Cabozantinib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Personeni N, Rimassa L, Pressiani T, Smiroldo V, Santoro A Abstract Introduction: The randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III CELESTIAL trial demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvement in overall survival with cabozantinib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Most frequently reported adverse events included palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, hypertension, increased aspartate aminotransferase, fatigue, and diarrhea. Areas covered: In this review we analyze and discuss preclinical and clinical data of cabozantinib. We summarize e...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The evolving role of maintenance therapy following autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.
Authors: Merz AMA, Merz M, Hillengass J, Holstein SA, McCarthy P Abstract Introduction: Maintenance therapy after autologous transplantation is a standard of care in newly diagnosed myeloma. However, there is no universal answer to the question of which maintenance strategy should be pursued after ASCT? Areas covered: We conducted a MEDLINE search using the medical subject headings 'multiple myeloma', 'autologous transplantation' and 'maintenance' to identify available data from clinical trials on the role of different maintenance strategies after autologous transplantation for the newly diagnosed disease. Expert o...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An evidence-based analysis of the management of N0 neck in patients with cancer of the parotid gland.
Authors: Vartanian JG, Gonçalves Filho J, Kowalski LP, Shah JP, Suárez C, Rinaldo A, De Bree R, Rodrigo JP, Hamoir M, Takes RP, Mäkitie AA, Zbären P, Andreasen S, Poorten VV, Sanabria A, Hellquist H, Robbins KT, Bödeker CC, Silver C, Ferlito A Abstract Introduction: Management of clinically negative neck (cN0) in patients with parotid gland cancer is controversial. Treatment options can include observation, elective neck dissection or elective radiotherapy. Areas covered: We addressed the treatment options for cN0 patients with parotid gland cancer. A literature review was undertaken to...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Death and the miser: microbiota regulate the outcome of checkpoint inhibition immunotherapy.
Authors: Rijkers GT, Andriessen SQ, van Overveld FJ PMID: 31592683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Have treatment protocols for primary CNS lymphoma advanced in the past 10 years.
Authors: Seidel S, Schlegel U Abstract Introduction: Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) are highly aggressive tumors and optimal treatment is not yet defined. For the last two decades clinical trials have focused on developing efficient chemotherapy protocols with or without dose reduced radiation to avoid late cognitive decline after whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Areas covered: This review addresses the question if these substantial developments have led to clinically relevant therapeutic improvement for PCNSL within the last decade. Expert opinion: The high risk of neurotoxic side effects of WBRT was further substa...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Can CDK4/6 inhibitors cause fatal lung injury?
Authors: Jazieh KA, Budd GT, Dalpiaz N, Abraham J PMID: 31566017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - October 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Erdafitinib for the treatment of urothelial cancer.
Authors: Marandino L, Raggi D, Giannatempo P, Farè E, Necchi A Abstract Introduction: Fibroblast growth-factor receptor (FGFR) inhibition is a promising strategy of treatment in urothelial cancer (UC). FGFR3 mutations or fusions (mut/fus) are common in luminal-1 UC subtype, which exhibits poor responses to immunotherapy. Erdafitinib is a potent and selective pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Based on the results of the phase 2 BLC2001 trial (NCT02365597), in which erdafitinib showed an overall response rate of 40% in metastatic UC with FGFR3 mut/fus, it is the first approved targeted therapy in metastatic ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The use of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric malignancies.
We describe the most current intraperitoneal chemotherapy opportunities in the treatment of gastric cancer: hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), laparoscopic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (LHIPEC), neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy (NIPS), LHIPEC + NIPS, extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage (EIPL), early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC), and pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC). Expert opinion: Comprehensive treatment consisting of CRS combined with perioperative intraperitoneal/systemic chemotherapy can, today, be consi...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Liquid biopsies in pancreatic cancer.
Authors: Kamyabi N, Bernard V, Maitra A Abstract Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease of near uniform lethality. Invasive tissue biopsies of primary or metastatic lesions remain the gold standard for diagnosis, but repeated sampling is infeasible. Non-invasive liquid biopsies, which better represent the heterogeneity of PDAC, offer new opportunities for early diagnosis during surveillance in high-risk cohorts, and for the longitudinal analysis of tumor evolution and progression in patients on therapy. In particular, liquid biopsies can capture tumor-associated components, such as circu...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Tumour heterogeneity: does it matter?
