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Difference between right-sided and left-sided colorectal cancers: from embryology to molecular subtype.
Authors: Yang SY, Cho MS, Kim NK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and it exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways, and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. Differences in the microbiome, clinical characteristics, and chromosomal and molecular characteristics have been reported between the right and left side of the colon. Areas covered: This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and chromosomal and molecular studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunologic...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - February 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Ribociclib for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer.
Authors: Burris HA Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors marked a significant advancement in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Ribociclib is an orally bioavailable, highly selective inhibitor of CDK4/6. In combination with various endocrine therapies, ribociclib has demonstrated clinical activity as a first-line therapy for patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer, without compromising the favorable toxicity profile associated with endocrine therapy. Thus, ribociclib is now considered a new standard of care for HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer. A...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - February 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic strategies for organ-confined and non-organ-confined bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.
Authors: Marchioni M, Nazzani S, Preisser F, Bandini M, Karakiewicz PI Abstract INTRODUCTION: In patients with muscle invasive or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin refractory urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) radical cystectomy represents the standard of care. However, a proportion of patient' experience disease progression, local recurrence and/or metastatic disease. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of available therapeutic strategies after radical cystectomy and examines ongoing clinical trials including cytotoxic chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Expert commentary: Cytotoxic chemother...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - February 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Multimodality treatment of operable gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: evaluating neoadjuvant, adjuvant and perioperative approaches.
Authors: Davidson M, Chau I Abstract INTRODUCTION: Treatment patterns for locally advanced operable gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinoma vary, with the optimal approach an area of debate within oncology. Strategies for treatment include a variety of neo-adjuvant, adjuvant and peri-operative regimens involving differing chemotherapy and radiotherapy combinations. Areas covered: This review will critically appraise the evidence base underpinning the main treatment approaches in operable oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma, highlighting variations in treatment by factors such as geographical area and primary tumor site....
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - February 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Does oophorectomy reduce breast cancer mortality for BRCA mutation carriers after breast cancer?
Authors: Jacobson M, Narod SA PMID: 29431530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - February 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Nivolumab for the treatment of urothelial cancers.
Authors: Teo MY, Rosenberg JE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Advanced urothelial cancer patients had limited therapeutic options following failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. The recognition that anti-PD1/PDL1 immune checkpoint inhibitors lead to dramatic and durable responses in a subset of patients has transformed the therapeutic landscape of these cancers. Since May 2016, five agents targeting this pathway have been approved by the US FDA, including the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab. Areas covered: The purpose of this paper was to review the safety, activity and efficacy of nivolumab, an anti-PD1 checkpoint inhibitor for...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Combined therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Iwama E, Nakanishi Y, Okamoto I Abstract INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have a pronounced clinical benefit for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) positive for EGFR activating mutations. Such individuals inevitably develop resistance to these drugs, however, new treatment strategies to overcome such resistance are being actively pursued. The clinical benefit of EGFR-TKIs for patients with locally advanced NSCLC remains to be clarified. Areas covered: This review summarizes the recent progress in combination treatment with EGFR-T...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Current approaches for identifying high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Authors: Sanli O, Lotan Y Abstract INTRODUCTION: Management of high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is challenging. It is vital to detect recurrences early and predict which tumors are likely to progress. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews the current approaches available for detection and surveillance of high risk NMIBCs. A literature review was utilized to evaluate risk factors for recurrence and progression as well as evaluating approaches including pathological aspects of NMIBC, molecular subtyping, methods for tumor visualization, urine cytology, urinary molecular markers, molecular tissue ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Indications, complications, and outcomes following surgical management of locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Authors: González J, Gaynor JJ, Alameddine M, Esteban M, Ciancio G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Surgery may set the basis for a potential cure or would provide the best achievable quality of life in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, survival extension with this approach would be scarce and not exempt from adverse events, thus preventing its recommendation in an already frail patient. An evidence based analysis on the role of surgery in each of the possible clinical scenarios involved under this heading may provide a clear picture on this issue and would be of value in the decisio...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Clinical challenges in de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Authors: Klein K, de Haas V, Kaspers GJL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although the prognosis of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (pAML) has improved, with current survival rates up to 75%, relapse rates remain high. Areas covered: The low number of patients, the heterogeneous genomic landscape of AML, novel diagnostic techniques, divergent available treatment protocols, and dose-limiting toxicity of conventional agents all contribute to the complexity of AML treatment. This review gives an overview of the current clinical challenges with respect to diagnostics, treatment, and supportive care in pAML. Expert Commentary: D...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.
