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Magnetic resonance imaging in the early detection of prostate cancer and review of the literature on magnetic resonance imaging-stratified clinical pathways.
Authors: Shah TT, To WKL, Ahmed HU Abstract INTRODUCTION: With level 1 evidence now available on the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we must now utilise this data in developing an MRI-stratified diagnostic pathway for the early detection of prostate cancer. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted and identified seven randomised control trials (RCT's) assessing the diagnostic accuracy of such a pathway against the previously accepted systematic/random trans-rectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) biopsy pathway. The studies were heterogeneous in their design. Five studies ass...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Post-prostatectomy radiation therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer.
In this study, we review the evidence for the adjuvant and salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy. Areas covered: A literature review of the Medline and Embase databases was performed. The search strategy included the following terms: prostate cancer, adjuvant radiotherapy, salvage radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy, biochemical recurrence, and prostate cancer recurrence. Prospective randomized trials for the adjuvant radiotherapy and observational studies supporting salvage radiotherapy were included for discussion. Expert commentary: As postoperative radiotherapy is associated with non-trivial risks of ac...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Minimum unit pricing for alcohol: the most cost-effective of cancer prevention strategies?
Authors: Stockwell T PMID: 28929817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the prognosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results which, based on a cohort study, indicate that CIN is associated with improved survival in patients with colorectal cancer. However, further randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID: 28910204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An analysis of clinical characteristics and patient outcomes in primary mediastinal sarcomas.
This study reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of these cases from the SEER (surveillance, epidemiology and end results) database. METHODS: Primary mediastinal sarcomas, diagnosed from 1988 to 2013 were assembled from the SEER database. The incidence and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were compared to other primary mediastinal malignancies (thymic carcinomas, germ cell tumors, neurogenic tumors, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) as well as to non-mediastinal sarcomas. Cox-proportional hazard models were utilized to produce multivariate analyses for factors affecting overall survival among primary media...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Risk-reduction and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
We present an overview of CIPN pathophysiology, clinical assessment, prevention and treatment identified through a Pubmed search. Expert commentary: No substantial progress has been made in the last few years within the field of prevention and/or treatment of CIPN, in spite of remarkable efforts. Continuous research could expand our knowledge about chemotherapeutic-specific neuropathic pathways and eventually lead to the conception of innovative and targeted agents for the prevention and/or treatment of this debilitating chemotherapy adverse effect. PMID: 28868935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Rev...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Application of the American Society of Clinical Oncology frameworks to compare tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in first line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Had we solved the mystery?
Authors: Ahmed SH, Elbaghdady N, Alorabi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The approval of multiple biological therapies as a first line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the last decade have led to the selection of the best treatment between these drugs, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), a great challenge to oncologists and patients. The four TKIs recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines in this setting have a relatively similar mechanism of action and analogical adverse events. Areas covered: In this article, the two published American Society of Clinical Oncolo...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New surgical approaches for clinically high-risk or metastatic prostate cancer.
Authors: Dell'Oglio P, Stabile A, Gandaglia G, Zaffuto E, Fossati N, Bandini M, Suardi N, Karakiewicz PI, Shariat SF, Montorsi F, Briganti A Abstract INTRODUCTION: A considerable number of individuals with prostate cancer (PCa) still harbor locally-advanced and metastatic disease. Although such men were initially not considered eligible for local treatment, the role of radical prostatectomy (RP) has been recently reassessed. Areas covered: This review analyses currently published evidences regarding new surgical approaches for clinically high-risk PCa individuals, as well as the role of cytoreductive surgery in the...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Olaratumab for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma.
This article reviews the development of olaratumab for oncology use by reviewing articles in PubMed for 'platelet derived growth factor' and 'receptor' and 'soft tissue sarcoma'. We provide an overview of the published studies to date for olaratumab and specifically the use in soft tissue sarcoma. Expert commentary: Olaratumab is a well-tolerated drug that, when combined with doxorubicin, has shown an improved overall survival compared to doxorubicin alone and the phase III confirmatory study is eagerly awaited. PMID: 28862476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Binimetinib for the treatment of NRAS-mutant melanoma.
Authors: Queirolo P, Spagnolo F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Activating NRAS mutations occur in approximately 15-20% of melanomas and are the second most common oncogenic driver mutation in this disease, after BRAF mutations. There is an unmet medical need for new targeted therapy opportunities in metastatic patients whose tumors harbor an NRAS mutation. Binimetinib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, has shown clinical activity in this group of patients. Areas covered: The purpose of this paper was to review the safety, activity and efficacy of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib for the treatment of N...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Genetic testing in women with breast cancer: implications for treatment.
