Beryllium inhibits apoptosis via mitochondria in beryllium-induced lung disease in the rat.
Conclusions: We conclude that inhibition of apoptosis by beryllium oxide involves mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in rat model of beryllium oxide-induced pulmonary disease. PMID: 31155972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - June 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Inhaled salbutamol from aerolizer and diskus at different inhalation flows, inhalation volume and number of inhalations in both healthy subjects and COPD patients.
Authors: Boshra MS, Almeldien AG, Eldin RS, Elberry AA, Abdelwahab NS, Salem MN, Rabea H, Abdelrahim MEA Abstract The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of inhalation-flow, inhalation-volume and number of inhalations on aerosol-delivery of inhaled-salbutamol from two different dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in both healthy-subjects and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Relative pulmonary-bioavailability and systemic-bioavailability of inhaled-salbutamol, delivered by Diskus and Aerolizer, was determined in 24-COPD patients and 24-healthy subjects. The healthy-subjects and the CO...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - June 5, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

FOXP3 infiltrating lymphocyte density and PD-L1 expression in operable non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Conclusion: Tumor stroma infiltration by FOXP3+ Tregs is an early event in the progression of NSCLC. Low lymphocytic infiltration defines poor prognosis, which becomes worse when the small numbers of infiltrating lymphocytes characterizing these tumors contain FOXP3 + Tregs. Furthermore, the direct association of FOXP3+ Treg infiltration density with PD-L1 expression by cancer cells implies a co-ordinated immune-suppressive activity in NSCLC. PMID: 31134811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

IL33/ST2 contributes to airway remodeling via p-JNK MAPK/STAT3 signaling pathway in OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-33 promoted airway remodeling by interacting with ST2 to activate the JNK/STAT3 signaling pathway in asthma. PMID: 31112061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Small and large airways' reactions to inhaled capsaicin in patients with chronic idiopathic cough, or asthma and in healthy control subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that inhaled capsaicin induces changes in lung function, both in patients with CIC and in patients with asthma, when IOS, which measures changes also in the peripheral airways, is used. IOS appears to be a more sensitive tool than spirometry for the detection of airway impairment in airway provocation studies. In patients with CIC, higher peripheral resistance at baseline may have clinical significance. PMID: 31088165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Effects of aminophylline on airway epithelial-mesenchymal transition in brown Norway rats after repeated allergen challenge.
CONCLUSIONS: Ovalbumin increases airway remodeling and airway EMT. Aminophylline is effective in preventing airway remodeling and airway EMT in Brown Norway rats after repeated allergen challenge. PMID: 31064232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

MiR-34c-5p plays a protective role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via targeting CCL22.
CONCLUSION: MiR-34c-5p may promote inflammation response and maintain the protease-antiprotease balance via targeting CCL22, which provides scientific basis for the clinical treatment of COPD. PMID: 31032652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Opposite alterations of endothelin-1 in lung and pulmonary artery mirror gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 in experimental pulmonary hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: ET-1 overexpression in the pulmonary artery preceded development of PH, but it was clearly and unexpectedly downregulated in the lungs of monocrotaline-treated rats and showed no correlation to disease progression markers. We speculate that endothelin-1 may play opposing roles in the lungs vs pulmonary artery in monocrotaline-induced PH. PMID: 31012341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

A comparative in vitro study of standard facemask jet nebulization and high-flow nebulization in bronchiolitis.
Authors: Valencia-Ramos J, Arnaez J, Benito JM, Mirás A, Ochoa C, Beltrán S Abstract AIM OF STUDY: The use of a nebulizer paired with high-flow nasal cannulas (HFNC) has been proposed for drug delivery in bronchiolitis. Particle size nebulized is a relevant factor determining the efficacy of the nebulization. We replicated in vitro the theoretical parameters most widely used in bronchiolitis and we compared the size of the droplet nebulized with a standard nebulizer and a nebulizer integrated into HFNC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used laser diffraction to analyze the particle size nebulized (volume...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

