Do we need to rethink our current classifications of mental disorders? 
.
Do we need to rethink our current classifications of mental disorders?
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar;22(1):3-4 Authors: Thibaut F Abstract The traditional categorical classification system and new diagnostic systems will be discussed in this issue.
. PMID: 32699500 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Changes from ICD-10 to ICD-11 and future directions in psychiatric classification 
.
This article provides a brief overview of the changes from ICD-10 to ICD-11 regarding the classification of mental, behavioral, or neurodevelopmental disorders. These changes include a new chapter structure, new diagnostic categories, changes in diagnostic criteria, and steps towards dimensionality. Additionally, we review evaluative field studies of ICD-11, which provide preliminary evidence for higher reliability and clinical utility of ICD-11 compared with ICD-10. Despite the extensive revision process, changes from ICD-10 to ICD-11 were relatively modest in that both systems are categorical, classifying mental phenomen...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Fractures in the framework: limitations of classification systems in psychiatry 
.
In conclusion, it emphasizes the need to go beyond the limitations inherent in classifications systems to provide more relevant diagnoses and effective treatments.
. PMID: 32699502 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Diagnosis as dialogue: historical and current perspectives 
.
Diagnosis as dialogue: historical and current perspectives
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar;22(1):27-35 Authors: Hoff P, Maatz A, Vetter JS Abstract Ever since psychiatry emerged as a clinical discipline and field of scientific inquiry in the late 18th century, debates about diagnosis have been at its very heart. Considered by many a requirement for clinical communication as well as for systematic study, others have critiqued psychiatric diagnosis for being modeled on a medical conception of disease that is ill-suited to the specific nature of mental disorders. Based on a review of seminal positio...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard phenotypes 
of endogenous psychoses: a review of their validity
.
Authors: Foucher JR, Gawlik M, Roth JN, de Crespin de Billy C, Jeanjean LC, Obrecht A, Mainberger O, Clauss JME, Elowe J, Weibel S, Schorr B, Cetkovich M, Morra C, Rebok F, Ban TA, Bollmann B, Roser MM, Hanke MS, Jabs BE, Franzek EJ, Berna F, Pfuhlmann B Abstract While the ICD-DSM paradigm has been a major advance in clinical psychiatry, its usefulness for biological psychiatry is debated. By defining consensus-based disorders rather than empirically driven phenotypes, consensus classifications were not an implementation of the biomedical paradigm. In the field of endogenous psychoses, the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurobiology and the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology: progress toward ontogenetically informed and clinically useful nosology 
.
Neurobiology and the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology: progress toward ontogenetically informed and clinically useful nosology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar;22(1):51-63 Authors: Perkins ER, Joyner KJ, Patrick CJ, Bartholow BD, Latzman RD, DeYoung CG, Kotov R, Reininghaus U, Cooper SE, Afzali MH, Docherty AR, Dretsch MN, Eaton NR, Goghari VM, Haltigan JD, Krueger RF, Martin EA, Michelini G, Ruocco AC, Tackett JL, Venables NC, Waldman ID, Zald DH Abstract The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical structural model of psychological symptoms formulated to improve t...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental disorders-the history and future of a diagnostic concept 
.
This article describes the history of the diagnostic class of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) up to DSM-5. We further analyze how the development of genetics will transform the classification and diagnosis of NDDs. In DSM-5, NDDs include intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Physicians in German-, French- and English-speaking countries (eg, Weikard, Georget, Esquirol, Down, Asperger, and Kanner) contributed to the phenomenological definitions of these disorders throughout the 18th and 20th centuries. These diagnostic categories show considerab...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Do DSM classifications help or hinder 
drug development?
.
Do DSM classifications help or hinder
drug development?
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar;22(1):73-79 Authors: Davidson M, Gabos-Grecu C Abstract Development and regulatory approval of psychotropic drugs targets individuals with syndromes described in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). This helps drug developers and regulators to communicate with prescribers, and prescribers to match a specific psychotropic with the individual patient(s) most likely to benefit from it. However, this practice has been criticized on the grounds that DSM syndromes are too hetero...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The role of RDoC in future classification of mental disorders 
.
