Cognition in psychiatry 
.
Cognition in psychiatry
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):223-224 Authors: Acuna-Vargas S, Thibaut F Abstract Cognition has attracted a growing interest in psychiatry. Since the 1990s, cognition as a whole has become an important determinant in the outcome of psychosis. Despite recent progress in the genetics of cognition, the development of new pharmacological compounds in order to improve cognition has not progressed as quickly. This issue will review and discuss the main areas of clinical and basic research in this domain.
. PMID: 31749646 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Domains of cognition and their assessment 
.
Domains of cognition and their assessment
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):227-237 Authors: Harvey PD Abstract Cognitive performance is typically conceptualized in terms of domains of functioning. These domains are hierarchical in nature, with the bottom referring to more basic sensory and perceptual processes and the top referring to elements of executive functioning and cognitive control. Domains are not independent of each other and executive functioning exerts control over the utilization of more basic processes. Assessments are typically targeted at subdomains of each ability area and c...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in psychotic illness: prevalence, profile of impairment, developmental course, and treatment considerations 
.
Cognitive impairment in psychotic illness: prevalence, profile of impairment, developmental course, and treatment considerations
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):239-248 Authors: McCleery A, Nuechterlein KH Abstract Despite effective pharmacological treatments for psychotic symptoms (eg, hallucinations, delusions), functional outcomes for people with psychotic disorders are often disappointing. Although it is not included in the diagnostic criteria for psychotic disorders, cognitive impairment is one of the strongest determinants of community functioning in this clinical population, and thus...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Assessing behavior and cognition in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans: where are the limits of translation? 
.
Assessing behavior and cognition in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans: where are the limits of translation?
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):249-259 Authors: Stephan M, Volkmann P, Rossner MJ Abstract New psychopharmacological treatments are needed for affective and nonaffective psychoses, especially for the associated negative and cognitive symptoms. Earlier developments mostly failed, probably partly because of limitations in behavioral models used for validation. Now, deeper understanding of the genetics underlying disease pathogenesis and progress in genetic engineering will generat...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Nonpharmacological treatment of dyscognition in schizophrenia: effects 
of aerobic exercise
.
Authors: Maurus I, Röh A, Falkai P, Malchow B, Schmitt A, Hasan A Abstract Cognitive symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia and are related to an unfavorable disease outcome. So far, there are no satisfactory pharmacological approaches to address cognitive symptoms. For some time now, aerobic exercise has been demonstrated in various trials to be a promising candidate for this indication. The aim of this brief qualitative review was to present the most recent meta-analyses regarding the capacity of exercise to improve cognition in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we give a short overview of the effe...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The synaptic pathology of cognitive life 
.
The synaptic pathology of cognitive life
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):271-279 Authors: Honer WG, Ramos-Miguel A, Alamri J, Sawada K, Barr AM, Schneider JA, Bennett DA Abstract Prospective, community-based studies allow evaluation of associations between cognitive functioning and synaptic measures, controlled for age-related pathologies. Findings from>400 community-based participants are reviewed. Levels of two presynaptic proteins, complexin-I (inhibitory terminals), and complexin-II (excitatory terminals) contributed to cognitive variation from normal to dementia. Adding the amount o...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Cognition and addiction 
.
Cognition and addiction
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):281-290 Authors: Verdejo-Garcia A, Garcia-Fernandez G, Dom G Abstract In this targeted review, we summarize current knowledge on substance-use disorder (SUD)-related cognitive deficits, the link between these deficits and clinical outcomes, and the cognitive training, remediation, and pharmacological approaches that have the potential to rescue cognition. We conclude that: (i) people with SUDs have moderate deficits in memory, attention, executive functions, and decision-making (including reward expectancy, valuation, and learning); (i...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Dysfunctional neurocognition in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits 
.
Dysfunctional neurocognition in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):291-299 Authors: Blair RJR Abstract The main goal of this review is to consider the main forms of dysfunctional neurocognition seen in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits (ie, reduced guilt/empathy and increased impulsive/antisocial behavior). A secondary goal is to examine the extent to which these forms of dysfunction are seen in both adults with psychopathic traits and adolescents with clinically significant antisocial behavior that may also ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in nondementing mental health disorders 
.
Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in nondementing mental health disorders
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):301-308 Authors: Robbins TW Abstract Evidence for pharmacological remediation of cognitive deficits in three major psychiatric disorders-attention deficit- hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and depression-is reviewed. ADHD is effectively treated with the stimulant medications methylphenidate and d-amphetamine, as well as nonstimulants such as atomoxetine, implicating cognitive enhancing effects mediated by noradrenaline and dopamine. However, the precise mechan...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Metacognitive and cognitive-behavioral interventions for psychosis: new developments 
.
Metacognitive and cognitive-behavioral interventions for psychosis: new developments
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):309-317 Authors: Moritz S, Klein JP, Lysaker PH, Mehl S Abstract This review describes four cognitive approaches for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), metacognitive therapy, metacognitive training, and metacognitive reflection insight therapy (MERIT). A central reference point of our review is a seminal paper by James Flavell, who introduced the term metacognition ("cognition about cognition"). In a way, every psychot...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of computer gaming on cognition, brain structure, and function: a critical reflection on existing literature 
.
Effects of computer gaming on cognition, brain structure, and function: a critical reflection on existing literature
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):319-330 Authors: Kühn S, Gallinat J, Mascherek A Abstract Video gaming as a popular form of leisure activity and its effect on cognition, brain function, and structure has come into focus in the field of neuroscience. Visuospatial cognition and attention seem to benefit the most, whereas for executive functions, memory, and general cognition, the results are contradictory. The particular characteristics of video games driving these effects...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Future paths in psychopharmacology 
.
Future paths in psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):115-116 Authors: Thibaut F Abstract Drug development in psychiatry is gradually moving from serendipity to personalized medicine. Some promising paths will be reviewed in this issue.
. PMID: 31636485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Opportunities and challenges in psychopharmacology 
.
Opportunities and challenges in psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):119-130 Authors: Schulz P Abstract This review addresses novel approaches for influencing the transcriptome, the epigenome, the microbiome, the proteome, and the energy metabolome. These innovations help develop psychotropic medications which will directly reach the molecular targets, leading to beneficial effects, and which will be individually adapted to provide more efficacy and less toxicity. The series of advances described here show that these once utopian goals for psychiatric treatment are now real themes...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Genomics and the future of psychopharmacology: MicroRNAs offer novel therapeutics 
.
Genomics and the future of psychopharmacology: MicroRNAs offer novel therapeutics
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):131-148 Authors: Gurwitz D Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs functioning as regulators of the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes. During the last two decades, studies on miRNAs indicate that they have potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for a wide range of cancers. Research interest in miRNAs has moved to embrace further medical disciplines, including neuropsychiatric disorders, comparing miRNA expression and mRNA targets between pa...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Psychedelic drugs-a new era in 
psychiatry?
.
This article covers the renaissance of classical psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD plus 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA-ecstasy) in psychiatric research. These drugs were used quite extensively before they became prohibited. This ban had little impact on recreational use, but effectively stopped research and clinical treatments, which up to that point had looked very promising in several areas of psychiatry. In the past decade a number of groups have been working to re-evaluate the utility of these substances in medicine. So far highly promising preliminary data have been produced with psilocybin in anx...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Receptor variants and the development of centrally acting medications 
.
Receptor variants and the development of centrally acting medications
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):149-157 Authors: Neale SA, Kambara K, Salt TE, Bertrand D Abstract The progressive changes in research paradigms observed in the largest pharmaceutical companies and the burgeoning of biotechnology startups over the last 10 years have generated a need for outsourcing research facilities. In parallel, progress made in the fields of genomics, protein expression in recombinant systems, and electrophysiological recording methods have offered new possibilities for the development of contract researc...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Harnessing the microbiota to treat neurological diseases 
.
Harnessing the microbiota to treat neurological diseases
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):159-165 Authors: Surana NK Abstract Studies over the last decade have transformed our previously simplistic view of microbes, having only a pathogenic role in disease to a more robust understanding that they are critical for maintaining human health. Indeed, our microbiota-the collection of commensal organisms that live in and on each of us-contributes to nearly every facet of host physiology, from ontogeny of the immune system to neurological function to metabolism. Although the specific details of these h...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

How evolutionary psychiatry can advance psychopharmacology 
.