Authors: Turnquist C, Watson RA, Protheroe A, Verrill C, Sivakumar S Abstract Introduction: It has long been recognised that tumours are composed of a mosaic of cells and numerous methods have been developed to detect tumour heterogeneity, including in situ hybridisation, multi-regional sampling, cytological assays, and whole genome and single cell sequencing. Using these methods, heterogeneity has been observed at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic level in numerous cancers. With the advent of deep sequencing technology, we now appreciate a greater complexity of distinct genotypes and phenotypes that drive th...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Controversies in locoregional management of breast cancer with low volume pN0(i+) and pN1mi nodal disease.
Authors: Dosani M, Truong PT Abstract Introduction: The pathologic status of the axillary lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer. With the transition from axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for patients with clinically node negative breast cancer, there has been an increase in detection of pN0(i+) breast cancer with isolated tumor cells and pN1mi disease with micrometastatic nodal involvement. The prognostic impact of small volume nodal involvement and the role of locoregional radiotherapy, especially in the era of modern systemic therapy...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An update on genetic risk assessment and prevention: the role of genetic testing panels in breast cancer.
Authors: Piccinin C, Panchal S, Watkins N, Kim RH Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the past five years, multi-gene panels have replaced the practice of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing in cases of suspected inherited breast cancer susceptibility. A variety of genes have been included on these panels without certainty of their clinical utility. Pertinent current and historical literature was reviewed to provide an up-to-date snapshot of the changing landscape of the use of gene panel tests in the context of breast cancer. Areas covered: Following a recent review of the evidence, ten genes have been found to have definitive ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Therapeutic approaches for lymph node involvement in prostate, bladder and kidney cancer.
Authors: Stabile A, Muttin F, Zamboni S, Moschini M, Gandaglia G, Fossati N, Dell'Oglio P, Capitanio U, Cucchiara V, Mazzone E, Bravi CA, Mirone V, Montorsi F, Briganti A Abstract Introduction: A considerable proportion of patients are still found with nodal involvement when considering prostate (PCa), bladder (BCa) and renal cancer (RCC). This scenario is often related to poorer oncological outcomes, but evidence supporting this correlation remain scarce or controversial. Areas covered: A review was conducted to provide updated evidence in the field of pathological nodal involvement in PCa, BCa, and RCC. Nodal-sta...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - September 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An update on current and future treatment options for chondrosarcoma.
This article updates our 2014 review, in which we evaluated the CS treatments available at that time and potential treatment options under investigation. Since then, advances in research findings, particularly from Chinese herbal medicines, may be bringing us closer to more effective therapies for CS. In particular, promising findings have been reported from research targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Expert opinion: Few treatment options exist for CS; chemotherapy is not even an option for unresectable disease, in which 5-year survival rates are just 2%. New information about the multitude of genes and sig...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Advances in the therapy of BRAFV600E metastatic colorectal cancer.
Authors: Jin Z, Sinicrope FA Abstract Introduction: BRAFV600E metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is an aggressive tumor subset with an approximate 8% incidence. In these patients, standard chemotherapy has limited efficacy, and the recent development of novel targeted treatment regimens may significantly improve clinical outcome. Area covered: This review provides an overview of available data regarding advances in the first-line treatment of BRAFV600E metastatic CRC including patient tumors with microsatellite instability. The implications of BRAFV600E in earlier stage CRC are also discussed. Expert opinion: Recen...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

What therapies are on the horizon for HER2 positive breast cancer?
Authors: Viale G, Morganti S, Ferraro E, Zagami P, Marra A, Curigliano G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite dramatic improvements in survival achieved with currently available anti-HER2 agents, HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer remains an almost invariably deadly disease, with primary or acquired resistance to HER2 directed agents developing during course treatment. Many efforts are focused on identifying new agents that may more effectively inhibit HER2 signaling and on possible combination strategies. Areas covered: This review summarizes the landscape of drugs under development for HER2 positive metastatic brea...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Incorporating molecular biomarkers into clinical practice for gastric cancer.
