is now extensively used for studying ancient human and animal bones. This method has been consensually adopted by palaeoanthropologists, but its interest in palaeopathology has been challenged. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the contribution of 3D reconstructions to retrospective diagnosis in palaeopathology. We selected six palaeopathological cases among our research corpus representing three nosographic categories (trauma, infection and neoplasia) from various periods ranging from the Middle Palaeolithic to the beginning of the Modern Era. For each case, w e compared the ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 4, 2020 Category: Science Authors: H élène Coqueugniot, Bruno Dutailly, Olivier Dutour Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Non ‐sacrificial violence at the Huacas de Moche, north coastal Peru
AbstractThe analysis of traumatic injuries provides bioarchaeologists with unique insight into patterns of violence among past human societies. This analysis explores ante and perimortem skeletal trauma and what it suggests about the experiences of violence among the Moche of north coastal Peru (A.D. 200 ‐900). Violence among the Moche has been well documented, both by the Moche themselves in their iconographic communications, and through the analysis of the skeletal remains of those they sacrificed. These sources provided us with an incomplete view. What has not besen studied are the patterns of traumatic injury that af...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Celeste Marie Gagnon, Santiago Uceda Castillo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

FIRST DATA ON ANIMAL EXPLOITAITION IN FUNJ SULTANATE. Kingdom of Dongola, Sudan (16TH ‐17TH century)
AbstractThe scientific importance of the archaeozoological study of 16th–17th century faunal materials from Old Dongola in Sudan cannot be overstated in view of it being the only regular project of its kind on post ‐medieval material from Sudan to date. The results highlight the dynamics of the socio‐political transformation taking place at this time. From the point of view of the economy domestic cattle was the most important species and there are certain indications in favor of long‐distance trade foll owing mainly a north–south vector and taking advantage of the old early Makurian forts. The archaeozoo...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - June 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Marta Osypi ńska, Włodzimierz Godlewski Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The natural history of the fallow deer, Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) in Bulgaria in prehistory and new evidence for the existence of an autochthonous Holocene population in the Balkans
AbstractThe fallow deer (Dama dama Linnaeus, 1758) has a long history of interaction with prehistoric humans. Beginning in the Neolithic, humans introduced fallow deer to several areas of the eastern Mediterranean and mainland Europe, with later additional importing happening in the Bronze and Iron Ages. However, in some parts of southeastern Europe, autochthonous populations of extant fallow deer may have survived through the end of the Pleistocene and into the early Holocene, making them available for exploitation by Neolithic and Chalcolithic communities. Climatic and vegetational regimes favorable to fallow deer covere...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nadezhda Karastoyanova, John Gorczyk, Nikolai Spassov Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Metric and morphological analysis of Pelvic Scars in a historical sample from Lithuania: Associations with Sex, Age, Body Size and Pelvic Dimensions
AbstractThe theory behind the formation and manifestation of pelvic scars, sometimes called “scars of parturition”, and particularly their potential use in determining parity history has been a debated issue among anthropologists for nearly 50 years. To date, the association between parity and scar formation still remains unclear. The present study tests the effects of sex, age, body s ize and pelvic dimensions on the morphological and metric features of dorsal pits, pubic tubercle and preauricular sulcus. 296 skeletons (167 males, 129 females) from historical samples in Lithuania were examined. Beyond assessin...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Elisa ‐Maria Praxmarer, Janina Tutkuviene, Sylvia Kirchengast Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Observer error in bone disease description: a cautionary note
This study shows the considerable pitfalls in the assessment of basic pathological bone manifestations and demonstrates the importance of continuing efforts in the standardization of pathological terminology on dry bone. (Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology)
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 19, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lucie Biehler ‐Gomez, Lara Indra, Federica Martino, Carlo Pietro Campobasso, Cristina Cattaneo Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Investigating wheat consumption based on multiple evidences: stable isotope analysis on human bone and starch grain analysis on dental calculus of humans from the Laodaojing cemetery, Central Plains, China
AbstractThe introduction and spread of wheat contributed to the transformation of the tradition millets agriculture in North China. However, when and how wheat came to be a staple crop in China is still unclear. Stable isotope data from some archaeological sites suggested that the dietary change from C4 based diet to C3/C4 mixed diet occurred during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 ‐221BC) on the Central Plains of China. However, the role of each C3 crop (wheat, rice and soybean) in human diet are not well understood in this key period. Some scholars have argued that wheat made the biggest contribution to human diet among t...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Dawei Tao, Guowen Zhang, Yawei Zhou, Haizhou Zhao Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The supracondylar process in subadult skeletal remains from Northern Italy (15th ‐18th century A.D.)