How evolutionary psychiatry can advance psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):167-175 Authors: Nesse RM, Stein DJ Abstract The prevailing paradigm for psychopharmacology focuses on understanding brain mechanisms as the key to finding new medications and improving clinical outcomes, but frustration with slow progress has inspired many pleas for new approaches. Evolutionary psychiatry brings in an additional basic science that poses new questions about why natural selection left us vulnerable to so many mental disorders, and new insights about how drugs work. The integration of neuro...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Blood-based systems biology biomarkers for next-generation clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease 
.
Blood-based systems biology biomarkers for next-generation clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):177-191 Authors: Hampel H, Vergallo A, Afshar M, Akman-Anderson L, Arenas J, Benda N, Batrla R, Broich K, Caraci F, Cuello AC, Emanuele E, Haberkamp M, Kiddle SJ, Lucía A, Mapstone M, Verdooner SR, Woodcock J, Lista S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD)-a complex disease showing multiple pathomechanistic alterations-is triggered by nonlinear dynamic interactions of genetic/epigenetic and environmental risk factors, which, ultimately, converge into a biologically...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Treating psychiatric symptoms and disorders with non-psychotropic medications 
.
Treating psychiatric symptoms and disorders with non-psychotropic medications
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):193-201 Authors: Hede V, Devillé C Abstract A few drugs prescribed in internal medicine, ie, non-psychotropic drugs, can be used to treat certain neuropsychiatric disorders. For most of these situations, the level of evidence remains low. But when sufficient data becomes available, these molecules are then included in official guidelines for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review interesting drugs which may be relevant from an evidence-based medici...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Drug discovery in psychopharmacology: from 2D models to cerebral organoids 
.
Drug discovery in psychopharmacology: from 2D models to cerebral organoids
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):203-224 Authors: Rossetti AC, Koch P, Ladewig J Abstract Psychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of mental illnesses associated with a high social and economic burden on patients and society. The complex symptomatology of these disorders, coupled with our limited understanding of the structural and functional abnormalities affecting the brains of neuropsychiatric patients, has made it difficult to develop effective medical treatment strategies. With the advent of reprogramming tech...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The "systems approach" to treating the brain: opportunities in developmental psychopharmacology 
.
The "systems approach" to treating the brain: opportunities in developmental psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):211-215 Authors: Bussone S, Iacono LL Abstract The significance of early life for the long-term programming of mental health is increasingly being recognized. However, most psychotropic medications are currently intended for adult patients, and early psychopharmacological approaches aimed at reverting aberrant neurodevelopmental trajectories are missing. Psychopharmacologic intervention at an early age faces the challenge of operating in a highly plastic syst...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Is dementia a preventable disease ?
Authors: Davidson M, Thibaut F Abstract There currently exists evidence of moderate quality that cognitive training, blood pressure management, and physical activity can delay onset or slow progression of AD.1 All other preventive interventions have cither produced negative and controversial results or are still under investigation. This issue will present reviews on both established preventive interventions and those under investigation. PMID: 31607775 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Is Alzheimer disease a failure of mobilizing immune defense? Lessons from cognitively fit oldest-old.
Authors: Katsel P, Haroutunian V Abstract Multifaceted evidence supports the hypothesis that inflammatory-immune mechanisms contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology and genetic association of several immune specific genes (TREM2, CR1, and CD33) suggests that maladaptive immune responses may be pivotal drivers of AD pathogenesis. We reviewed microglia-related data from postmortem AD studies and examined supporting evidence from AD animal models to answer the following questions: i) What is the temporal sequence of immune activation in AD progression and what is its impact on cognition? ii) Are there disco...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Potential immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease and age-related dementia.
Authors: Schwartz M, Arad M, Ben-Yehuda H Abstract Emerging results support the concept that Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-related dementia are affected by the ability of the immune system to contain the brain's pathology. Accordingly, well-controlled boosting, rather than suppression of systemic immunity, has been suggested as a new approach to modify disease pathology without directly targeting any of the brain's disease hallmarks. Here, we provide a short review of the mechanisms orchestrating the cross-talk between the brain and the immune system. We then discuss how immune checkpoint blockade directed against...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

What are we trying to prevent in Alzheimer disease?