Authors: Paterson R, Phillips KA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mutations in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are responsible for approximately 42,000 cases of breast cancer annually. Identifying these germline mutations in a woman with breast cancer is important because it can influence her immediate and long-term management and has important implications for other family members. Areas covered: This review highlights how treatment-focussed genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations can potentially influence cancer treatment and secondary prevention decisions in women with breast cancer. Expert commentary: Testing women...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Castration-na ïve metastatic prostate cancer: reshaping old paradigms.
Castration-naïve metastatic prostate cancer: reshaping old paradigms. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2017 Aug 31;: Authors: Ratta R, Grassi P, Fucà G, Verzoni E, Procopio G PMID: 28854837 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Second-line treatments of small-cell lung cancers.
Authors: Baize N, Monnet I, Greillier L, Quere G, Kerjouan M, Janicot H, Vergnenegre A, Auliac JB, Chouaid C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Second-line therapies for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients remain a challenge, with limited clinical benefit because of rapid tumor growth, early dissemination and the development of drug resistance during the disease. Recent developments in genomic sequencing have provided further insight into the biology of the disease, identifying new targets and new pathways. Areas covered: This review details chemotherapy, targeted therapies and immune-checkpoint blockades that have...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
This article reviews the clinical rationale for using PBT for HCC patients and clinical outcome and toxicity data from retrospective and prospective studies. PBT-specific technical challenges for these tumors and appropriate selection of patients to be treated with PBT are discussed. Expert commentary: Local control, overall survival, and toxicity results are promising for liver PBT. Future studies, including ongoing randomized cooperative group trials, will aim to determine the incremental benefit of PBT over photons and which patients are most suitable for PBT. PMID: 28825506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sour...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Current challenges in optimizing systemic therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer: expert perspectives from the Australian gastrointestinal trials group with invited international faculty.
This article collates the evidence upon which current best practice is based and offers an expert opinion from an international faculty on how latest developments should influence current treatment paradigms. Areas covered: Optimal chemotherapy for first and subsequent lines of therapy; optimal management of locally advanced, non-metastatic cancer including the role of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy, current evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy, major advances in pancreatic cancer genomics and challenges in supportive care particularly relevant to patients with pancreatic cancer. For each section, literature was reviewed by...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Evaluating the addition of oxaliplatin to single agent fluoropyrimidine in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: There is no OS benefit with oxaliplatin, despite improved pCR, local and distant RR. Before drawing definitive conclusions, longer follow-up in included trials and availability of published data from other eligible studies, including the induction setting, are needed. PMID: 28819989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Improving postoperative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy.
Authors: Lipman D, Pieters BR, de Reijke TM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has one of the highest incidences in the world, with good curative treatment options like radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, about 30% of the patients initially treated with curative intent will develop a recurrence and need adjuvant treatment. Five randomized trials covered the role of postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, but there is still a lot of debate about which patients should receive postoperative radiotherapy. Areas covered: This review will give an overview on the available literature...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Anti-GD2 immunotherapy for neuroblastomas.
Authors: Sait S, Modak SI Abstract INTRODUCTION: Current therapeutic approaches for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) include high-dose chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy; interventions that are associated with long and short-term toxicities. Effective immunotherapy holds particular promise for improving survival and quality of life by reducing exposure to cytotoxic agents. GD2, a surface glycolipid is the most common target for immunotherapy. Areas covered: We review the status of anti-GD2 immunotherapies currently in clinical use for neuroblastomas and novel GD2-targeted strategies in preclinical development. E...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of novel biomarker HE4 in the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of ovarian cancer: a systematic review.
Authors: Scaletta G, Plotti F, Luvero D, Capriglione S, Montera R, Miranda A, Lopez S, Terranova C, De Cicco Nardone C, Angioli R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers, in fact,>80% of cases are diagnosed as advanced-stage disease associated with a high mortality rate (
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of external beam radiation therapy in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
Authors: Hamilton SN, Tran E, Berthelet E, Wu J Abstract dglkf Introduction: This review article explores the use of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in well differentiated thyroid cancer. Areas covered: The published literature on EBRT for advanced pT4 disease and macroscopic unresectable disease to improve locoregional control is reviewed. EBRT techniques, volumes and doses are discussed in detail. The potential acute and late toxicities of EBRT are discussed in the context of the published literature. The use of EBRT for patients with metastatic disease is also described. Expert commentary: There is good retros...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery for limited brain metastases: are we ready for prime time?
Authors: Lo SS, Brown PD, Foote M, Chao ST, Chang EL, Sahgal A PMID: 28737065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA in metastatic prostate cancer: a review.