Authors: Nakamura S, Kanda M, Kodera Y Abstract Introduction: Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. To improve clinical outcomes, it is critical to develop appropriate approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers have numerous potential clinical applications, including screening, assessing risk, determining prognosis, monitoring recurrence, and predicting response to treatment. Furthermore, biomarkers may contribute to the development of effective therapies. Areas covered: Here we review recent progress in exploiting GC-specific biomarkers such as protein-coding...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia.
Authors: Shallis RM, Bewersdorf JP, Boddu PC, Zeidan AM Abstract Introduction: The Hedgehog (HH) pathway constitutes a collection of signaling molecules which critically influence embryogenesis. In adults, however, the HH pathway remains integral to the proliferation, maintenance, and apoptosis of adult stem cells including hematopoietic stem cells. Areas covered: We discuss the current understanding of the HH pathway as it relates to normal hematopoiesis, the pathology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the rationale for and data from combination therapies including HH pathway inhibitors, and ultimately the prospect...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitors: a new era for esophageal cancer.
Authors: Zou LQ, Yang X, Li YD, Zhu ZF Abstract Introduction: The poor prognosis for patients with esophageal cancer (EC) requires evolving current treatment regimens. Immune checkpoint inhibitors show clinical efficacy and a great safety profile in multiple tumors. And the monoclonal antibodies that target programmed death receptor-1/programmed death receptor ligand-1 or the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 pathway has shown potential curable effect of EC. Areas covered: This review article covers the prognostic significance of immune checkpoint expression, the accumulating current clinical studies of checkpoint i...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

What can we do to help young cancer survivors minimize financial hardship in the United States?
Authors: Zheng Z, Han X, Zhao J, Yabroff KR PMID: 31408395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Sacituzumab govitecan: breakthrough targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer.
Authors: Weiss J, Glode A, Messersmith WA, Diamond JR Abstract Introduction: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype associated with an increased risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. Unlike hormone receptor-positive or HER2-positive breast cancers, there are limited targeted therapies available to treat TNBC and cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Sacituzumab govitecan (IMMU-132) is an antibody-drug conjugate targeting Trop-2 expressing cells and selectively delivering SN-38, an active metabolite of irinotecan. Areas covered: This review covers the m...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Emotions in the room: common emotional reactions to discussions of poor prognosis and tools to address them.
Authors: Derry HM, Epstein AS, Lichtenthal WG, Prigerson HG Abstract Introduction: Advanced cancer patients often want prognostic information, and discussions of prognosis have been shown to enhance patient understanding of their illness. Such discussions can lead to high-quality, value-consistent care at the end of life, yet they are also often emotionally challenging. Despite how common and normal it is for patients to experience transient emotional distress when receiving "bad news" about prognosis, emotional responses have been under-addressed in existing literature on prognostic discussions. Areas co...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Capmatinib for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
This article provides an overview of the capmatinib clinical development program in NSCLC, both as monotherapy in NSCLC with a dysregulated MET pathway, and in combination with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with MET-based acquired resistance to previous EGFR inhibition. Expert opinion: In the GEOMETRY Mono-1 study, treatment with capmatinib resulted in high response rates in stage IV NSCLC with MET exon 14 skipping mutations, particularly in first line, supporting testing for this biomarker at the time of diagnosis. Durable responses have been reported and results in MET-amp...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - August 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The use of alternative therapies in conjunction with opioids for cancer pain.
Authors: Mercadante S, Candido KD Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is a growing recognition of the role of interventional techniques (IT) for the management of cancer pain (CP). However, there are many controversies on how and when to use such techniques. Areas covered: Patients who are unresponsive to systemic opioid analgesics or patients unable to tolerate systemic opioids may benefit from different IT for which the successful use depends on the selection of the right therapy for the right patient. The evidence regarding these techniques is often anecdotal and the potential risks, benefits, alternatives, and complic...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Exploring the link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer.