AbstractThis paper presents five uncommon examples of the supracondylar process in subadult skeletal remains from archaeological contexts. Human skeletal remains were recovered from the Baptistery of Settimo Vittone (Italy) that date to the 15th‐18th centuries. A bony process was noted at the distal end of five immature humeri. The specimens were examined morphologically, and the following measurements were taken: length of the process, distance from the tip of the process to the medial epicondyle. The distal end of 3 right and 2 left immature humeri, from 3 full ‐term individuals and 2 adolescents, revealed different ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Andrea Palamenghi, Alessandra Cinti, Robert W. Mann, Giorgia Viano, Marilena Girotti, Francesca Garanzini, Ezio Fulcheri, Rosa Boano Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

The third dimension in Paleopathology: how can three ‐dimensional imaging by computed tomography (3D CT) bring an added‐value to retrospective diagnosis?
AbstractThree ‐dimensional imaging is now extensively used for studying ancient human and animal bones. This method has been consensually adopted by paleoanthropologists, but its interest in paleopathology has been challenged. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the contribution of 3D reconstructions to retr ospective diagnosis in paleopathology. We selected 6 paleopathological cases among our research corpus representing 3 nosographic categories (trauma, infection and neoplasia) from various periods ranging from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the Modern Era. For each case, we compared the d iagnostic valu...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: H élène Coqueugniot, Bruno Dutailly, Olivier Dutour Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Sample specific sex estimation method using parameters around dominant nutrient foramina in unknown femur bones collection of contemporary Egyptians
AbstractSince there is no widely accepted sexing method of fragmented femoral diaphyses, we argue that the diaphyseal diameters and circumference around nutrient foramina (NF) have comparable sex discrimination capacity to their midshaft counterparts. Construction of reliable reference sample (n=61, 29 males and 32 females) using the undocumented Alexandria university osteological collection was contingent upon consistent sex estimation of the epiphyses using population and sample specific methods. Statistically significant size differences were found between the males and females diaphyseal measurements around NF. Low int...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: MennattAllah Hassan Attia, Fatma Mohamed Magdy Badr El ‐Dine, Mohammed Hassan Attia, Nancy Mohamed Aly El‐Sekily Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Roman Tunisian dietary patterns as a feature of Romanitas: an archaeozoological approach
AbstractIt has been said that the Roman Empire was one of the greatest empires of antiquity. At its height, it spanned the entire Mediterranean basin, from the Iberian Peninsula to the Near East, each territory contributing with its customs and specificities. In this melting pot, dietary preferences were modified, diversified and, sometimes, replaced. With this paper, we aim to study Roman dietary patterns in Tunisia, an area that has been the object of little academic scrutiny and for which only a few studies are available. We investigate this topic with an archaeozoological approach. The relative frequency of taxa, body ...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Mohamed Azaza, L ídia Colominas Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Reindeer Feeding ecology and Hunting strategies by Magdalenians from Pincevent (Paris Basin, France): New Insights from Dental Microwear Textural Analyses
This study aims to contribute to a global understanding of the variation between these level's hunting strategies using microwear texture analysis. This proxy, which can be used to reconstruct diet, will enable to detect changes in the behavior pattern of the prey. The decision was made to focus this study on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) as it was one of the two most exploited resources on this site, alongside horses. The enamel surface of teeth from two populations of reindeer, hunted and found in levels IV0 and IV20, showed a variation of diet between levels. Environmental and ecological matters are discussed with an aim...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - May 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Natacha Catz, Olivier Bignon ‐Lau, Gildas Merceron Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pending danger: Recent Copper Age lion (Panthera leo L., 1758) finds from Hungary
AbstractLions reached their northernmost distribution in the Carpathian Basin at a time when the climate turned cooler and drier and the complex Late Neolithic settlement network, marked by human populations concentrated on and around tells, disintegrated. A perforated distal phalanx and a calcaneus of lion (Panthera leo L., 1758) from two different Copper Age (5th –4th millennium cal BC) settlements in Hungary contribute to mapping the distribution of Holocene lions in southeast Europe. Previous discoveries of lion bones (representing all parts of the body) have offered evidence of local lion hunting and probable co...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: M árta Daróczi‐Szabó, Zsófia Eszter Kovács, Pál Raczky, László Bartosiewicz Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Applying the Bioarchaeology of Care model to a severely diseased infant from the Middle Holocene, north ‐eastern Brazil: A step further into research on past health‐related caregiving