The Hedgehog target Gli1 is not required for bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.
Authors: Kugler MC, Yie TA, Cai Y, Berger JZ, Loomis CA, Munger JS Abstract Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling, a developmental pathway promoting lung mesenchymal expansion and differentiation during embryogenesis, has been increasingly recognized as a profibrotic factor in mature lung, where it might contribute to the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Pathway inhibition at the level of the downstream Gli transcription factors Gli1 and Gli2 (by GANT61) ameliorates lung fibrosis in the bleomycin model, whereas inhibition proximally at the level of HH ligand (by anti Hh antibody 5E1) or Smo (by GDC-0449) of the canonical pa...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Roles of citric acid in conjunction with saline nebulization in experimental tracheostomy in guinea pigs.
CONCLUSIONS: Citric acid combined with saline nebulization contributes to the alleviation of tracheotomy-induced tracheal damage and pulmonary inflammation in an experimental tracheostomy model in guinea pigs. This may provide novel insights into the inflammation management and cough recovery after tracheostomy. PMID: 30973274 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Quantitative proteomics reveals the mechanisms of hydrogen-conferred protection against hyperoxia-induced injury in type II alveolar epithelial cells.
Conclusions: Molecular hydrogen protects AECIIs from hyperoxic injury by complex mechanisms involving a variety of proteins and biological processes, such as VEGFA, PDGFB, IGFBP3, EDN1, NADPH oxidase and the coagulation cascade. These findings suggest novel pathways that need to be investigated as possible therapeutic targets for hyperoxia-induced lung injury. PMID: 30973277 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Role of prostaglandin I2 in the bronchoconstriction-triggered cough response in guinea pigs.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PGI2 ameliorates a bronchoconstriction-triggered cough. The measurement and administration of PGI2 may assist in the diagnosis and treatment, respectively, of the cough response triggered by bronchoconstriction. PMID: 30931647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Biphasic changes in airway epithelial cell EGF receptor binding and phosphorylation induced by components of hogbarn dust.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies extend the evidence for EGFRs as important cellular targets for components of HDE and they reveal novel patterns of EGFR phosphorylation and binding changes that vary among airway epithelial cell types. The results provide both impetus and convenient assays for identifying the EGFR-activating components and pathways that likely contribute to hogbarn dust-induced lung disease in agricultural workers. PMID: 30862200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to VX in anesthetized rats: Possible roles for compromised immunity and oxidative stress-induced lung injury.
The objective of this study was to investigate toxic responses in the lung up to two weeks following a single 10-minute exposure to inhaled VX. Anesthetized rats were exposed singly and only once to VX. The nebulization rate in this system was 0.2-0.3 ml per minute with the delivery of a consistent particle size of 2.1 µm. Following exposure, all rats were removed from the ventilator and allowed to recover in the glovebox for 10-15 minutes. Results showed that inhaled VX altered several respiratory parameters and caused increased lung resistance up to 6 h post-exposure (PE). There was a tr...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - February 24, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Hyperoxia-induced lung injury increases CDKN1A levels in a newborn rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Authors: Pan YQ, Hou AN Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common, chronic lung disease of infants. Presently, high oxygen exposure and mechanical ventilation considerably influence the development of BPD. To clarify the pathological mechanisms of this disease, we developed a hyperoxia-induced BPD rat model and investigated the role of CDKN1A in the pathogenesis of BPD. Newborn rats were randomly assigned to the hyperoxia (85% O2) and control (normoxia, 21% O2) groups. Lung tissues were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 after the start of hyperoxia or normoxia exposure. The expression of CDKN1A was d...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - February 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen rescues lung cancer cells from chemical hypoxia-induced low differentiation and apoptosis resistance.
Authors: Wang Y, Qi Y, Wei X, Chen S, Jia N, Zhou Q, Zhang S, Gui S, Wang Y Abstract Hypoxia induces vigorous growth and a higher malignant phenotype in solid tumors. Hyperoxic treatment using hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has previously been shown as a highly effective method to attenuate hypoxia. We aimed to investigate the effect of HBO on hypoxia-induced malignancy of lung cancer cells. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was used to induce chemical hypoxia in lung cancer cell line A549. Hypoxic inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, migration and invasion capacity, expression ...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Notch promotes DNMT-mediated hypermethylation of Klotho leads to COPD-related inflammation.
CONCLUSION: Notch-mediated Klotho hypermethylation inhibited Klotho expression, which promoted inflammatory response and cell apoptosis that were associated with the development of COPD. PMID: 30686068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 30, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Delivery of nucleic acids to ex vivo porcine airways using electrospray.
CONCLUSIONS: We report ex vivo delivery of nucleic acids to porcine lung tissue via electrospray and bronchoscopic electrospray delivery of nucleic acid to an ex vivo porcine lung model. PMID: 30675820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