Authors: Battaglin F, Puccini A, Intini R, Schirripa M, Ferro A, Bergamo F, Lonardi S, Zagonel V, Lenz HJ, Loupakis F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Angiogenesis is a complex process regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, thus the loss of its fine equilibrium plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Therapeutic agents targeting VEGF/VEGFR signaling, the main regulator of this process, proved to be effective across different treatment lines in metastatic CRC (mCRC) and contributed greatly to improve patients' survival in recent years. Areas covered: This review aimed to summar...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

A look at the progress of treating pancreatic cancer over the past 20 years.
Authors: Goess R, Friess H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is known to be the deadliest of all common cancers. Despite all efforts in pancreatic cancer treatment, the five-year survival rates at diagnosis over the past 20 years have only increased from 5% to 8%. Assuming that pancreatic cancer is going to become the second most frequent cause of cancer related death in the next 20 years, we are all encouraged to treat patients in clinical trials to gain improvements in this devastating disease. Areas covered: This review will provide a summary of pancreatic cancer treatment over the last 20 ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 29318907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Prophylactic mastectomy for BRCA mutation carriers after ovarian cancer treatment: is it beneficial?
Authors: Kotsopoulos J, Narod SA PMID: 29308680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - January 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab for the treatment of bladder cancer.
Authors: Sundahl N, Rottey S, De Maeseneer D, Ost P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Until recently, patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma after progression on cisplatin-containing chemotherapy had limited systemic treatment options with no significant survival benefit and poor tolerability. Advances in the field of immunotherapy with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors have led to paradigm shifts in the treatment of various malignancies. Areas covered: The current review will summarize the clinical evidence of checkpoint inhibitors in bladder cancer, with a focus on pembrolizumab. Expert co...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

How to use neoadjuvant medical treatment to maximize surgery in melanoma.
Authors: Amaral T, Tampouri I, Garbe C Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work is to discuss the role of neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma patients, namely the potential to improve control and surgical resectability of locoregional disease. Moreover, potential survival benefits for high-risk stage III and IV melanoma patients will be addressed. Areas covered: In this review, the different available neoadjuvant treatments including chemotherapy, bio-chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and local therapy will be presented and discussed. The PubMed published articles were identified and searched using the f...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The development of PARP as a successful target for cancer therapy.
Authors: Ferrara R, Simionato F, Ciccarese C, Grego E, Cingarlini S, Iacovelli R, Bria E, Tortora G, Melisi D Abstract INTRODUCTION: PARP1 and BRCA genes are essential genome caretakers and their interaction has been the first example of synthetic lethality, a genetic concept proposed in the early 20th century, but deeply explored in cancer patients only in the last decade. Areas covered: This review describes PARP1 and BRCA main functions and different roles in genome protection. Furthermore, an overview of the principle mechanisms of action and resistance to PARP inhibitors (PARPi) is presented. This review illus...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The evolution into personalized therapies in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: challenges and opportunities.
Authors: Tesfaye AA, Kamgar M, Azmi A, Philip PA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is projected to be the second leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States in 2030, with a 5-year overall survival of less than 10% despite decades of extensive research. Pancreatic cancer is marked by the accumulation of complex molecular changes, complex tumor-stroma interaction, and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. PDAC has proven to be resistant to many cytotoxic, targeted and immunologic treatment approaches. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the major areas of res...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Toxicity profile characteristics of novel androgen-deprivation therapy agents in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Both abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide have toxicity profile characteristics that need to be recognized. Understanding the toxicity profile characteristics of both drugs could promote decision making in clinical use. PMID: 29257709 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer: role of MUC16-mesothelin interaction and implications for treatment.
Authors: Coelho R, Marcos-Silva L, Ricardo S, Ponte F, Costa A, Lopes JM, David L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Peritoneal dissemination is a particular form of malignant progression in ovarian cancer, preceding hematogenic or lymphatic dissemination. Thus, prevention of peritoneal implantation of cancer cells is envisioned to inhibit neoplastic dissemination and therefore prolong disease remission and patient's survival. Areas covered: An extended review on the role of MUC16 (CA125) and mesothelin (MSLN), expressed in a high percentage of ovarian carcinomas, indicate that this duet is relevant for the contact between can...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Current and future immunotherapies for thyroid cancer.