Authors: Jessen F Abstract Within aging societies, the number of individuals suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD) is constistently increasing. This is paralleled by intense research aimed at improving treatment options and potentially even fostering effective prevention. The discussion on relevant outcomes of such interventions is ongoing. Here, different types of currently applied outcomes in the treatment of AD at the dementia stage, but also at the pre-dementia stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and asymptomatic preclinical AD are discussed. Regulatory agencies require effects on the clinical measures of...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Dementia treatment versus prevention.
Authors: Perneczky R Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia are becoming increasingly prevalent due to the aging of the global populations. Currently available treatment options, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, only have symptomatic effects and no drugs with disease-modifying properties are available. Research on the amyloid cascade indicates that amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance from the brain may be the main pathophysiological change in late-onset AD and the key driver of neurodegeneration, which ultimately results in progressive cognitive deterioration and dementia. Most new AD d...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Dementia prevention and reserve against neurodegenerative disease.
Authors: Perneczky R Abstract Similar to other complex disorders, the etiology of Alzheimer disease is multifactorial and characterized by an interplay of biological and environmental risk and protective factors. Potentially modifiable risk factors have emerged from epidemiological research and strategies to prevent neurodegeneration and dementia are currently being tested, including multimodal interventions aiming to reduce several risk factors at once. The concept of reserve was developed based on the observation that certain individual characteristics, such as life experiences, lifestyles, and neurobiological pa...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Physical activity for cognitive health: what advice can we give to older adults with subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment?
Authors: Lautenschlager NT, Cox KL, Ellis KA Abstract Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are common conditions in older age and are associated with an increased risk of future cognitive decline and dementia. As there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment available for SCD and MCI, modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia have received increasing attention in the literature as a focus for clinical trials. Physical activity (PA) is one of the strongest protective lifestyle factors. This clinical review aims to highlight the accumulating evidence abou...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Dietary interventions in mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
Authors: Vlachos GS, Scarmeas N Abstract Dietary intervention is an enticing approach in the fight against cognitive impairment. Nutritional supplements and dietetic counseling are relatively easy and benign interventions, but research has not yet yielded irrefutable evidence as to their clinical utility. Heterogeneity in the results of available clinical studies, as well as methodological and practical issues, does not allow replication and generalization of findings. The paper at hand reviews only randomized clinical trials of single nutrients, multi-nutrient formulations and dietary counseling in mild cognitive ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Antidiabetic therapies and Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Bendlin BB Abstract Given current lack of therapies for dementia, there is substantial interest in identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Clarifying the potential of these factors to mitigate risk as well as determining the mechanisms that link these factors to dementia is expected to lead to new approaches for both preventing and treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease. Modifiable factors include cardiovascular risks as well as related lifestyle-centric factors such as diet and physical activity (reviewed in this issue). Given reports that type 2 diabetes and associated fea...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Prevention of dementia presents a potentially critical platform for improvement of long-term public health.
Authors: Beeri MS Abstract With the aging of the population, Alzheimer disease (AD) has become an epidemic and a major public health threat. Hundreds of molecules tested in clinical trials in the last decade to treat AD have failed, moving the field to examine the clinical and neurobiological value of prevention of cognitive decline and AD. This short review describes recently finished or currently ongoing clinical trials for prevention of AD, both their main outcomes and secondary outcomes. In addition, the potential modifying effects of age and of genetics as important factors that may affect the design of future...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Ethical issues in early diagnosis and prevention of Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Whitehouse PJ Abstract This paper considers ethical issues related to early diagnosis and all forms of prevention of Alzheimer disease and related conditions. It offers a critical view of the current state of scientific, clinical, and social responses to the growing number of older people with cognitive challenges, and suggests how priorities going forward should be different from those receiving most attention today. We begin with a review of global policy efforts, consider the fundamental goals of prevention, examine issues surrounding early diagnosis, explore more deeply values associated with efforts t...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Psychiatric disorders: neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, or both?
Authors: Thibaut F Abstract Central nervous system disorders are traditionally dichotomized between early-onset neurodevelopmental and late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, there are commonalities in the mechanisms operating in both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 30936765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Disorders of neurogenesis and cortical development.