The role of RDoC in future classification of mental disorders
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Mar;22(1):81-85 Authors: Cuthbert BN Abstract The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project constitutes a translational framework for psychopathology research, initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health in an attempt to provide new avenues for research to circumvent problems emerging from the use of symptom-based diagnostic categories in diagnosing disorders. The RDoC alternative is a focus on psychopathology based on dimensions simultaneously defined by observable behavior (including quantitative me...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Going digital: how technology use may influence human brains and behavior 
.
Going digital: how technology use may influence human brains and behavior
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):93-97 Authors: Hoehe MR, Thibaut F Abstract The digital revolution has changed, and continues to change, our world and our lives. Currently, major aspects of our lives have moved online due to the coronavirus pandemic, and social distancing has necessitated virtual togetherness. In a synopsis of 10 articles we present ample evidence that the use of digital technology may influence human brains and behavior in both negative and positive ways. For instance, brain imaging techniques show c...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The impact of the digital revolution 
on human brain and behavior: where 
do we stand?
.
Authors: Korte M Abstract This overview will outline the current results of neuroscience research on the possible effects of digital media use on the human brain, cognition, and behavior. This is of importance due to the significant amount of time that individuals spend using digital media. Despite several positive aspects of digital media, which include the capability to effortlessly communicate with peers, even over a long distance, and their being used as training tools for students and the elderly, detrimental effects on our brains and minds have also been suggested. Neurological consequences have been observed...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurobiological mechanisms underlying internet gaming disorder 
.
Neurobiological mechanisms underlying internet gaming disorder
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):113-126 Authors: Weinstein A, Lejoyeux M Abstract This review summarizes studies on the neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder (IGD), presently the most direct approach to analyzing the impact of digital technology and the internet on brain mechanisms. Brain imaging studies have shown that IGD shares, to a large extent, neurobiological alterations that are typical for other addictions, such as: (i) activation in brain regions associated with reward, as evident from cue exposure and...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Adolescent brain and the natural allure of digital media 
.
Adolescent brain and the natural allure of digital media
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):127-133 Authors: Giedd JN Abstract The growing amount of screen time among adolescents has raised concerns about the effects it may have on their physical and psychological health. Although the literature is divided on whether the effects are mostly positive, neutral, or mostly negative, it is likely that the impacts will be highly individualized with a mixture of good and bad consequences for each person. Understanding behavioral and neurobiological phenomena of adolescence may help to guide research a...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The impact of digital technology use on adolescent well-being 
.
The impact of digital technology use on adolescent well-being
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):135-142 Authors: Dienlin T, Johannes N Abstract This review provides an overview of the literature regarding digital technology use and adolescent well-being. Overall, findings imply that the general effects are on the negative end of the spectrum but very small. Effects differ depending on the type of use: whereas procrastination and passive use are related to more negative effects, social and active use are related to more positive effects. Digital technology use has stronger effects on short-ter...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Adolescent development and growing divides in the digital age 
.
Adolescent development and growing divides in the digital age
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):143-149 Authors: Odgers CL, Jensen MR Abstract Adolescents are constantly connected to their devices, and concerns have been raised that this connectivity is damaging their development more generally, and their mental health in particular. Recent narrative reviews and meta-analyses do not support a strong linkage between the quantity of adolescents' digital technology engagement and mental health problems. Instead, it appears that offline vulnerabilities tend to mirror and shape online risks in way...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Enhancing relationships through technology: directions in parenting, caregiving, romantic partnerships, and clinical practice 
.
Enhancing relationships through technology: directions in parenting, caregiving, romantic partnerships, and clinical practice
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):151-160 Authors: Morris ME Abstract Media coverage of research on phones and social media over the last decade has prompted widespread concern and one-size-fits-all guidance to limit screen time. Recognizing the limitations of screen time as a metric, researchers are now studying technology use in terms of affordances, individual differences, and longitudinal patterns. The current review examines technology use by parents, caregivers, ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Promises and risks of web-based interventions in the treatment of depression 
.