AbstractA potential context of care is suggested in a case study of an anomalous burial from a severely diseased infant of 9 months ( ±3 months) of age at death, which displayed significant signs of infectious and/or metabolic illnesses on the skeleton. The body also received special mortuary treatment, including associated body reduction processes and display of corporeal relics. The case study corresponds to Individual 9 from B urial 2 at Toca do Enoque, an archaeological site from north‐eastern Brazil used as a funerary site by a pre‐ceramic hunter‐gatherer group during the Middle Holocene (6,220 ± 5...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ana Solari, S érgio F.S.M. Silva, Anne Marie Pessis, Gabriela Martin, Niede Guidon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Implications of age and sex determinations of ancient Maya sacrificial victims at Midnight Terror Cave
AbstractThe prurient element in the popular notion of the ancient Maya sacrifice of “beautiful virgins” during the first half of the 20th century appears to have made researchers wary of studying women in human sacrifice. Interest in human sacrifice arose in the 1990s along with the formulation of the warfare hypothesis for the collapse of Maya civilization so that models of hu man sacrifice often assumed that victims were largely male war captives. The present study reports on the detailed examination of all the pelvises in the Midnight Terror Cave skeletal assemblage, using osteological and paleogenomic techn...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cristina Verdugo, Kimberly Zhu, Michael Prout, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Alison Galloway, Lars Fehren ‐Schmitz, James E. Brady Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Paleodiet and health in a mass burial population: the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from Poto čani, a 6200‐year‐old massacre site in Croatia
AbstractThis paper presents the results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses on human remains uncovered from Poto čani, a Copper Age (Eneolithic) mass burial site in continental Croatia. The remains of at least 41 individuals were uncovered in a pit in 2007 during rescue excavations in Požeško‐Slavonska county. Skeletal evidence of violence and the disorganized arrangement of bodies suggest that burial too k place over a short period of time. Radiocarbon dates and associated ceramics indicate these people were part of the Lasinja cultural group, dating to the Middle Copper Age (ca. 4200 cal BC). Carbon...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sarah B. McClure, Emily Zavodny, Mario Novak, Jacqueline Balen, Hrvoje Potrebica, Ivor Jankovi ć, Douglas J. Kennett Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Implications of age and sex determinations of ancient Maya sacrificial victims at Midnight Terror Cave
AbstractThe prurient element in the popular notion of the ancient Maya sacrifice of “beautiful virgins” during the first half of the 20th century appears to have made researchers wary of studying women in human sacrifice. Interest in human sacrifice arose in the 1990s along with the formulation of the warfare hypothesis for the collapse of Maya civilization so that models of hu man sacrifice often assumed that victims were largely male war captives. The present study reports on the detailed examination of all the pelvises in the Midnight Terror Cave skeletal assemblage, using osteological and paleogenomic techn...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cristina Verdugo, Kimberly Zhu, Michael Prout, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Alison Galloway, Lars Fehren ‐Schmitz, James E. Brady Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Paleodiet and health in a mass burial population: the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from Poto čani, a 6200‐year‐old massacre site in Croatia
AbstractThis paper presents the results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses on human remains uncovered from Poto čani, a Copper Age (Eneolithic) mass burial site in continental Croatia. The remains of at least 41 individuals were uncovered in a pit in 2007 during rescue excavations in Požeško‐Slavonska county. Skeletal evidence of violence and the disorganized arrangement of bodies suggest that burial too k place over a short period of time. Radiocarbon dates and associated ceramics indicate these people were part of the Lasinja cultural group, dating to the Middle Copper Age (ca. 4200 cal BC). Carbon...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sarah B. McClure, Emily Zavodny, Mario Novak, Jacqueline Balen, Hrvoje Potrebica, Ivor Jankovi ć, Douglas J. Kennett Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Impact scar frequency, bone density and marrow utility: An experimental study
AbstractThis paper presents an experiment designed to evaluate the relationships between impact scar, bone density and the marrow utility of various appendicular elements. Several North American bison assemblages show positive correlations between impact scar frequencies and by ‐element marrow utilities. However, this pattern may represent an equifinal relationship between bone density, nutritional utility and processing effort. In our experiment, we test the hypothesis that this pattern is a function of bone density; elements documenting higher frequencies of impacts wi ll be more robust and require more effort to open,...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: David A. Byers, Jonathan P. Keith, Ryan P. Breslawski Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Morphological and metric criteria for identifying postcranial skeletal remains of modern and archaeological Caprinae and Antilopinae in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas
AbstractOsseous remains of medium ‐sized Caprinae and Antilopinae are often found in late Quaternary archaeological sites in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas, but their accurate taxonomic identification poses considerable problems to zooarchaeologists. Building on previous osteomorphological studies and a statistic ally significant number of modern comparatives, this study presents diagnostic morphological features and metric data of selected skeletal elements, enabling taxonomic classification of six medium‐sized wild bovid genera widely distributed across the region, i.e. Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur),...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 19, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yiru Wang, Joris Peters, Graeme Barker Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Applying the Bioarchaeology of Care model to a severely diseased infant from the Middle Holocene, North ‐Eastern Brazil: A step further into research on past health‐related caregiving
AbstractA potential context of care is suggested in a case ‐study of an anomalous burial from a severely diseased infant of 9 months (± 3 months) of age at death, which displayed significant signs of infectious and/or metabolic illnesses on the skeleton. The body also received special mortuary treatment, including associated body‐reduction processes an d display of corporeal relics. The case‐study corresponds to Individual 9 from Burial 2 at Toca do Enoque, an archaeological site from north‐eastern Brazil used as a funerary site by a pre‐ceramic hunter‐gatherer group during the Middle Holocene (6220 &plu...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 19, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ana Solari, S érgio F.S.M. Silva, Anne Marie Pessis, Gabriela Martin, Niede Guidon Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Morphological and metric criteria for identifying postcranial skeletal remains of modern and archaeological Caprinae and Antilopinae in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas
AbstractOsseous remains of medium ‐sized Caprinae and Antilopinae are often found in late Quaternary archaeological sites in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas, but their accurate taxonomic identification poses considerable problems to zooarchaeologists. Building on previous osteomorphological studies and a statistic ally significant number of modern comparatives, this study presents diagnostic morphological features and metric data of selected skeletal elements, enabling taxonomic classification of six medium‐sized wild bovid genera widely distributed across the region, i.e. Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur),...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 19, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yiru Wang, Joris Peters, Graeme Barker Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Funerary reuse of a Roman amphitheatre: Palaeodietary and osteological study of Early Middle Ages burials (8th and 9th centuries AD) discovered in the Arena of Verona (Northeastern Italy)
AbstractThe economic and political disruption following the collapse of the Roman Empire is an important moment for the cultural and biological history of Western Europe. One of the trends associated this socioeconomic change is the reuse of Roman public monuments for different purposes including funerary ones. The cultural meaning of this practice, occasionally described throughout Europe, is however still unclear. Here, we present a study of a group of burials (N = 10) recently discovered in the Roman amphitheatre (Arena) of Verona (Northeastern Italy) and dating to Early Middle Ages (8th and 9th century AD). Specificall...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zita Laffranchi, Alessandra Mazzucchi, Simon Thompson, Antonio Delgado ‐Huertas, Arsenio Granados‐Torres, Marco Milella Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Impact Scar Frequency, Bone Density and Marrow Utility: An Experimental Study
AbstractThis paper presents an experiment designed to evaluate the relationships between impact scar, bone density and the marrow utility of various appendicular elements. Several North American bison assemblages show positive correlations between impact scar frequencies and by ‐element marrow utilities. However, this pattern may represent an equifinial relationship between bone density, nutritional utility and processing effort. In our experiment, we test the hypothesis that this pattern is a function of bone density, elements documenting higher frequencies of impacts w ill be more robust and require more effort to open...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 14, 2020 Category: Science Authors: David A. Byers, Jonathan P. Keith, Ryan P. Breslawski Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Pending danger: Recent Copper Age lion (Panthera leo L., 1758) finds from Hungary
AbstractLions reached their northernmost distribution in the Carpathian Basin at a time when the climate turned cooler and drier and the complex Late Neolithic settlement network, marked by human populations concentrated on and around tells, disintegrated. A perforated distal phalanx and a calcaneus of lion (Panthera leo L., 1758) from two different Copper Age (5th –4th millennium cal BC) settlements in Hungary contribute to mapping the distribution of Holocene lions in southeast Europe. Previous discoveries of lion bones (representing all parts of the body) have offered evidence of local lion hunting and probable co...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - April 14, 2020 Category: Science Authors: M árta Daróczi‐Szabó, Zsófia Eszter Kovács, Pál Raczky, László Bartosiewicz Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research