Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Liquid biopsies in gastrointestinal malignancies: when is the big day?
Authors: Lopez A, Harada K, Mizrak Kaya D, Dong X, Song S, Ajani JA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tumor tissue sample is currently the gold standard for diagnosing gastrointestinal cancers, but also for genomic/immune component analyses that can help in the selection of therapy. However, this approach of studying a 'representative' sample of the tumor does not address inherent heterogeneity. Liquid biopsies, mainly represented by circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, tumor exosomes, and microRNAs, have the potential to assess various biomarkers for early detection of cancer, carrying out genomic/immune profiling...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Current and future therapeutic approaches for osteosarcoma.
Authors: Harrison DJ, Geller DS, Gill JD, Lewis VO, Gorlick R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current treatment of osteosarcoma includes surgical resection of all gross disease in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy to control micro-metastatic disease. This yields a 5-year event free survival (EFS) of approximately 70% for patients with localized osteosarcoma while patients with metastatic or recurrent disease fare poorly with overall survival rates of less than 20%. Areas covered: This review outlines the current and future approach towards the treatment of osteosarcoma. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMe...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Emerging data on improving response to hormone therapy: the role of novel targeted agents.
Authors: Vidula N, Rugo HS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer represents the most common subtype of breast cancer. Metastatic HR+ breast cancer may develop resistance to standard hormone therapies, arising from genomic alterations in the estrogen receptor and/or upregulation of other signal transduction pathways. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss hormone resistance and strategies to overcome it, from the pre-clinical and clinical perspectives. This review includes a discussion of inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK 4/6, histone deacetylation, fibroblast growth factor recep...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Cardiovascular mortality trends in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a population-based cohort study.
Authors: Kamel MG, El-Qushayri AE, Thach TQ, Huy NT Abstract BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) survivors are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). METHODS: A population-based study was conducted to investigate the cardiovascular mortality trends to identify NHL survivors at the highest risk. RESULTS: The CVDs mortality was the second most common cause of death (13.07%) after NHL. There were more patients ≥ 60 years old in the cardiovascular group (87.2%), P
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer: a focus on ALK/ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Authors: Sgambato A, Casaluce F, Maione P, Gridelli C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 rearrangements define important molecular subgroups of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The identification of these genetic driver alterations created new potential for highly active therapeutic interventions. After discovery of ALK rearrangements in NSCLC, it was recognized that these confer sensitivity to ALK inhibition. Areas covered: Crizotinib, the first-in-class ALK/ROS1/MET inhibitor, was initially approved as second-line treatment of ALK-positive advanced NSCLC but after this, i...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Response to afatinib in treatment-na ïve patients with advanced mutant epidermal growth factor receptor lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastases.
CONCLUSION: Afatinib can provide therapeutic efficacy and a good response rate in treatment-naïve mutant-EGFR lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases regardless of whether or not they also receive radiotherapy. PMID: 29172778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Nagasaka M, Gadgeel SM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Challenging a dogma: five-year survival does not equal cure in all colorectal cancer patients.
Authors: Abdel-Rahman O Abstract BACKGROUND: The current study tried to evaluate the factors affecting 10- to 20- years' survival among long term survivors (>5 years) of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to examine if risk of death from CRC beyond five years varies based on baseline characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2008) was queried through SEER*Stat program. Univariate probability of overall and cancer-specific survival was determined by the life tables' option of the SPSS and the difference between groups was examined through Wilcoxon (Gehan)...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in the management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Authors: Karakas Y, Lacin S, Yalcin S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer (PC) demonstrates very poor prognosis and its incidence continues to increase, despite developments in chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapies. Surgical resection is currently the only curative approach for PC. The role of radiotherapy in adjuvant and locally advanced PC continues to be increasingly controversial. This review article aims to explore the current knowledge of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, focusing on diagnosis, treatment strategies, and the best supportive care. Areas covered: The current literature on pancreatic a...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Pregnancy and live birth after successful cancer treatment in young women: the need to improve fertility preservation and advice for female cancer patients.
Authors: Anderson RA, Wallace WHB PMID: 29125369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Incorporating age into international germ cell consensus classification (IGCCC): a time to move forward?