Authors: Guarnieri FC, de Chevigny A, Falace A, Cardoso C Abstract The development of the cerebral cortex requires complex sequential processes that have to be precisely orchestrated. The localization and timing of neuronal progenitor proliferation and of neuronal migration define the identity, laminar positioning, and specific connectivity of each single cortical neuron. Alterations at any step of this organized series of events-due to genetic mutations or environmental factors-lead to defined brain pathologies collectively known as malformations of cortical development (MCDs), which are now recognized as a leadin...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

From microcephaly to megalencephaly: determinants of brain size.
Authors: Pirozzi F, Nelson B, Mirzaa G Abstract Expansion of the human brain, and specifically the neocortex, is among the most remarkable evolutionary processes that correlates with cognitive, emotional, and social abilities. Cortical expansion is determined through a tightly orchestrated process of neural stem cell proliferation, migration, and ongoing organization, synaptogenesis, and apoptosis. Perturbations of each of these intricate steps can lead to abnormalities of brain size in humans, whether small (microcephaly) or large (megalencephaly). Abnormalities of brain growth can be clinically isolated or occur ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

An emerging role of dysfunctional axon-oligodendrocyte coupling in neurodegenerative diseases.
Authors: Alexandra I M, Constanze D, Klaus-Armin N Abstract Myelin is made by highly specialized glial cells and enables fast axonal impulse propagation. Recent studies show that oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system are, in addition to myelination, required for the integrity and survival of axons, independent of the presence or absence of myelin itself. The underlying mechanism of this support is given by glycolytic oligodendrocytes which provide axons with energy-rich metabolites. These findings represent a paradigm shift for the physiological function of axon-associated glia, and open the intriguing pos...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Peripheral transcriptomic biomarkers for early detection of sporadic Alzheimer disease?
Authors: Hadar A, Gurwitz D Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is the major epidemic of the 21st century, its prevalence rising along with improved human longevity. Early AD diagnosis is key to successful treatment, as currently available therapeutics only allow small benefits for diagnosed AD patients. By contrast, future therapeutics, including those already in preclinical or clinical trials, are expected to afford neuroprotection prior to widespread brain damage and dementia. Brain imaging technologies are developing as promising tools for early AD diagnostics, yet their high cost limits their utility for screening...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

An overview of inborn errors of metabolism affecting the brain: from neurodevelopment to neurodegenerative disorders.
Authors: Saudubray JM, Garcia-Cazorla A Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are particularly frequent as diseases of the nervous system. In the pediatric neurologic presentations of IEMs neurodevelopment is constantly disturbed and in fact, as far as biochemistry is involved, any kind of monogenic disease can become an IEM. Clinical features are very diverse and may present as a neurodevelopmental disorder (antenatal or late-onset), as well as an intermittent, a fixed chronic, or a progressive and late-onset neurodegenerative disorder. This also occurs within the same disorder in which a continuum spectrum ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Prevalence and predictive factors of psychological morbidity following facial injury: a prospective study of patients attending a maxillofacial outpatient clinic within a major UK city.
This study examined the prevalence of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, drug and alcohol use, and appearance-related distress among maxillofacial trauma outpatients over medium-term follow-up. It also explored socio-demographic and injury-related variables associated with psychological distress to inform targeted psychological screening protocols for maxillofacial trauma services. Significant associations were found between level of distress at time of injury and number of traumatic life events with levels of depression at 3 months. No significant associations were found between predictor variable...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurologic Wilson disease: case series on a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency.
Authors: Porlas RV, de Castillo LLC, Dioquino CPC Abstract Wilson disease is a rare genetic disease causing pathologic deposition of copper in the liver, brain, cornea, kidney, and cardiac muscles. Presented are two cases of neurologic Wilson disease with progressive movement disorder and Kayser-Fleischer rings with low serum copper, low ceruloplasmin, and increased 24-hour urine copper against a background of normal transaminases. Cranial imaging revealed symmetric basal ganglia hyperintensities in T2/FLAIR. More often than not, these cases go unnoticed and misdiagnosed because of its rarity and varied presentatio...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Controversies in psychiatry.