Authors: Antonelli A, Ferrari SM, Fallahi P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cancer immunotherapies were approved in recent years, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Experience with ipilimumab (CTLA-4 antagonist), nivolumab and pembrolizumab (PD-1 antagonists), and atezolizumab (PD-L1 antagonist) has shown that the impact on overall survival in cancer patients is paramount. Immune checkpoint inhibitors target the immune system and they can be applied across multiple cancers; the response rate is ranging from 20 to 40%. Many studies have shown that thyroid cancer (TC) cells produce cytokines and chemokines, inducing seve...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 17, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in fertility preservation and counseling for female cancer patients.
Authors: Dolmans MM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ensuring quality of life for increasing numbers of women surviving cancer has become a key challenge. Patients need to be counseled on potential fertility loss resulting from gonadotoxic treatments, and referred to fertility specialists to discuss existing options and available results. Areas covered: Fertility preservation options have existed for over twenty years. The proposed fertility preservation approach depends on patient age, the urgency of required chemotherapy, and psychosocial factors such as financial concerns, especially in countries where techniques are not ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Liquid biopsies in gastrointestinal malignancies: when is the big day?
Authors: Lopez A, Harada K, Mizrak Kaya D, Dong X, Song S, Ajani JA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tumor tissue sample is currently the gold standard for diagnosing gastrointestinal cancers, but also for genomic/immune component analyses that can help in the selection of therapy. However, this approach of studying a 'representative' sample of the tumor does not address inherent heterogeneity. Liquid biopsies, mainly represented by circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, tumor exosomes, and microRNAs, have the potential to assess various biomarkers for early detection of cancer, carrying out genomic/immune profiling...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Current and future therapeutic approaches for osteosarcoma.
Authors: Harrison DJ, Geller DS, Gill JD, Lewis VO, Gorlick R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current treatment of osteosarcoma includes surgical resection of all gross disease in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy to control micro-metastatic disease. This yields a 5-year event free survival (EFS) of approximately 70% for patients with localized osteosarcoma while patients with metastatic or recurrent disease fare poorly with overall survival rates of less than 20%. Areas covered: This review outlines the current and future approach towards the treatment of osteosarcoma. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMe...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Emerging data on improving response to hormone therapy: the role of novel targeted agents.
Authors: Vidula N, Rugo HS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer represents the most common subtype of breast cancer. Metastatic HR+ breast cancer may develop resistance to standard hormone therapies, arising from genomic alterations in the estrogen receptor and/or upregulation of other signal transduction pathways. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss hormone resistance and strategies to overcome it, from the pre-clinical and clinical perspectives. This review includes a discussion of inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK 4/6, histone deacetylation, fibroblast growth factor recep...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Cardiovascular mortality trends in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a population-based cohort study.
Authors: Kamel MG, El-Qushayri AE, Thach TQ, Huy NT Abstract BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) survivors are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). METHODS: A population-based study was conducted to investigate the cardiovascular mortality trends to identify NHL survivors at the highest risk. RESULTS: The CVDs mortality was the second most common cause of death (13.07%) after NHL. There were more patients ≥ 60 years old in the cardiovascular group (87.2%), P
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer: a focus on ALK/ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Authors: Sgambato A, Casaluce F, Maione P, Gridelli C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 rearrangements define important molecular subgroups of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The identification of these genetic driver alterations created new potential for highly active therapeutic interventions. After discovery of ALK rearrangements in NSCLC, it was recognized that these confer sensitivity to ALK inhibition. Areas covered: Crizotinib, the first-in-class ALK/ROS1/MET inhibitor, was initially approved as second-line treatment of ALK-positive advanced NSCLC but after this, i...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Response to afatinib in treatment-na ïve patients with advanced mutant epidermal growth factor receptor lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastases.
CONCLUSION: Afatinib can provide therapeutic efficacy and a good response rate in treatment-naïve mutant-EGFR lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastases regardless of whether or not they also receive radiotherapy. PMID: 29172778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Role of chemotherapy and targeted therapy in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Nagasaka M, Gadgeel SM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy is accepted as standard of care in stage II and III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and is often considered in patients with stage IB disease who have tumors ≥ 4 cm. The survival advantage is modest with approximately 5% at 5 years. Areas covered: This review article presents relevant data regarding chemotherapy use in the perioperative setting for early stage NSCLC. A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed as well as clinical trial.gov. Randomized phase III studies in this setting including adjuvant...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Challenging a dogma: five-year survival does not equal cure in all colorectal cancer patients.