Authors: Abdel-Rahman O PMID: 29115166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New targets and therapies for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Authors: Wozniak A, Gebreyohannes YK, Debiec-Rychter M, Schöffski P Abstract INTRODUCTION: The majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are driven by an abnormal receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, occurring mainly due to somatic mutations in KIT or platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). Although the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized therapy for GIST patients, with time the vast majority of them develop TKI resistance. Advances in understanding the molecular background of GIST resistance allows for the identification of new targets and the dev...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Optimizing treatment in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
Authors: Corrado G, Salutari V, Palluzzi E, Distefano MG, Scambia G, Ferrandina G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Optimal management of recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) remains an area of uncertainty. An estimated 85% of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who achieve a full remission following first-line therapy will develop recurrent disease and median survival for these patients' ranges from 12 months to 24 months. Many patients receive several lines of treatment following recurrence and, although each subsequent line of therapy is characterized by shorter disease-free intervals, decisions about the most appropriate tr...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The liquid biopsy: a tool for a combined diagnostic and theranostic approach for care of a patient with late-stage lung carcinoma presenting with bilateral ocular metastases.
This article reports the diagnosis of a NSCLC in a non-smoker patient with bilateral ocular metastases after detection of a deletion in exon 19 of EGFR when using plasma DNA. Detection of this mutation thereby resulted in treatment with TKI. Without histological analysis, the origin of the primary ocular metastasis was uncertain. In this context, a LB showing an activating mutation in EGFR and circulating tumor cells positive for TTF1 led to the diagnosis of NSCLC and targeted therapy. Expert commentary: When no tumor tissue sample is available a LB can be used to diagnose for metastatic NSCLC, when a mutation in EGFR is i...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy for solid tumors require new clinical regimens.
Authors: Xu J, Tian K, Zhang H, Li L, Liu H, Liu J, Zhang Q, Zheng J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) therapy has achieved encouraging breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Nevertheless, this success has not yet been extrapolated to solid tumors. This review focuses on new clinical regimens that could improve the therapeutic efficacy of CAR-T in solid tumors. Areas covered: Herein, the authors reviewed recent clinical trials using CAR-T therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. Specifically, this review covered the following areas: (1) the current s...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Prognostic value of the combination of serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, C-reactive protein and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in patients with primary liver cancer who underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that high serum levels of both VEGF and CRP in addition to a low time-to-peak (TTP) value in CEUS were indicators for poor prognosis in PLC patients. PMID: 29048943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Screening of colorectal cancer: present and future.
Authors: Maida M, Macaluso FS, Ianiro G, Mangiola F, Sinagra E, Hold G, Maida C, Cammarota G, Gasbarrini A, Scarpulla G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in males and second in females, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, about 60-70% of diagnosed cases in symptomatic patients are detected at an advanced stage of disease. Earlier stage detection through the use of screening strategies would allow for better outcomes in terms of reducing the disease burden. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review the current published evidence ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and gastrointestinal stromal tumor as models for targeted therapy in soft tissue sarcomas.
Authors: Koseła-Paterczyk H, Rutkowski P Abstract INTRODUCTION: The development of novel targeted treatment in soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is important since many sarcoma subtypes are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and effective therapeutic options are limited. Areas covered: This review discusses the molecular background and treatment in two STS types which became a model for targeted therapy - gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). DFSP is characterized, in the majority of cases, by chromosomal translocation which results in the formation of COL1A1-PDGFB fusion g...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors rechallenge in solid tumors: a review of literature and a case description with lenvatinib in thyroid cancer.
We report the case of a patient with a RAI refractory advanced DTC, treated with lenvatinib after surgery, multiple RAI administrations, traditional chemotherapy, and sorafenib. During treatment with lenvatinib, a noticeable response was detected by sequential computed tomography scans but, after 27 months, tumor progression became evident and led to lenvatinib interruption. In absence of any active treatment, a further disease progression was documented, and lenvatinib was re-administered obtaining a new objective response. Starting from this case report, we review available reports about the rechallenge with TKIs in soli...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging in the early detection of prostate cancer and review of the literature on magnetic resonance imaging-stratified clinical pathways.
Authors: Shah TT, To WKL, Ahmed HU Abstract INTRODUCTION: With level 1 evidence now available on the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we must now utilise this data in developing an MRI-stratified diagnostic pathway for the early detection of prostate cancer. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted and identified seven randomised control trials (RCT's) assessing the diagnostic accuracy of such a pathway against the previously accepted systematic/random trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy pathway. The studies were heterogeneous in their design. Five studies ass...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Post-prostatectomy radiation therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer.