CB2R agonist prevents nicotine induced lung fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: Nicotine induces interstitial lung fibrosis that is enhanced by the CB2R antagonist and diminished by the CB2R agonist. Therefore, the CB2R agonist may offer a protection against fibrosis. PMID: 30675824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Bronchial epithelial cells produce CXCL1 in response to LPS and TNF α: A potential role in the pathogenesis of COPD.
CONCLUSIONS: Sputum CXCL1 levels is a potentially better diagnostic marker for COPD than sputum CXCL8 levels, which is explained by that CXCL1 production in bronchial epithelial cells is less affected by therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents than CXCL8 production. PMID: 30676127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Combination of TWEAK and TGF- β1 induces the production of TSLP, RANTES, and TARC in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we have revealed a novel mechanism for the production of asthma-related cytokines and chemokines in EMT driven by the co-stimulation with TWEAK and TGF-β1. We conclude that cellular EMT processes caused by TWEAK and TGF-β1 may contribute to chronic airway inflammation and remodeling. PMID: 30676129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in the 21th century: Current status of diagnostic methods.
Authors: Poeta P, Silva V, Guedes A, Eduardo Pereira J, Cláudia Coelho A, Igrejas G Abstract Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease with a high mortality rate worldwide constituting a serious public health problem. The diagnostic methods commonly used by health professionals are slow and expensive and the results may take about sixty days which will cause a delay in administrating the most proper treatment to the patient, as well as increase health care costs and infection transmission possibility. Patients infected simultaneously with human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Hypothermia alleviated LPS-induced acute lung injury in Rat models through TLR2/MyD88 pathway.
In this study, we established ALI rat model through lipopolysaccharide administration. We found that hypothermia therapy led to significant improvement in oxygenation index, edema formation and pathological score, demonstrating that hypothermia is beneficial to the recovery of lung function and alleviation of lung injury. Besides, hypothermia resulted in a decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) concentration, showing the inflammation was partially inhibited. This was also confirmed by a decrease in TNF-α mRNA and protein level in hypothermia group. The effect of hypothermia was mediated by TLR2/MyD88 si...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

miR-221 participates in the airway epithelial cells injury in asthma via targeting SIRT1.
CONCLUSION: miR-221 may participate in the airway epithelial cells injury in asthma via targeting SIRT1. PMID: 30654657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Evidence for angiotensin mediation of the late histopathological effects of pulmonary fat embolism: Protection by losartan in a rat model.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the effects of fat embolism continue to progress to 10 weeks after the initial insult with triolein. The fact that the protective effects of losartan treatment started at 6 weeks supports the involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in late as well as early stages of the histopathological changes following fat embolism. It also supports the use of angiotensin blockade in clinical situations even long after an initial trauma where fat embolism is suspected. PMID: 30638089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

HMGB1 signaling blocking protects against carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in a murine model of infection.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that HMGB1 may be an important contributor in these changes of CRKP-induced pneumonia. Thus, HMGB1 may provide a therapeutic target for reducing bacterial infection and lung inflammation in CRKP pneumonia. PMID: 30595050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - January 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation protects mice against Klebsiella pneumoniae lung infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes a novel strategy of identifying metabolic modulator from surviving host and emphasizes the feasibility of employing the metabolic modulator as a therapy for K. pneumoniae lung infection. PMID: 30513234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - December 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

The effect of microRNA-129 on the migration and invasion in NSCLC cells and its mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-129 could suppress the migration and invasion of A549 cells. The potential mechanism may be that miR-129 inhibit EMT via targeting SOX4. PMID: 30475081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - November 28, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

LPS-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through the MAPKs-AP-1 dependent mechanism in BEAS-2B and U937 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that in BEAS-2B cells and U937 cells, LPS probably activates ERK1/2 pathway and JNK pathway, which in turn initiate AP-1 activity, and leading to MMP-9 expression. Thus the ERK1/2 inhibitor and JNK inhibitor may have potential clinical value in treating COPD. PMID: 30468094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - November 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Effect of gastric fluid aspiration on the lung microbiota of laboratory rats.
CONCLUSION: In a laboratory rat model, aspiration with gastric fluid caused a substantial shift of the lung microbiota that could be characterized as a shift from Proteobacteria towards Firmicutes, possibly of enteric origin. Bacteria contained in the gastric fluid are not apparently responsible for this change. PMID: 30465452 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - November 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Isolating and culturing of sputum macrophages: A potential ex vivo/in vitro model.
CONCLUSION: Sputum macrophage isolation by plate adherence and subsequent culturing of sputum macrophages was successfully performed and represents a promising in vitro model for examination of airway macrophage behavior. PMID: 30465455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - November 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