We described mechanisms linking long-standing diabetes to pancreatic cancer. We discussed pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes and its implication in the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Expert opinion: The markedly increased risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with new-onset diabetes compared with long-standing diabetes indicates a complex and bidirectional connection, with long-standing diabetes being a predisposing factor for pancreatic cancer (increasing the risk of the malignancy 1.5- to 2-fold) and new-onset diabetes an early manifestation of the tumour. Identifying clinical features and biomarkers to disting...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging techniques used to secure biopsies in prostate cancer patients.
This article reviews the current imaging techniques used to secure biopsies in patients with a suspicion of PCa. The advantages and limitations of each technique are described. Expert opinion: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and subsequent targeted biopsy have improved the diagnostic accuracy of PCa detection in men with an elevated or rising serum PSA. Prostate lesions visible on mpMRI are easily targeted during either in-bore MRI guided biopsy, cognitive fusion biopsy or MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy. PMID: 31277551 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - July 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Recent advances with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: therapeutic agents for breast cancer and their role in immuno-oncology.
Authors: Di Sante G, Pagé J, Jiao X, Nawab O, Cristofanilli M, Skordalakes E, Pestell RG Abstract Introduction: Collaborative interactions between several diverse biological processes govern the onset and progression of breast cancer. These processes include alterations in cellular metabolism, anti-tumor immune responses, DNA damage repair, proliferation, anti-apoptotic signals, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, components of the non-coding genome or onco-mIRs, cancer stem cells and cellular invasiveness. The last two decades have revealed that each of these processes are also directly regulated ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Exploiting DNA repair defects in breast cancer: from chemotherapy to immunotherapy.
Authors: Aktas BY, Guner G, Guven DC, Arslan C, Dizdar O Abstract Introduction: Impaired DNA damage response (DDR) and subsequent genomic instability is associated with carcinogenic process itself, but it also results in sensitivity of tumor cells to certain drugs and can be exploited to treat cancer by inducing deadly mutations or mitotic catastrophe. Exploiting DDR defects in breast cancer cells has been one of the main strategies in both conventional chemotherapy, targeted therapies or immunotherapies. Areas covered: In this review, the authors first discuss DDR mechanisms in healthy cells and DDR defects in bre...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of combination chemo-immunotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Rocco D, Della Gravara L, Battiloro C, Gridelli C Abstract Introduction: Even with the currently recommended chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic treatment, the five year survival rate for advanced nonsquamous and squamous NSCLC without oncogenic drivers remains poor. However, several different chemo-immunotherapy combinations are presently being investigated - with favorable results- in order to increase the PFS and OS rates of these patients. Areas covered: Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the most promising trials investigating chemo-immunotherapy combinations and their present and future impact ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Value of quantitative and qualitative analyses of serum and urine cell-free DNA as diagnostic tools for bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
Conclusions: CfDNA assay has high diagnostic value for the detection of bladder cancer. Larger sample studies are needed to further confirm our conclusions and to make this approach more sensitive and specific. PMID: 31177855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An update on advanced dual-energy CT for head and neck cancer imaging.
This article is a review of current applications of DECT for the evaluation of head and neck cancer, focusing largely on squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The article will begin with a brief overview of principles and different approaches for DECT scanning. This will be followed by a review of different DECT applications in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology, practical and workflow considerations, and various emerging advanced applications for tumor analysis, including the use of DECT datasets for radiomics and machine learning applications. Expert opinion: Using a multi-parametric approach, different DECT reconstruc...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An aspirin a day keeps ovarian cancer at bay?
Authors: Minlikeeva AN, Moysich KB PMID: 31159617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The role of metastasectomy in advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Authors: Apollonio G, Raimondi A, Verzoni E, Claps M, Sepe P, Pagani F, Ratta R, Montorsi F, Procopio G Abstract Introduction: So far, clinical experiences have proved metastasectomy as the only approach in the setting of metastatic renal cell carcinoma that may achieve the "no evidence of disease" status, with an associated improvement in survival. Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the body of knowledge on therapeutic approaches to mRCC, with a specific insight on the role of metastasectomy and on which underlying factors could be good predictors to select patients who may benefit from surgery...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Personalizing surgical margins in retroperitoneal sarcomas: an update.