In this study, we review the evidence for the adjuvant and salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy. Areas covered: A literature review of the Medline and Embase databases was performed. The search strategy included the following terms: prostate cancer, adjuvant radiotherapy, salvage radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy, biochemical recurrence, and prostate cancer recurrence. Prospective randomized trials for the adjuvant radiotherapy and observational studies supporting salvage radiotherapy were included for discussion. Expert commentary: As postoperative radiotherapy is associated with non-trivial risks of ac...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Minimum unit pricing for alcohol: the most cost-effective of cancer prevention strategies?
Authors: Stockwell T PMID: 28929817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the prognosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results which, based on a cohort study, indicate that CIN is associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID: 28910204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An analysis of clinical characteristics and patient outcomes in primary mediastinal sarcomas.
This study reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of these cases from the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database. METHODS: Primary mediastinal sarcomas, diagnosed from 1988 to 2013 were assembled from the SEER database. The incidence and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were compared to other primary mediastinal malignancies (thymic carcinomas, germ cell tumors, neurogenic tumors, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) as well as to non-mediastinal sarcomas. Cox-proportional hazard models were utilized to produce multivariate analyses for factors affecting overall survival among primary media...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Risk-reduction and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
We present an overview of CIPN pathophysiology, clinical assessment, prevention and treatment identified through a Pubmed search. Expert commentary: No substantial progress has been made in the last few years within the field of prevention and/or treatment of CIPN, in spite of remarkable efforts. Continuous research could expand our knowledge about chemotherapeutic-specific neuropathic pathways and eventually lead to the conception of innovative and targeted agents for the prevention and/or treatment of this debilitating chemotherapy adverse effect. PMID: 28868935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Rev...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Application of the American Society of Clinical Oncology frameworks to compare tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in first line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Had we solved the mystery?
Authors: Ahmed SH, Elbaghdady N, Alorabi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The approval of multiple biological therapies as a first line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the last decade have led to the selection of the best treatment between these drugs, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), a great challenge to oncologists and patients. The four TKIs recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines in this setting have a relatively similar mechanism of action and analogical adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, the two published American Society of Clinical Oncolo...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New surgical approaches for clinically high-risk or metastatic prostate cancer.
Authors: Dell'Oglio P, Stabile A, Gandaglia G, Zaffuto E, Fossati N, Bandini M, Suardi N, Karakiewicz PI, Shariat SF, Montorsi F, Briganti A Abstract INTRODUCTION: A considerable number of individuals with prostate cancer (PCa) still harbor locally-advanced and metastatic disease. Although such men were initially not considered eligible for local treatment, the role of radical prostatectomy (RP) has been recently reassessed. Areas covered: This review analyses currently published evidences regarding new surgical approaches for clinically high-risk PCa individuals, as well as the role of cytoreductive surgery in the...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Olaratumab for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma.
This article reviews the development of olaratumab for oncology use by reviewing articles in PubMed for 'platelet derived growth factor' and 'receptor' and 'soft tissue sarcoma'. We provide an overview of the published studies to date for olaratumab and specifically the use in soft tissue sarcoma. Expert commentary: Olaratumab is a well-tolerated drug that, when combined with doxorubicin, has shown an improved overall survival compared to doxorubicin alone and the phase III confirmatory study is eagerly awaited. PMID: 28862476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Binimetinib for the treatment of NRAS-mutant melanoma.
Authors: Queirolo P, Spagnolo F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Activating NRAS mutations occur in approximately 15-20% of melanomas and are the second most common oncogenic driver mutation in this disease, after BRAF mutations. There is an unmet medical need for new targeted therapy opportunities in metastatic patients whose tumors harbor an NRAS mutation. Binimetinib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, has shown clinical activity in this group of patients. Areas covered: The purpose of this paper was to review the safety, activity and efficacy of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib for the treatment of N...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Genetic testing in women with breast cancer: implications for treatment.
Authors: Paterson R, Phillips KA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mutations in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are responsible for approximately 42,000 cases of breast cancer annually. Identifying these germline mutations in a woman with breast cancer is important because it can influence her immediate and long-term management and has important implications for other family members. Areas covered: This review highlights how treatment-focussed genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations can potentially influence cancer treatment and secondary prevention decisions in women with breast cancer. Expert commentary: Testing women...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Castration-na ïve metastatic prostate cancer: reshaping old paradigms.