NF- κB p65 Knock-down inhibits TF, PAI-1 and promotes activated protein C production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated alveolar epithelial cells type II.
CONCLUSIONS: The experimental findings demonstrate that NF-kB signaling pathway is involved in regulating the expressions of coagulation and fibrinolysis factors in LPS-stimulated AECII, which suggest that NF-kB signaling pathway may be a new target to correct intra-alveolar coagulation and fibrinolytic abnormalities in ARDS. PMID: 30449218 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - November 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

TSLP promotes asthmatic airway remodeling via p38-STAT3 signaling pathway in human lung fibroblast.
CONCLUSIONS: TSLP might promote asthmatic airway remodeling via p38 MAPK-STAT3 axis activation and the crosstalk between airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts could aggravate remodeling. Blockade of p38 could alleviate airway remodeling which might provide a new therapeutic target for asthma. PMID: 30428724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - November 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Total emitted dose of salbutamol sulphate at different inhalation flows and inhalation volumes through different types of dry powder inhalers.
Authors: Boshra MS, Almeldien AG, Salah Eldin R, Elberry AA, Abdelwahab NS, Nabil Salem M, Rabea H, Abdelrahim MEA Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of two different dry powder inhalers (DPIs) at different inhalations volumes and inhalation flows. Ventolin Diskus contain blisters of 200µg salbutamol. To test the TED from Aerolizer, salbutamol in Diskus blister was emptied and placed in size 3 capsules suitable for use with Aerolizer. Total emitted dose (TED) delivered by Diskus and Aerolizer was determined using DPI sampling apparatus after one and two inhalations from the s...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - October 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Repeated pulmonary exposures to zinc ions enhance inflammatory responses to subsequent metal exposures.
CONCLUSION: Previous exposure to zinc ions increases responsiveness to subsequent exposures to zinc and cerium ions. These findings suggest enhanced sensitization possibly due to a reduction in antioxidant defenses. PMID: 30295553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - October 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis and postnatal lung injury: The beneficial effects of L-citrulline in newborn rats.
CONCLUSIONS: L-Cit improved alveolar and vascular growth diminishing the lung inflammatory response in the newborn rats exposed to intra-amniotic LPS. The ADMA/DDAH/NO pathway appeared to counteract proinflammatory cytokine production and to sustain macrophage migration. PMID: 30198795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