Authors: Parimi S, Ko JJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has changed dramatically over the past five years. As new discoveries are made and further novel therapies become available, there is a heightened urgency to develop biomarkers that can guide prognoses and predict therapy responses. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the blood have emerged as potential promising tumor avatars. Areas covered: In this review, we describe technological breakthroughs and clinical implementation of the CTCs and ctDNA. We also discuss the key ch...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Immunotherapy advances for mesothelioma treatment.
Authors: Bakker E, Guazzelli A, Ashtiani F, Demonacos C, Krstic-Demonacos M, Mutti L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that is strongly tied to asbestos exposure. Despite application of different modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, patient prognosis remains very poor and therapies are ineffective. Much research currently focuses on the application of novel approaches such as immunotherapy towards this disease. Areas Covered: The types, stages and aetiology of mesothelioma are detailed, followed by a discussion of the current treatment options such as radiotherapy, s...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Applications of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Authors: Hornung M, Werner JM, Schlitt HJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) plays a pivotal role in the current treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC). Since the first demonstration, benefits for patients and especially an increase in survival have been described. In recent years, feasibility, efficacy and safety of HIPEC have been improved and progress has been made in understanding its oncological mechanism. Areas Covered: In this article, leading publications have been reviewed including clinical tr...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Molecular approaches to potentiate cisplatin responsiveness in carcinoma therapeutics.
Authors: Jain A, Jahagirdar D, Nilendu P, Sharma NK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cisplatin has been considered as the crucial regimen of widely prescribed chemotherapy treatment for cancer. The advancing treatment of cancers has reached the border line, where tumors show resistance to cisplatin and may thwart its use. Other than issues of drug resistance, cisplatin has been reported to evince side effects such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Therefore, there is a compelling need to untangle the problems associated with cisplatin treatment in carcinoma. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the current status of ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Overcoming resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer, focusing on non-T790M mechanisms.
Authors: Suda K, Rivard CJ, Mitsudomi T, Hirsch FR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite initial dramatic efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients, emergence of acquired resistance is almost inevitable. The EGFR T790M secondary mutation that accounts for ~50% of resistance is now treatable with osimertinib. However, for the remaining 50% of patients who develop resistance mechanisms other than T790M mutation, cytotoxic chemotherapies are still the standard of care and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss current experimental...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis among patients with breast cancer receiving cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Lasheen S, Shohdy KS, Kassem L, Abdel-Rahman O Abstract BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors emerge as efficacious agents in hormone positive metastatic breast cancer with more acceptable toxicity profiles than cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, some adverse effects such as fatigue, alopecia and stomatitis, vastly concern patients. METHODS: The search was conducted in PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting library, European Society for Medical Oncology meeting abstract, and the San Antonio meeting abstract databases. We identified phase 2 or 3 trials recruiting patients wit...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The cost and value of glioblastoma therapy.
Authors: Cagney DN, Alexander BM PMID: 28689438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances in targeted advanced lung cancer therapy in the elderly.
Authors: Losanno T, Gridelli C Abstract INTRODUCTION: With increasing life expectancy over the last several decades, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in the elderly population too. In clinical practice about 50% of lung cancers were diagnosed in patients older than 65 years and about 30-40% of lung cancer patients are 70 years old or more. Treatment of elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a challenge in clinical practice, because these patients are not eligible for aggressive therapies for the age-related reduction of functional reserve of many organs and comorbidities. Area...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Phthalocyanine induced phototherapy coupled with Doxorubicin; a promising novel treatment for breast cancer.
Authors: Aniogo EC, George BPA, Abrahamse H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Globally, breast cancer is the most common life-threatening malignant disease among women. Adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment of anthracycline-based chemotherapy (e.g., doxorubicin) has been shown to be more advantageous over non-anthracycline-based therapies, yet possess the tenacity of developing resistance and potential side effects which have limited its use in the clinical setting. These reasons necessitate combining doxorubicin with emerging photodynamic treatment regimens. Areas covered: In this review, the authors have concisely explained d...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Neratinib for the treatment of HER2-positive early stage breast cancer.
Authors: Echavarria I, López-Tarruella S, Márquez-Rodas I, Jerez Y, Martin M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the advances in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, resistance to actual chemotherapeutic regimens eventually occurs. Neratinib, an orally available pan-inhibitor of the ERBB family, represents an interesting new option for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Areas covered: In this article, the development of neratinib, with a special focus on its potential value in the treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, has been reviewed. For this purpose, a literature search w...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New targeted therapies for relapsed pediatric lymphoblastic leukemia.