Castration-naïve metastatic prostate cancer: reshaping old paradigms. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2017 Aug 31;: Authors: Ratta R, Grassi P, Fucà G, Verzoni E, Procopio G PMID: 28854837 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Second-line treatments of small-cell lung cancers.
Authors: Baize N, Monnet I, Greillier L, Quere G, Kerjouan M, Janicot H, Vergnenegre A, Auliac JB, Chouaid C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Second-line therapies for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients remain a challenge, with limited clinical benefit because of rapid tumor growth, early dissemination and the development of drug resistance during the disease. Recent developments in genomic sequencing have provided further insight into the biology of the disease, identifying new targets and new pathways. Areas covered: This review details chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immune-checkpoint blockades that have...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
This article reviews the clinical rationale for using PBT for HCC patients and clinical outcome and toxicity data from retrospective and prospective studies. PBT-specific technical challenges for these tumors and appropriate selection of patients to be treated with PBT are discussed. Expert commentary: Local control, overall survival, and toxicity results are promising for liver PBT. Future studies, including ongoing randomized cooperative group trials, will aim to determine the incremental benefit of PBT over photons and which patients are most suitable for PBT. PMID: 28825506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sour...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Current challenges in optimizing systemic therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer: expert perspectives from the Australian gastrointestinal trials group with invited international faculty.
This article collates the evidence upon which current best practice is based and offers an expert opinion from an international faculty on how latest developments should influence current treatment paradigms. Areas covered: Optimal chemotherapy for first and subsequent lines of therapy; optimal management of locally advanced, non-metastatic cancer including the role of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy, current evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy, major advances in pancreatic cancer genomics and challenges in supportive care particularly relevant to patients with pancreatic cancer. For each section, literature was reviewed by...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Evaluating the addition of oxaliplatin to single agent fluoropyrimidine in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: There is no OS benefit with oxaliplatin, despite improved pCR, local and distant RR. Before drawing definitive conclusions, longer follow-up in included trials and availability of published data from other eligible studies, including the induction setting, are needed. PMID: 28819989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Improving postoperative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy.
Authors: Lipman D, Pieters BR, de Reijke TM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has one of the highest incidences in the world, with good curative treatment options like radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, about 30% of the patients initially treated with curative intent will develop a recurrence and need adjuvant treatment. Five randomized trials covered the role of postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, but there is still a lot of debate about which patients should receive postoperative radiotherapy. Areas covered: This review will give an overview on the available literature...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Anti-GD2 immunotherapy for neuroblastomas.
Authors: Sait S, Modak SI Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current therapeutic approaches for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) include high-dose chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy; interventions that are associated with long and short-term toxicities. Effective immunotherapy holds particular promise for improving survival and quality of life by reducing exposure to cytotoxic agents. GD2, a surface glycolipid is the most common target for immunotherapy. Areas covered: We review the status of anti-GD2 immunotherapies currently in clinical use for neuroblastomas and novel GD2-targeted strategies in preclinical development. E...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of novel biomarker HE4 in the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of ovarian cancer: a systematic review.
Authors: Scaletta G, Plotti F, Luvero D, Capriglione S, Montera R, Miranda A, Lopez S, Terranova C, De Cicco Nardone C, Angioli R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers, in fact,>80% of cases are diagnosed as advanced-stage disease associated with a high mortality rate (
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of external beam radiation therapy in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
Authors: Hamilton SN, Tran E, Berthelet E, Wu J Abstract dglkf Introduction: This review article explores the use of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in well differentiated thyroid cancer. Areas covered: The published literature on EBRT for advanced pT4 disease and macroscopic unresectable disease to improve locoregional control is reviewed. EBRT techniques, volumes and doses are discussed in detail. The potential acute and late toxicities of EBRT are discussed in the context of the published literature. The use of EBRT for patients with metastatic disease is also described. Expert commentary: There is good retros...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery for limited brain metastases: are we ready for prime time?
Authors: Lo SS, Brown PD, Foote M, Chao ST, Chang EL, Sahgal A PMID: 28737065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA in metastatic prostate cancer: a review.