The effect of captopril on lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation.
Authors: Boskabadi J, Mokhtari-Zaer A, Abareshi A, Khazdair MR, Emami B, Mohammadian Roshan N, Hosseini M, Boskabady MH Abstract PURPOSE: As an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, the effects of captopril on inflammation has been previously examined. Captopril has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system is one of the major causes of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of captopril on total and differential white blood cells (WBC), oxidative stress andlung histopathological changes produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inves...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - June 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Changes in mucin 1 expression in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation.
CONCLUSION: Mucin 1 distributes in the airway epithelial cells with ciliates and the expressional increase of Muc1 in lung may imply its functions on allergic inflammatory episodes. PMID: 29847197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - June 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Sialylation pattern in lung epithelial cell line and Siglecs expression in monocytic THP-1 cells as cellular indicators of cigarette smoke - induced pathology in vitro.
CONCLUSION: These results show that cellular response to CS involves changes in expression of Siglec receptors and sialylated ligands functionally associated with immunity. PMID: 29781747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Rux largely restores lungs in Iraq PM-exposed mice, Up-regulating regulatory T-cells (Tregs).
Conclusions RuX, a ruthenium and alpha-lipoic acid complex, attenuates lung injury by improving histology and inspiratory capacity via upregulation of Tregs in Iraq PM-exposed C57BL/6. Plausible genomic effects may involve IL-15 whole lung gene expression. PMID: 29737931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - May 9, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Bronchiolitis obliterans murine model induced by nitric acid aerosol inhalation: An economical and reproducible model.
CONCLUSION: A murine BO model was established by NA aerosol inhalation. It provides an easy, economic, and reproducible mice model for BO research. PMID: 29683731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, new research progress and their pathophysiological implication.
Authors: Miao C, Xiong Y, Zhang G, Chang J Abstract Many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The purpose of this review is to systematically summarize the recent advance of miRNAs in the pathology of IPF, highlighting the new research progress and their pathophysiological implication. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs differentially expressed in blood and lung tissue from IPF patients are closely related to the occurrence of IPF disease, which may be IPF diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators. Furthermore, studies have ...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Improved protocol for simultaneous analysis of leukocyte subsets and epithelial cells from murine and human lung.
CONCLUSION: The here described protocols were optimized for the simple and efficient isolation of murine and human lung cells. In contrast to previously described techniques, they permit simultaneous in-depth characterization of pulmonary epithelial cells and leukocyte subsets such as T helper, cytotoxic T, and B cells from one sample. As such, they may help to comprehensively and sustainably characterize murine and human lung specimens and facilitate studies on the role of lung immune cells in different respiratory pathologies. PMID: 29677457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Regulation of eosinophil recruitment and allergic airway inflammation by heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) modifying enzymes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that allergen exposure reduces expression of Hs2st; loss of uronyl 2-O-sulfation in endothelial and leukocyte HSPG amplifies recruitment of eosinophils likely due to a compromised vascular endothelium resulting in persistent inflammation whereas loss of N-sulfation limits eosinophilia and attenuates inflammation underscoring the importance of site-specific sulfation in HSPG to their role in AAI. PMID: 29621420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - April 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Tuberculosis and cigarette smoke exposure: An update of in vitro and in vivo studies.
Authors: López-Hernández Y, Rivas-Santiago CE, López JA, Mendoza-Almanza G, Hernandez-Pando R Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared the first cause of death by an infectious agent. Annually, 10.4 million people suffer active TB. Most infected individuals live in low-income countries, where social and economic conditions enhance the dissemination and progression of the disease. These countries have a high percentage of smokers. Thousands of studies have linked cigarette smoke (CS) with increased risk of many diseases, such as cancer and lung diseases. Numerous in vitro studies have b...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - March 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-21 aggravates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by promoting autophagy.
This study was designed to explore the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) induced autophagy in COPD. Using the C57BL/6, miR-21-/- mice and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cell line, we found that in the lung tissues of mice, the level of autophagy in the COPD model group was significantly higher than that in the control group. However, compared to the COPD model, the level of autophagy was significantly lower in the miR-21-/- CSE+CS group. In the COPD model, miR-21 was overexpressed. Moreover, in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), miR-21 expression was upregulated and autophagy ...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - March 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Emphysema induced by elastase alters the mRNA relative levels from DNA repair genes in acute lung injury in response to sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide administration in Wistar rats.
Authors: Sergio LPS, Lucinda LMF, Reboredo MM, de Paoli F, Fonseca LMC, Pinheiro BV, Mencalha AL, Fonseca AS Abstract Purpose/Aim of the study: Patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) present oxidative stress in lung cells, with production of free radicals and DNA lesions in pulmonary and adjacent cells. Once the DNA molecule is damaged, a set of enzymatic mechanisms are trigged to preserve genetic code integrity and cellular homeostasis. These enzymatic mechanisms include the base and the nucleotide excision repair pathways...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Kaempferol attenuates acute lung injury in caecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis in mice.
Authors: Rabha DJ, Singh TU, Rungsung S, Kumar T, Parida S, Lingaraju MC, Paul A, Sahoo M, Kumar D Abstract AIM OF THE STUDY: Kaempferol is a flavonoid and important part of the diet. Kaempferol has shown antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities in various studies. However, protective potential of kaempferol in acute lung injury induced by sepsis and its mechanism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice and its possible mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute lung injury was induced by CLP surge...
Source: Experimental Lung Research - February 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Low dose monocrotaline causes a selective pulmonary vascular lesion in male and female pneumonectomized rats.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 50-60 mg/kg of monocrotaline causes a selective pulmonary vascular lesion and that male and female rats have little non-pulmonary damage over 3 weeks at these doses of monocrotaline. PMID: 29381088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research