NEW TARGETED THERAPIES FOR RELAPSED PEDIATRIC LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2017 Jun 25;: Authors: Pierro J, Hogan LE, Bhatla T, Carroll WL Abstract INTRODUCTION: The improvement in outcomes for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the greatest success stories of modern oncology however the prognosis for patients who relapse remains dismal. Recent discoveries by high resolution genomic technologies have characterized the biology of relapsed leukemia, most notably pathways leading to the drug resistant phenotype. These observations open the possibility of targ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The safety and efficacy of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
Authors: Ettl J, Harbeck N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Palbociclib (Ibrance(®)) is the first-in-class CDK4/6 inhibitor which has been introduced into clinical practice for the treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). It is an orally administered drug, which acts by selectively inhibiting cyclin-dependant kinases CDK4 and CDK6. Given together with anti-estrogens like letrozole and fulvestrant it enhances the antiproliferative effect of these drugs without compromising the favorable toxicity profile of endocrine therapy. Areas...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Cabozantinib for the treatment of kidney cancer.
Authors: Abdelaziz A, Vaishampayan U Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cabozantinib is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that initially showed activity in medullary thyroid cancer and was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma after progression on first line therapy. Areas Covered: In the METEOR trial, cabozantinib demonstrated significantly improved efficacy in all three endpoints; response rates, progression free survival and overall survival in a randomized trial with everolimus as an active comparator. Cabozantinib also showed activity in the fro...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

New Advances in Focal Therapy for Early Stage Prostate Cancer.
Authors: Tay KJ, Schulman AA, Sze C, Tsivian E, Polascik TJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prostate focal therapy offers men the opportunity to achieve oncological control while preserving sexual and urinary function. The prerequisites for successful focal therapy are to accurately identify, localize and completely ablate the clinically significant cancer(s) within the prostate. We aim to evaluate the evidence for current and upcoming technologies that could shape the future of prostate cancer focal therapy in the next five years. Areas Covered: Current literature on advances in patient selection using imaging, biopsy and ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Liver-directed therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.
This article reviews the liver-directed therapeutic strategies available for the management of metastatic liver disease including hepatic arterial infusion therapy, radiofrequency ablation, radiation therapy and transarterial chemoembolization. Expert Commentary: Great advances have been made with the use of liver directed therapies. In the USA using hepatic arterial infusions with FUDR and Decadron along with systemic therapy, 5 year survivals after liver resection have improved. In Europe with the use of HAI of Oxaliplatin, more patients have been able to get to resection and have obtained higher survival rates, even in ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 23, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Risk of cardiac death among cancer survivors in the United States; a SEER database analysis.
Authors: Abdel-Rahman O Abstract PURPOSE: Population-based data on the risk of cardiac death among cancer survivors are needed. This scenario was evaluated in cancer survivors (>5 years) registered within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. METHODS: The SEER database was queried using the SEER*Stat program to determine the frequency of cardiac death compared to other causes of death and to determine heart disease-specific and cancer-specific survival rates in each of the 10 most common cancers in men and women in the SEER database (including colorectal, lung, breast, prostate, ute...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Eribulin in advanced liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
Authors: Setola E, Noujaim J, Benson C, Chawla S, Palmerini E, Jones RL Abstract INTRODUCTION: The heterogeneity of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) presents a formidable management challenge. Consequently, one of the main research goals is to define specific tailored therapy for each histological subtype and to develop a more personalised approach to treatment. The standard first line chemotherapy for advanced STS is doxorubicin, with or without ifosfamide, however, a number of different drugs are emerging as active therapies beyond first-line. Areas covered: Eribulin has recently been approved for advanced liposarcoma,...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

L-asparaginase for newly diagnosed extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: ASP-based CT significantly improved ORR and CR in patients with newly diagnosed both early-stage and advanced-stage ENKTL. PMID: 28621166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Down-regulation of liver-intestine cadherin enhances noscapine-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We inferred that down-expression of extrinsic CDH17 gene can conspicuously promote apoptosis-inducing effects of noscapine on human colon cancer SW480 cells, which is a novel strategy to improve chemotherapeutic effects on colon cancer. PMID: 28622054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 19, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Limiting the morbidity of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy in vulvar cancer patients; a review.
Authors: Pouwer AW, Arts HJ, van der Velden J, de Hullu JA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (IFL) is performed in the treatment for vulvar cancer. One or more complications after IFL is reported in up to 85% of the patients. This review presents an overview of surgical techniques and peri- and post-operative care that has been studied in order to reduce the morbidity associated with IFL in vulvar cancer patients. Areas covered: Current knowledge on post-operative complications after different surgical techniques and peri- and post-operative protocols were discussed. A systematic literature revi...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Identifying clinical risk in low grade gliomas and appropriate treatment strategies, with special emphasis on the role of surgery.