Authors: Parimi S, Ko JJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has changed dramatically over the past five years. As new discoveries are made and further novel therapies become available, there is a heightened urgency to develop biomarkers that can guide prognoses and predict therapy responses. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the blood have emerged as potential promising tumor avatars. Areas covered: In this review, we describe technological breakthroughs and clinical implementation of the CTCs and ctDNA. We also discuss the key ch...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Immunotherapy advances for mesothelioma treatment.
Authors: Bakker E, Guazzelli A, Ashtiani F, Demonacos C, Krstic-Demonacos M, Mutti L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that is strongly tied to asbestos exposure. Despite application of different modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, patient prognosis remains very poor and therapies are ineffective. Much research currently focuses on the application of novel approaches such as immunotherapy towards this disease. Areas Covered: The types, stages and aetiology of mesothelioma are detailed, followed by a discussion of the current treatment options such as radiotherapy, s...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Applications of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Authors: Hornung M, Werner JM, Schlitt HJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) plays a pivotal role in the current treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC). Since the first demonstration, benefits for patients and especially an increase in survival have been described. In recent years, feasibility, efficacy and safety of HIPEC have been improved and progress has been made in understanding its oncological mechanism. Areas Covered: In this article, leading publications have been reviewed including clinical tr...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Molecular approaches to potentiate cisplatin responsiveness in carcinoma therapeutics.
Authors: Jain A, Jahagirdar D, Nilendu P, Sharma NK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cisplatin has been considered as the crucial regimen of widely prescribed chemotherapy treatment for cancer. The advancing treatment of cancers has reached the border line, where tumors show resistance to cisplatin and may thwart its use. Other than issues of drug resistance, cisplatin has been reported to evince side effects such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Therefore, there is a compelling need to untangle the problems associated with cisplatin treatment in carcinoma. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the current status of ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Overcoming resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer, focusing on non-T790M mechanisms.
Authors: Suda K, Rivard CJ, Mitsudomi T, Hirsch FR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite initial dramatic efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients, emergence of acquired resistance is almost inevitable. The EGFR T790M secondary mutation that accounts for ~50% of resistance is now treatable with osimertinib. However, for the remaining 50% of patients who develop resistance mechanisms other than T790M mutation, cytotoxic chemotherapies are still the standard of care and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss current experimental...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis among patients with breast cancer receiving cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Lasheen S, Shohdy KS, Kassem L, Abdel-Rahman O Abstract BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors emerge as efficacious agents in hormone positive metastatic breast cancer with more acceptable toxicity profiles than cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, some adverse effects such as fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis, vastly concern patients. METHODS: The search was conducted in PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting library, European Society for Medical Oncology meeting abstract, and the San Antonio meeting abstract databases. We identified phase 2 or 3 trials recruiting patients wit...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The cost and value of glioblastoma therapy.
Authors: Cagney DN, Alexander BM PMID: 28689438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in targeted advanced lung cancer therapy in the elderly.
Authors: Losanno T, Gridelli C Abstract INTRODUCTION: With increasing life expectancy over the last several decades, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in the elderly population too. In clinical practice about 50% of lung cancers were diagnosed in patients older than 65 years and about 30-40% of lung cancer patients are 70 years old or more. Treatment of elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a challenge in clinical practice, because these patients are not eligible for aggressive therapies for the age-related reduction of functional reserve of many organs and comorbidities. Area...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Phthalocyanine induced phototherapy coupled with Doxorubicin; a promising novel treatment for breast cancer.
Authors: Aniogo EC, George BPA, Abrahamse H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Globally, breast cancer is the most common life-threatening malignant disease among women. Adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (e.g., doxorubicin) has been shown to be more advantageous over non-anthracycline-based therapies, yet possess the tenacity of developing resistance and potential side effects which have limited its use in the clinical setting. These reasons necessitate combining doxorubicin with emerging photodynamic treatment regimens. Areas covered: In this review, the authors have concisely explained d...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Neratinib for the treatment of HER2-positive early stage breast cancer.
Authors: Echavarria I, López-Tarruella S, Márquez-Rodas I, Jerez Y, Martin M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the advances in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, resistance to actual chemotherapeutic regimens eventually occurs. Neratinib, an orally available pan-inhibitor of the ERBB family, represents an interesting new option for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Areas covered: In this article, the development of neratinib, with a special focus on its potential value in the treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, has been reviewed. For this purpose, a literature search w...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research