Authors: Abdel-Rahman O Abstract BACKGROUND: The current study tried to evaluate the factors affecting 10- to 20- years' survival among long term survivors (>5 years) of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to examine if risk of death from CRC beyond five years varies based on baseline characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2008) was queried through SEER*Stat program. Univariate probability of overall and cancer-specific survival was determined by the life tables' option of the SPSS and the difference between groups was examined through Wilcoxon (Gehan)...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in the management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Authors: Karakas Y, Lacin S, Yalcin S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer (PC) demonstrates very poor prognosis and its incidence continues to increase, despite developments in chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapies. Surgical resection is currently the only curative approach for PC. The role of radiotherapy in adjuvant and locally advanced PC continues to be increasingly controversial. This review article aims to explore the current knowledge of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, focusing on diagnosis, treatment strategies, and the best supportive care. Areas covered: The current literature on pancreatic a...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Pregnancy and live birth after successful cancer treatment in young women: the need to improve fertility preservation and advice for female cancer patients.
Authors: Anderson RA, Wallace WHB PMID: 29125369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Incorporating age into international germ cell consensus classification (IGCCC): a time to move forward?
Authors: Abdel-Rahman O PMID: 29115166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New targets and therapies for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Authors: Wozniak A, Gebreyohannes YK, Debiec-Rychter M, Schöffski P Abstract INTRODUCTION: The majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are driven by an abnormal receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, occurring mainly due to somatic mutations in KIT or platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). Although the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized therapy for GIST patients, with time the vast majority of them develop TKI resistance. Advances in understanding the molecular background of GIST resistance allows for the identification of new targets and the dev...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Optimizing treatment in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
Authors: Corrado G, Salutari V, Palluzzi E, Distefano MG, Scambia G, Ferrandina G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Optimal management of recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) remains an area of uncertainty. An estimated 85% of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who achieve a full remission following first-line therapy will develop recurrent disease and median survival for these patients' ranges from 12 months to 24 months. Many patients receive several lines of treatment following recurrence and, although each subsequent line of therapy is characterized by shorter disease-free intervals, decisions about the most appropriate tr...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - November 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The liquid biopsy: a tool for a combined diagnostic and theranostic approach for care of a patient with late-stage lung carcinoma presenting with bilateral ocular metastases.
This article reports the diagnosis of a NSCLC in a non-smoker patient with bilateral ocular metastases after detection of a deletion in exon 19 of EGFR when using plasma DNA. Detection of this mutation thereby resulted in treatment with TKI. Without histological analysis, the origin of the primary ocular metastasis was uncertain. In this context, a LB showing an activating mutation in EGFR and circulating tumor cells positive for TTF1 led to the diagnosis of NSCLC and targeted therapy. Expert commentary: When no tumor tissue sample is available a LB can be used to diagnose for metastatic NSCLC, when a mutation in EGFR is i...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy for solid tumors require new clinical regimens.
Authors: Xu J, Tian K, Zhang H, Li L, Liu H, Liu J, Zhang Q, Zheng J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) therapy has achieved encouraging breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Nevertheless, this success has not yet been extrapolated to solid tumors. This review focuses on new clinical regimens that could improve the therapeutic efficacy of CAR-T in solid tumors. Areas covered: Herein, the authors reviewed recent clinical trials using CAR-T therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. Specifically, this review covered the following areas: (1) the current s...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Prognostic value of the combination of serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, C-reactive protein and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in patients with primary liver cancer who underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that high serum levels of both VEGF and CRP in addition to a low time-to-peak (TTP) value in CEUS were indicators for poor prognosis in PLC patients. PMID: 29048943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Screening of colorectal cancer: present and future.
Authors: Maida M, Macaluso FS, Ianiro G, Mangiola F, Sinagra E, Hold G, Maida C, Cammarota G, Gasbarrini A, Scarpulla G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in males and second in females, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, about 60-70% of diagnosed cases in symptomatic patients are detected at an advanced stage of disease. Earlier stage detection through the use of screening strategies would allow for better outcomes in terms of reducing the disease burden. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review the current published evidence ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and gastrointestinal stromal tumor as models for targeted therapy in soft tissue sarcomas.
Authors: Koseła-Paterczyk H, Rutkowski P Abstract INTRODUCTION: The development of novel targeted treatment in soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is important since many sarcoma subtypes are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and effective therapeutic options are limited. Areas covered: This review discusses the molecular background and treatment in two STS types which became a model for targeted therapy - gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). DFSP is characterized, in the majority of cases, by chromosomal translocation which results in the formation of COL1A1-PDGFB fusion g...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors rechallenge in solid tumors: a review of literature and a case description with lenvatinib in thyroid cancer.