Authors: Boissonneau S, Duffau H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is a chronic tumoral disease that ineluctably grows, migrates along white matter pathways, and progresses to a higher grade of malignancy. Areas covered: To determine the best individualized treatment attitude for each DLGG patient, and to redefine it over the years, i.e. to optimize the "onco-functional balance" of serial and multimodal therapies, the understanding of the natural history of this chronic disease is crucial but not sufficient. A paradigmatic shift is to tailor the individual management according to the ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitors in advanced melanoma: effect on the field of immunotherapy.
Authors: O'Reilly A, Larkin J Abstract INTRODUCTION: The success of the immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma has reinvigorated the field of immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are now the standard of care in multiple cancer types including lung cancer, head and neck cancer, urothelial cancer and renal cell cancer. The field of immunotherapy is currently expanding rapidly and will be a focus of research and development for decades to come. Areas covered: This review covers the early development of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the changes that occurred in the drug development paradigm to facilitate th...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 13, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

MUC1 induces tamoxifen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Authors: Merikhian P, Ghadirian R, Farahmand L, Mansouri S, Majidzadeh-A K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen, as an essential therapeutic tool in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has been available for the past three decades and is currently being utilized as a chemo-preventive agent for patients at high risk for breast carcinoma. However, the induction of chemo-resistance during therapy has indicated a significant challenge with regards to this agent. Areas covered: This review enumerates the role of MUC1-C proto-oncogene in tamoxifen resistance and describes a number of signaling pathways...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Impact of tumor size on the outcome of patients with small renal cell carcinoma.
This study aims to establish a potential correlation between tumor size and outcomes in patients with T1a kidney cancer registered within the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database. METHODS: The SEER database (2004-2013) has been accessed through the SEER*Stat program to determine the correlation between tumor size and kidney cancer-specific survival in patients with T1a kidney cancer. Survival analysis was conducted through the Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing. RESULTS: A total of 38,264 patients with T1a kidney cancer were identified in the period from 2004-2013. Five-year kidney can...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

First-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.
CONCLUSIONS: Systemic pemetrexed plus cisplatin is active for MPeM. Disparity with the outcome of cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) needs to receive more emphasis, since peritoneal mesothelioma has a 5-year survival rate of 50%. PMID: 28594258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Regorafenib for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Rimassa L, Pressiani T, Personeni N, Santoro A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sorafenib is the standard of care for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and well preserved liver function. However, until recent approval of regorafenib by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), no effective therapeutic options were available for patients resistant to sorafenib. Areas covered: The present article reviews the preclinical and clinical data of regorafenib, putting them into the context of current and future landscape of treatment options for patients with HCC. Recently, the randomized, placebo-controlle...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Anticancer Treatments and Female Fertility: Clinical Concerns and Role of Oncologists in Oncofertility Practice.
This article reviews the effects of anticancer treatments on female fertility and discusses the current challenges and future directions of fertility preservation options that can be offered to the female patients with cancer. Expert Commentary: Although promising, several medical, economic, social and legal barriers face oncofertility practice around the globe especially in underserved areas. To overcome such barriers, more effective solutions should be provided to spread awareness and enhance communication between patients, oncologists and gynecologists. Early referral by oncologists before initiation of chemotherapy and...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 27, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Tackling non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: special considerations in treatment.
Authors: Anantharaman A, Small EJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PCa) is currently the second most common cancer affecting men worldwide. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is the incurable form of PCa, carrying the poorest prognosis, and can develop from non-metastatic CRPC (M0 CRPC). CRPC is defined as progression of the disease with castrate level testosterone levels, achieved with primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). M0 CRPC is a highly heterogeneous disease process lacking clear standard of care therapies. Areas covered: In this review, a broad literature search was underta...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The use of systemic therapies to prevent progression of inflammatory breast cancer: which targeted therapies to add on cytotoxic combinations?
Authors: Gonçalves A, Monneur A, Viens P, Bertucci F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare but frequently fatal disease, essentially because of its high ability to develop distant metastases. Even though the prognosis of IBC was significantly improved by multimodal management, including the systematic use of cytotoxic-based induction, the prognosis remains largely dismal. Areas covered: This review presents the main achievements in the systemic treatment of IBC during the past 30 years. It focuses more specifically on recent results obtained with targeted therapies, including anti-HER2 ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research