Authors: Dingley B, Fiore M, Gronchi A Abstract Introduction: Tumor biology, as well as completeness of surgical resection, are two important prognostic factors when treating retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). A frontline extended surgical approach is associated with improved local control, and possibly improved survival. However, this approach has to be tailored to each histological subtype, as the patterns of growth and recurrence risks vary significantly among them. Areas covered: We provide a review of the literature in RPS, describing the behavior of each of the five main histologic subtypes: well-differentiated l...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Should chemotherapy still be used to treat all muscle invasive bladder cancer in the "era of immunotherapy"?
Should chemotherapy still be used to treat all muscle invasive bladder cancer in the "era of immunotherapy"? Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2019 Jun 05;:1-3 Authors: Duplisea JJ, Dinney CPN PMID: 31164019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Targeting the tumor microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Authors: Pandey V, Storz P Abstract Introduction: The dismally slow improvement in patient survival over the years for pancreatic cancer patients is mainly due to two factors: the late diagnosis, at which point the disease is spread to distant organs; and the fact that tumor cells are surrounded by a dense, highly immunosuppressive microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment not only shields pancreatic cancer cells from chemotherapy but also leaves it unsusceptible to various immunotherapeutic strategies that have been proven successful in other types of cancer. Areas covered: This review highlights the main compo...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Novel targeted strategies to overcome resistance in small-cell lung cancer: focus on PARP inhibitors and rovalpituzumab tesirine.
Authors: Van Den Borg R, Leonetti A, Tiseo M, Giovannetti E, Peters GJ Abstract Introduction: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumour, and its outcome is strongly conditioned by the rapid onset of resistance to conventional chemotherapeutics. First-line treatment with a combination of platinum agents and topoisomerase inhibitors has been the standard of care for over 30 years, with disappointing clinical outcome caused by early-acquired chemoresistance. In this disheartening scenario, novel treatment strategies are being implemented in order to either revert or bypass resista...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

An update on synthetic high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles for cancer therapy.
We present a focused review of recent developments in the use of synthetic HDLs for cancer therapy, including roles in drug delivery, RNAi, monotherapy, and immunotherapy. In addition to historic references relevant to the field, we searched the following databases for recent articles published from January 1st, 2015 - May 1st, 2019: MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google Scholar. Expert opinion: Synthetic HDLs have already been used in human patients for cardiovascular disease, and have proven to be effective anticancer agents in pre-clinical testing, which should pave the way for future clinical trials in th...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - June 3, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Risk stratification of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: A Review of the Current Literature.
Authors: Kardoust Parizi M, Glybochko PV, Enikeev D, Rouprêt M, Fajkovic H, Seebacher V, Shariat SF Abstract Introduction: Several prognostic factors have been identified to risk stratify patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). However, due to the heterogeneity of these prognosticators and the presence of different therapeutic modalities for this rare and heterogeneous disease, decision-making and patient consulting remains challenging. Areas covered: A literature search using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library was conducted in January 2019 to find relevant English-language st...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The impact of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations on the efficacy of definitive chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Qin Q, Peng B, Li B Abstract OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of EGFR mutations on the efficacy of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced unresectable stage III NSCLC. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies which compared clinical outcomes according to EGFR status among patients with locally advanced unresectable NSCLC treated with definitive CRT. Efficacy outcomes included objective response rate (ORR), overall disease progression, local regional recurrence (LRR), distant progression (DP), brain metastasis, progression-free survival (PFS) and o...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Starvation in cancer cells: Circulating arginine is good for cancer but bad for patients.
Authors: Sharma NK, Sarode SC, Sarode GS, Patil S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Currently, basic understanding of heterogeneity and complexity of tumors is depicted at molecular, cellular, genetic, epigenetic and metabolic adaptations levels. Areas covered: There are appreciable numbers of views to pinpoint signaling axis that support metabolic adaptations of cancer cells in response to environmental pressures including nutritional factors and drug treatments. Specifically, nutritional deprivation and autophagy in certain types of cancer are linked to the abilities of cancer cells to use arginine in an auxotrophic or prot...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Adjuvant therapeutic approaches of HER2-positive breast cancer with a focus on neratinib maleate.