We report the case of a patient with a RAI refractory advanced DTC, treated with lenvatinib after surgery, multiple RAI administrations, traditional chemotherapy, and sorafenib. During treatment with lenvatinib, a noticeable response was detected by sequential computed tomography scans but, after 27 months, tumor progression became evident and led to lenvatinib interruption. In absence of any active treatment, a further disease progression was documented, and lenvatinib was re-administered obtaining a new objective response. Starting from this case report, we review available reports about the rechallenge with TKIs in soli...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging in the early detection of prostate cancer and review of the literature on magnetic resonance imaging-stratified clinical pathways.
Authors: Shah TT, To WKL, Ahmed HU Abstract INTRODUCTION: With level 1 evidence now available on the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we must now utilise this data in developing an MRI-stratified diagnostic pathway for the early detection of prostate cancer. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted and identified seven randomised control trials (RCT's) assessing the diagnostic accuracy of such a pathway against the previously accepted systematic/random trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy pathway. The studies were heterogeneous in their design. Five studies ass...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Post-prostatectomy radiation therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer.
In this study, we review the evidence for the adjuvant and salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy. Areas covered: A literature review of the Medline and Embase databases was performed. The search strategy included the following terms: prostate cancer, adjuvant radiotherapy, salvage radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy, biochemical recurrence, and prostate cancer recurrence. Prospective randomized trials for the adjuvant radiotherapy and observational studies supporting salvage radiotherapy were included for discussion. Expert commentary: As postoperative radiotherapy is associated with non-trivial risks of ac...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Minimum unit pricing for alcohol: the most cost-effective of cancer prevention strategies?
Authors: Stockwell T PMID: 28929817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the prognosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results which, based on a cohort study, indicate that CIN is associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID: 28910204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An analysis of clinical characteristics and patient outcomes in primary mediastinal sarcomas.
This study reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of these cases from the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database. METHODS: Primary mediastinal sarcomas, diagnosed from 1988 to 2013 were assembled from the SEER database. The incidence and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were compared to other primary mediastinal malignancies (thymic carcinomas, germ cell tumors, neurogenic tumors, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) as well as to non-mediastinal sarcomas. Cox-proportional hazard models were utilized to produce multivariate analyses for factors affecting overall survival among primary media...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Risk-reduction and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
We present an overview of CIPN pathophysiology, clinical assessment, prevention and treatment identified through a Pubmed search. Expert commentary: No substantial progress has been made in the last few years within the field of prevention and/or treatment of CIPN, in spite of remarkable efforts. Continuous research could expand our knowledge about chemotherapeutic-specific neuropathic pathways and eventually lead to the conception of innovative and targeted agents for the prevention and/or treatment of this debilitating chemotherapy adverse effect. PMID: 28868935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Rev...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Application of the American Society of Clinical Oncology frameworks to compare tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in first line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Had we solved the mystery?
Authors: Ahmed SH, Elbaghdady N, Alorabi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The approval of multiple biological therapies as a first line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the last decade have led to the selection of the best treatment between these drugs, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), a great challenge to oncologists and patients. The four TKIs recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines in this setting have a relatively similar mechanism of action and analogical adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, the two published American Society of Clinical Oncolo...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New surgical approaches for clinically high-risk or metastatic prostate cancer.
Authors: Dell'Oglio P, Stabile A, Gandaglia G, Zaffuto E, Fossati N, Bandini M, Suardi N, Karakiewicz PI, Shariat SF, Montorsi F, Briganti A Abstract INTRODUCTION: A considerable number of individuals with prostate cancer (PCa) still harbor locally-advanced and metastatic disease. Although such men were initially not considered eligible for local treatment, the role of radical prostatectomy (RP) has been recently reassessed. Areas covered: This review analyses currently published evidences regarding new surgical approaches for clinically high-risk PCa individuals, as well as the role of cytoreductive surgery in the...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Olaratumab for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma.
This article reviews the development of olaratumab for oncology use by reviewing articles in PubMed for 'platelet derived growth factor' and 'receptor' and 'soft tissue sarcoma'. We provide an overview of the published studies to date for olaratumab and specifically the use in soft tissue sarcoma. Expert commentary: Olaratumab is a well-tolerated drug that, when combined with doxorubicin, has shown an improved overall survival compared to doxorubicin alone and the phase III confirmatory study is eagerly awaited. PMID: 28862476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research