Authors: Thibaut F Abstract Neuroimaging and recent genetics discoveries have raised many questions regarding the current diagnostic criteria of psychiatric diseases and the current classifications used, which are still based on subjective clinical assessment. Despite high-quality research in brain neuroscience and evidence-based guidelines in many psychiatric diseases, some therapeutic issues are still a matter of debate. These controversial issues will be discussed in this 20th anniversary issue. PMID: 30581283 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Can psychopathology and neuroscience coexist in psychiatric classifications?
Authors: Crocq MA Abstract A crisis of confidence was triggered by the disappointment that diagnostic validity, an important goal, was not achieved with the publication of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, which provides a framework for neuroscientific research, was initially conceptualized as an alternative to DSM. However, RDoC and DSM are complementary rather than mutually exclusive. From a historical perspective, this article argues that the debate opposing psychology and brain in psychiatric classification is not new and has an air of d&...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Posttraumatic stress disorder as a diagnostic entity - clinical perspectives.
Authors: Carvajal C Abstract Throughout history the consequences of psychological trauma and characteristic symptoms have involved clinical presentations that have had different names. Since the inclusion of the category of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) with the symptomatic triad of re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance behaviors, and hypervigilance, this entity has been a source of controversy. Indeed, some authors have denied its existence, even considering it a diagnostic invention. In this article we revi...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The role of genetics and genomics in clinical psychiatry.
Authors: Hoehe MR, Morris-Rosendahl DJ Abstract The enormous successes in the genetics and genomics of many diseases have provided the basis for the advancement of precision medicine. Thus, the detection of genetic variants associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as treatment outcome, has raised growing expectations that these findings could soon be translated into the clinic to improve diagnosis, the prediction of disease risk and individual response to drug therapy. In this article, we will provide an introduction to the search for genes involved in psychiatric illness and summarize the present findin...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Forty years of structural brain imaging in mental disorders: is it clinically useful or not?
Authors: Peter F, Andrea S, Nancy A Abstract Structural brain imaging was introduced into routine clinical practice more than 40 years ago with the hope that it would support the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. It is now widely used to exclude organic brain disease (eg, brain tumors, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes) in mental disorders. However, questions have been raised about whether structural brain imaging is still needed today and whether it could also be clinically useful to apply new biostatistical methods, such as machine learning. Therefore, the current paper not only reviews struct...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Is there a role for reproductive steroids in the etiology and treatment of affective disorders?
Authors: Rubinow DR, Schmidt PJ Abstract A variety of hormones have been shown to play a role in affective disorders. Reproductive steroids are particularly informative in our efforts to understand the pathophysiology of affective dysregulation for several reasons: i) Reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perinatal depression, perimenopausal depression) are wonderful clinical models for investigating the mechanisms by which affective state changes occur; ii) Reproductive steroids regulate virtually every system that has been implicated as disturbed in the ontogeny of affect...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The role of prediction in suicide prevention.
Authors: Large MM Abstract It is widely believed that suicide prevention involves the consideration of risk and protective factors and related interventions. Preventative interventions can be classified as "universal" (targeting whole populations), "selective" (targeting higher-risk groups), and "indicated" (protecting individuals). This review explores the range of preventative measures that might be used commensurately with different types of suicide prediction. The author concludes that the best prospects for suicide prevention lie in universal prevention strategies. While risk asse...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Alternative and complementary approaches in psychiatry: beliefs versus evidence.
Authors: Schulz P, Hede V Abstract While the legitimacy of medical treatments is more and more questioned, one sees a paradoxical increase in nonconventional approaches, notably so in psychiatry. Over time, approaches that were considered valuable by the scientific community were found to be inefficacious, while other approaches, labelled as alternative or complementary, were finally discovered to be useful in a few indications. From this observation, we propose to classify therapies as orthodox (scientifically validated) or heterodox (scientifically not validated). To illustrate these two categories, we discuss th...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The debate regarding maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia.
Authors: Davidson M Abstract Several large meta-analyses of maintenance trials have confirmed that patients who suffer from chronic schizophrenia, randomized to placebo, are likely to experience earlier symptomatic worsening than patients randomized to a dopamine (DA)-blocking drug. These findings led expert groups to issue treatment guidelines, which recommend treatment with DA-blocking drugs for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely. The recommendations were accepted by the majority of, but not all, the experts, some of whom proposed a targeted or intermittent therapy approach by which DA-blocking dr...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research