Authors: Kotecki N, Gombos A, Awada A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2-positive) BC represents up to 15% of all BC cases and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial improvement obtained with the addition to the treatment of trastuzumab in this subtype of BC, disease recurrence can still occur. Areas covered: Anti-HER2 targeting drugs such as trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and T-DM1 have shown significant results in (neo)adjuvant setting. In this article, we will focus on available data for neratinib t...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Prodrugs for targeted cancer therapy.
Authors: Souza C, Pellosi DS, Tedesco AC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prodrugs have been used to improve the selectivity and efficacy of cancer therapy by targeting unique abnormal markers that are overexpressed by cancer cells and are absent in normal tissues. In this context, different strategies have been exploited and new ones are being developed each year. Areas covered: In this review, an integrated view of the potential use of prodrugs in targeted cancer therapy is provided. Passive and active strategies are discussed in light of the advantages of each one and some successful examples are provided, as well as the ...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

The use of cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Authors: Ghandour RA, Singla N, Margulis V Abstract INTRODUCTION: The systemic options for managing metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have expanded considerably over the past decade. Initially limited to cytokines, clinicians may now choose from several classes of targeted therapies and, most recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the role and timing of cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) and its evolution starting with cytokines, and then alongside the emergence of targeted therapy and novel immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Patient selection remains the mo...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - April 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Adverse effects of chemotherapy and their management in Pediatric patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Kenya: A descriptive, situation analysis study.
CONCLUSIONS: Whilst the majority of the reported side-effects were being managed, the lack of management of some side effects raises real concerns since this indicates either failure to manage or failure to document their management in patients' records, both of which should be addressed appropriately to improve future care. PMID: 31023089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - April 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Chronic Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) use in metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC): can this lead to the adverse effect of hypogonadism?
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide an important and robust hypothesis for a prospective clinical trial to be performed. DISCUSSION: Given the present data, patients who have symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism must have an assessment of gonadal function and be treated. PMID: 30995130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - April 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Remodeling the cancer epigenome: mutations in the SWI/SNF complex offer new therapeutic opportunities.
Authors: Orlando KA, Nguyen V, Raab JR, Walhart T, Weissman BE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cancer genome sequencing studies have discovered mutations in members of the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in nearly 25% of human cancers. The SWI/SNF complex, first discovered in S. cerevisiae, shows strong conservation from yeast to Drosophila to mammals, contains approximately 10-12 subunits and regulates nucleosome positioning through the energy generated by its ATPase subunits. The unexpected finding of frequent mutations in the complex has fueled studies to identify the mechanisms that...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Rucaparib in the landscape of PARP inhibition in ovarian cancer.
Authors: Colomba E, Pautier P, Pommeret F, Leary A Abstract INTRODUCTION: The landscape of PARP inhibition in ovarian cancer is rapidly evolving and becoming increasingly complex. Ovarian cancer is leading therapeutic innovation - by providing the proof of concept for DNA repair as a target. Three different PARP inhibitors have now received approvals in the US and Europe in different indications. Subtle but crucial differences can be found among the licensed indications for each PARP inhibitor in terms of histology, type of BRCA mutation (germline and/or somatic), number of prior lines of chemotherapy and whether t...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - April 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Third generation EGFR TKI landscape for metastatic EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Authors: Tan AC, Teh YL, Lai GGY, Tan DSW PMID: 30950666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy)
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - April 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Kujtan L, Subramanian J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are well-described drivers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become key components of the NSCLC front-line treatment landscape. Tumors inevitably develop resistance to these agents, and development efforts continue to focus on identifying mechanisms of resistance and drugs to target these mechanisms. Areas covered: With several EGFR TKIs approved for use in the first-line or in later-line settings, an understanding of the efficacy and safety of these inhibitor...
Source: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy - March 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Expert Rev Anticancer Ther Source Type: research