Promises and risks of web-based interventions in the treatment of depression
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):161-168 Authors: Hegerl U, Oehler C Abstract Major depression (MD) is a highly prevalent and severe disorder with many patients having no access to efficient treatments such as pharmaco- and psychotherapy. Web-based interventions promise to be a method to provide resource-efficient and widespread access to psychotherapeutic support. Meta-analyses summarizing studies that use face-to-face psychotherapy as a comparator provide evidence for equivalent antidepressant efficacy. Web-based ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Virtual reality as a clinical tool in mental health research and practice 
.
Virtual reality as a clinical tool in mental health research and practice
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):169-177 Authors: Bell IH, Nicholas J, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Thompson A, Valmaggia L Abstract Virtual reality (VR) is a potentially powerful technology for enhancing assessment in mental health. At any time or place, individuals can be transported into immersive and interactive virtual worlds that are fully controlled by the researcher or clinician. This capability is central to recent interest in how VR might be harnessed in both treatment and assessment of mental health conditions. The cu...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Brain health consequences of digital technology use 
.
Brain health consequences of digital technology use
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2020 Jun;22(2):179-187 Authors: Small GW, Lee J, Kaufman A, Jalil J, Siddarth P, Gaddipati H, Moody TD, Bookheimer SY Abstract Emerging scientific evidence indicates that frequent digital technology use has a significant impact-both negative and positive-on brain function and behavior. Potential harmful effects of extensive screen time and technology use include heightened attention-deficit symptoms, impaired emotional and social intelligence, technology addiction, social isolation, impaired brain development, and disrupte...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Digital technology and social change: the digital transformation of society from a historical perspective 
.
This article reviews the underlying theoretical framework and some accompanying data from the perspective of innovation theory.
. PMID: 32699519 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - July 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Epigenetics: the missing link between genes and psychiatric disorders? 
.
Epigenetics: the missing link between genes and psychiatric disorders?
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):337-338 Authors: Thibaut F Abstract Most studies describing epigenetic modifications have focused on DNA methylation, but fewer studies have focused on histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. Chromatin architecture and CCCTC-binding factor represent important noncoding regulatory elements that warrant further investigation in order to improve our understanding of the genomic basis of complex diseases such as psychiatric disorders.
. PMID: 31949401 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dia...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Unraveling the epigenetic landscape of depression: focus on early life stress 
.
Unraveling the epigenetic landscape of depression: focus on early life stress
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):341-357 Authors: Torres-Berrío A, Issler O, Parise EM, Nestler EJ Abstract Depression is a devastating psychiatric disorder caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and life events, mainly exposure to stress. Early life stress (ELS) in particular is known to "scar" the brain, leading to an increased susceptibility to developing depression later in life via epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic processes lead to changes in gene expression that are not due to cha...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic editing in 
nervous system
.
Genetic and epigenetic editing in
nervous system
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):359-368 Authors: Day JJ Abstract Numerous neuronal functions depend on the precise spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression, and the cellular machinery that contributes to this regulation is frequently disrupted in neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurological disease states. Recent advances in gene editing technology have enabled increasingly rapid understanding of gene sequence variation and gene regulatory function in the central nervous system. Moreover, these tools have provided new insights...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The epigenetics of perinatal stress 
.
The epigenetics of perinatal stress
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):369-378 Authors: Szyf M Abstract Early life adversity is associated with long-term effects on physical and mental health later in life, but the mechanisms are yet unclear. Epigenetic mechanisms program cell-type-specific gene expression during development, enabling one genome to be programmed in many ways, resulting in diverse stable profiles of gene expression in different cells and organs in the body. DNA methylation, an enzymatic covalent modification of DNA, has been one of the principal epigenetic mechanisms investigat...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Transcriptional mechanisms of drug addiction 
.
Transcriptional mechanisms of drug addiction
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):379-387 Authors: Bali P, Kenny PJ Abstract Drugs of abuse can modify gene expression in brain reward and motivation centers, which contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of these circuits that impacts the emergence of a state of addiction. Our understanding of how addictive drugs induce transcriptomic plasticity in addiction-relevant brain regions, particularly in the striatum, has increased dramatically in recent years. Intracellular signaling machineries, transcription factors, chromatin modificat...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Epigenetics as a key link between psychosocial stress and aging: concepts, evidence, mechanisms 
.
Epigenetics as a key link between psychosocial stress and aging: concepts, evidence, mechanisms
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):389-396 Authors: Zannas AS Abstract Psychosocial stress-especially when chronic, excessive, or occurring early in life-has been associated with accelerated aging and increased disease risk. With rapid aging of the world population, the need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms is pressing, now more so than ever. Among molecular mechanisms linking stress and aging, the present article reviews evidence on the role of epigenetics, biochemical processes that can be s...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Epigenetics and depression 
.
Epigenetics and depression
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):397-405 Authors: Penner-Goeke S, Binder EB Abstract The risk for major depression is both genetically and environmentally determined. It has been proposed that epigenetic mechanisms could mediate the lasting increases in depression risk following exposure to adverse life events and provide a mechanistic framework within which genetic and environmental factors can be integrated. Epigenetics refers to processes affecting gene expression and translation that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence and include DNA methylation (DNAm) ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Use of the epigenetic toolbox 
to contextualize common variants associated with schizophrenia risk
.
Use of the epigenetic toolbox
to contextualize common variants associated with schizophrenia risk
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Dec;21(4):407-416 Authors: Rajarajan P, Akbarian S Abstract Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a complex genetic architecture and limited understanding of its neuropathology, reflected by the lack of diagnostic measures and effective pharmacological treatments. Geneticists have recently identified more than 145 risk loci comprising hundreds of common variants of small effect sizes, most of which lie in noncoding genomic regions. This review will di...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

A review of epigenetic contributions 
to post-traumatic stress disorder
.
Authors: Howie H, Rijal CM, Ressler KJ Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a syndrome which serves as a classic example of psychiatric disorders that result from the intersection of nature and nurture, or gene and environment. By definition, PTSD requires the experience of a traumatic exposure, and yet data suggest that the risk for PTSD in the aftermath of trauma also has a heritable (genetic) component. Thus, PTSD appears to require both a biological (genetic) predisposition that differentially alters how the individual responds to or recovers from trauma exposure. Epigenetics is defined as the stud...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - January 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Cognition in psychiatry 
.
Cognition in psychiatry
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):223-224 Authors: Acuna-Vargas S, Thibaut F Abstract Cognition has attracted a growing interest in psychiatry. Since the 1990s, cognition as a whole has become an important determinant in the outcome of psychosis. Despite recent progress in the genetics of cognition, the development of new pharmacological compounds in order to improve cognition has not progressed as quickly. This issue will review and discuss the main areas of clinical and basic research in this domain.
. PMID: 31749646 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Domains of cognition and their assessment 
.
Domains of cognition and their assessment
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):227-237 Authors: Harvey PD Abstract Cognitive performance is typically conceptualized in terms of domains of functioning. These domains are hierarchical in nature, with the bottom referring to more basic sensory and perceptual processes and the top referring to elements of executive functioning and cognitive control. Domains are not independent of each other and executive functioning exerts control over the utilization of more basic processes. Assessments are typically targeted at subdomains of each ability area and c...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in psychotic illness: prevalence, profile of impairment, developmental course, and treatment considerations 
.
Cognitive impairment in psychotic illness: prevalence, profile of impairment, developmental course, and treatment considerations
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):239-248 Authors: McCleery A, Nuechterlein KH Abstract Despite effective pharmacological treatments for psychotic symptoms (eg, hallucinations, delusions), functional outcomes for people with psychotic disorders are often disappointing. Although it is not included in the diagnostic criteria for psychotic disorders, cognitive impairment is one of the strongest determinants of community functioning in this clinical population, and thus...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Assessing behavior and cognition in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans: where are the limits of translation? 
.
Assessing behavior and cognition in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans: where are the limits of translation?
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):249-259 Authors: Stephan M, Volkmann P, Rossner MJ Abstract New psychopharmacological treatments are needed for affective and nonaffective psychoses, especially for the associated negative and cognitive symptoms. Earlier developments mostly failed, probably partly because of limitations in behavioral models used for validation. Now, deeper understanding of the genetics underlying disease pathogenesis and progress in genetic engineering will generat...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Nonpharmacological treatment of dyscognition in schizophrenia: effects 
of aerobic exercise
.
Authors: Maurus I, Röh A, Falkai P, Malchow B, Schmitt A, Hasan A Abstract Cognitive symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia and are related to an unfavorable disease outcome. So far, there are no satisfactory pharmacological approaches to address cognitive symptoms. For some time now, aerobic exercise has been demonstrated in various trials to be a promising candidate for this indication. The aim of this brief qualitative review was to present the most recent meta-analyses regarding the capacity of exercise to improve cognition in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we give a short overview of the effe...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

The synaptic pathology of cognitive life 
.
The synaptic pathology of cognitive life
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):271-279 Authors: Honer WG, Ramos-Miguel A, Alamri J, Sawada K, Barr AM, Schneider JA, Bennett DA Abstract Prospective, community-based studies allow evaluation of associations between cognitive functioning and synaptic measures, controlled for age-related pathologies. Findings from>400 community-based participants are reviewed. Levels of two presynaptic proteins, complexin-I (inhibitory terminals), and complexin-II (excitatory terminals) contributed to cognitive variation from normal to dementia. Adding the amount o...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Cognition and addiction 
.
Cognition and addiction
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):281-290 Authors: Verdejo-Garcia A, Garcia-Fernandez G, Dom G Abstract In this targeted review, we summarize current knowledge on substance-use disorder (SUD)-related cognitive deficits, the link between these deficits and clinical outcomes, and the cognitive training, remediation, and pharmacological approaches that have the potential to rescue cognition. We conclude that: (i) people with SUDs have moderate deficits in memory, attention, executive functions, and decision-making (including reward expectancy, valuation, and learning); (i...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Dysfunctional neurocognition in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits 
.
Dysfunctional neurocognition in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):291-299 Authors: Blair RJR Abstract The main goal of this review is to consider the main forms of dysfunctional neurocognition seen in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits (ie, reduced guilt/empathy and increased impulsive/antisocial behavior). A secondary goal is to examine the extent to which these forms of dysfunction are seen in both adults with psychopathic traits and adolescents with clinically significant antisocial behavior that may also ...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in nondementing mental health disorders 
.
Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in nondementing mental health disorders
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):301-308 Authors: Robbins TW Abstract Evidence for pharmacological remediation of cognitive deficits in three major psychiatric disorders-attention deficit- hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and depression-is reviewed. ADHD is effectively treated with the stimulant medications methylphenidate and d-amphetamine, as well as nonstimulants such as atomoxetine, implicating cognitive enhancing effects mediated by noradrenaline and dopamine. However, the precise mechan...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Metacognitive and cognitive-behavioral interventions for psychosis: new developments 
.
Metacognitive and cognitive-behavioral interventions for psychosis: new developments
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):309-317 Authors: Moritz S, Klein JP, Lysaker PH, Mehl S Abstract This review describes four cognitive approaches for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), metacognitive therapy, metacognitive training, and metacognitive reflection insight therapy (MERIT). A central reference point of our review is a seminal paper by James Flavell, who introduced the term metacognition ("cognition about cognition"). In a way, every psychot...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of computer gaming on cognition, brain structure, and function: a critical reflection on existing literature 
.
Effects of computer gaming on cognition, brain structure, and function: a critical reflection on existing literature
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):319-330 Authors: Kühn S, Gallinat J, Mascherek A Abstract Video gaming as a popular form of leisure activity and its effect on cognition, brain function, and structure has come into focus in the field of neuroscience. Visuospatial cognition and attention seem to benefit the most, whereas for executive functions, memory, and general cognition, the results are contradictory. The particular characteristics of video games driving these effects...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Future paths in psychopharmacology 
.
Future paths in psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):115-116 Authors: Thibaut F Abstract Drug development in psychiatry is gradually moving from serendipity to personalized medicine. Some promising paths will be reviewed in this issue.
. PMID: 31636485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Opportunities and challenges in psychopharmacology 
.
Opportunities and challenges in psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):119-130 Authors: Schulz P Abstract This review addresses novel approaches for influencing the transcriptome, the epigenome, the microbiome, the proteome, and the energy metabolome. These innovations help develop psychotropic medications which will directly reach the molecular targets, leading to beneficial effects, and which will be individually adapted to provide more efficacy and less toxicity. The series of advances described here show that these once utopian goals for psychiatric treatment are now real themes...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Genomics and the future of psychopharmacology: MicroRNAs offer novel therapeutics 
.
Genomics and the future of psychopharmacology: MicroRNAs offer novel therapeutics
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):131-148 Authors: Gurwitz D Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs functioning as regulators of the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes. During the last two decades, studies on miRNAs indicate that they have potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for a wide range of cancers. Research interest in miRNAs has moved to embrace further medical disciplines, including neuropsychiatric disorders, comparing miRNA expression and mRNA targets between pa...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Psychedelic drugs-a new era in 
psychiatry?
.
This article covers the renaissance of classical psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD plus 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA-ecstasy) in psychiatric research. These drugs were used quite extensively before they became prohibited. This ban had little impact on recreational use, but effectively stopped research and clinical treatments, which up to that point had looked very promising in several areas of psychiatry. In the past decade a number of groups have been working to re-evaluate the utility of these substances in medicine. So far highly promising preliminary data have been produced with psilocybin in anx...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Receptor variants and the development of centrally acting medications 
.
Receptor variants and the development of centrally acting medications
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):149-157 Authors: Neale SA, Kambara K, Salt TE, Bertrand D Abstract The progressive changes in research paradigms observed in the largest pharmaceutical companies and the burgeoning of biotechnology startups over the last 10 years have generated a need for outsourcing research facilities. In parallel, progress made in the fields of genomics, protein expression in recombinant systems, and electrophysiological recording methods have offered new possibilities for the development of contract researc...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Harnessing the microbiota to treat neurological diseases 
.
Harnessing the microbiota to treat neurological diseases
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):159-165 Authors: Surana NK Abstract Studies over the last decade have transformed our previously simplistic view of microbes, having only a pathogenic role in disease to a more robust understanding that they are critical for maintaining human health. Indeed, our microbiota-the collection of commensal organisms that live in and on each of us-contributes to nearly every facet of host physiology, from ontogeny of the immune system to neurological function to metabolism. Although the specific details of these h...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

How evolutionary psychiatry can advance psychopharmacology 
.
How evolutionary psychiatry can advance psychopharmacology
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):167-175 Authors: Nesse RM, Stein DJ Abstract The prevailing paradigm for psychopharmacology focuses on understanding brain mechanisms as the key to finding new medications and improving clinical outcomes, but frustration with slow progress has inspired many pleas for new approaches. Evolutionary psychiatry brings in an additional basic science that poses new questions about why natural selection left us vulnerable to so many mental disorders, and new insights about how drugs work. The integration of neuro...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Blood-based systems biology biomarkers for next-generation clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease 
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Blood-based systems biology biomarkers for next-generation clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):177-191 Authors: Hampel H, Vergallo A, Afshar M, Akman-Anderson L, Arenas J, Benda N, Batrla R, Broich K, Caraci F, Cuello AC, Emanuele E, Haberkamp M, Kiddle SJ, Lucía A, Mapstone M, Verdooner SR, Woodcock J, Lista S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD)-a complex disease showing multiple pathomechanistic alterations-is triggered by nonlinear dynamic interactions of genetic/epigenetic and environmental risk factors, which, ultimately, converge into a biologically...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Treating psychiatric symptoms and disorders with non-psychotropic medications 
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Treating psychiatric symptoms and disorders with non-psychotropic medications
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):193-201 Authors: Hede V, Devillé C Abstract A few drugs prescribed in internal medicine, ie, non-psychotropic drugs, can be used to treat certain neuropsychiatric disorders. For most of these situations, the level of evidence remains low. But when sufficient data becomes available, these molecules are then included in official guidelines for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review interesting drugs which may be relevant from an evidence-based medici...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Drug discovery in psychopharmacology: from 2D models to cerebral organoids 
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Drug discovery in psychopharmacology: from 2D models to cerebral organoids
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):203-224 Authors: Rossetti AC, Koch P, Ladewig J Abstract Psychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of mental illnesses associated with a high social and economic burden on patients and society. The complex symptomatology of these disorders, coupled with our limited understanding of the structural and functional abnormalities affecting the brains of neuropsychiatric patients, has made it difficult to develop effective medical treatment strategies. With the advent of reprogramming tech...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research