Therapeutic Strategies for Corneal Wound Angiogenesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCorneal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide, resulting from corneal scarring and neovascularization. There is an unmet need for developing effective therapies to prevent and/or treat corneal neovascularization.Recent FindingsTopical steroid medication, cautery, argon and yellow dye laser, and fine needle diathermy have all been advocated with varying degrees of success. Vascular endothelial growth factor family of proteins play a pivotal role in corneal neovascularization, and current therapies are aimed at disrupting the various steps in this pathway. Advancement in cell-based therap...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in Diffusion and Perfusion MRI for Quantitative Cancer Imaging
This article is to review recent technical developments and their clinical applications in cancer imaging quantitative measurement of cellular and vascular properties of the tumors.Recent FindingsRapid development of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies over the last decade brought new opportunities in quantitative MRI methods to measure both cellular and vascular properties of tumors simultaneously.SummaryDiffusion MRI (dMRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI have become widely used to assess the tissue structural and vascular properties, respectively. However, the ultimate potential of these advanced ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - December 2, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Emergence of Pathomics
We report emerging digital pathology image analysis applications to study several types and subtypes of cancer to complement traditional histopathologic evaluation.SummaryWSIs typically contain hundreds of thousands to millions of objects within a heterogeneous histologic landscape. Therefore, Pathomics represents an incredibly powerful emerging approach to classify cellular interactions and signaling by identifying relevant spatial relationships. The quantification of the intrinsic variability of different phenotypes and behavior in cancer is useful in analyzing and predicting clinical outcomes and treatment response. (So...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 27, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in PET Diagnostics for Guiding Targeted Cancer Therapy and Studying In Vivo Cancer Biology
We present an overview of recent advances in positron emission tomography (PET) diagnostics as applied to the study of cancer, specifically as a tool to study in vivo cancer biology and to direct targeted cancer therapy. The review is directed to translational and clinical cancer investigators who may not be familiar with these applications of PET cancer diagnostics, but whose research might benefit from these advancing tools.Recent FindingsWe highlight recent advances in 3 areas: (1) the translation of PET imaging cancer biomarkers to clinical trials; (2) methods for measuring cancer metabolism in vivo in patients; and (3...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 25, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Highly Multiplexed, Quantitative Tissue Imaging at Cellular Resolution
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a contemporary push to map tissues and their disease states quantitatively at single-cell and spatial resolution, but standard assays to do so, such as immunohistochemistry, have been historically lowly multiplexed (2 –4 measurements). This push has driven the development of several new multiplexed techniques for quantitative tissue imaging, which we review here.Recent FindingsStandard multiplexed imaging is primarily limited by fluorophore spectral overlap. Innovations increasing multiplexing capacity include iterative cycles of staining/bleaching/imaging, imaging mass spectrometry ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 25, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Metabolic Nano-Machines: Extracellular Vesicles Containing Active Enzymes and Their Contribution to Liver Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe field of extracellular vesicles is growing exponentially because of the important role that these extracellular organelles had on cell to cell communication, triggering a large number of review compilations focusing on different aspects of their biology. Although their importance as effectors or potential biomarkers is well covered, the highlight of extracellular vesicles as carriers of active enzymes which have the capability to transform the surrounding media is less covered by bibliographic studies. In the present review, we focus our attention on enzymatic activity carried by vesicles, with...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 17, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

High-Resolution Microscopy for Imaging Cancer Pathobiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLight microscopy plays an essential role in clinical diagnosis and understanding the pathogenesis of cancer. Conventional bright-field microscope is used to visualize abnormality in tissue architecture and nuclear morphology, but often suffers from many limitations. This review focuses on the potential of new imaging techniques to improve basic and clinical research in pathobiology.Recent FindingsLight microscopy has significantly expanded its ability in resolution, imaging volume, speed, and contrast. It now allows 3D high-resolution volumetric imaging of tissue architecture from large tissue and ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 11, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Next-Generation Techniques for Determination of Protein-Protein Interactions: Beyond the Crystal Structure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe discuss recent advancements in structural biology methods for investigating sites of protein-protein interactions. We will inform readers outside the field of structural biology about techniques beyond crystallography and how these different technologies can be utilized for drug development.Recent FindingsAdvancements in cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and micro-electron diffraction (microED) may change how we view atomic resolution structural biology, such that well-ordered macrocrystals of protein complexes are not required for interface identification. However, some drug discovery applicati...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Breast Cancer and Dietary Intake of Endocrine Disruptors: a Review of Recent Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn women, breast cancer is the second most common cause of death. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with hormone signaling, possibly linking to cancer. Among these, estrogen-mimicking endocrine disruptors (EEDs) infiltrate the human diet and are known to bind to estrogen receptors.Recent FindingsWe reviewed recent literature (n = 13 papers) examining associations between dietary intake of EEDs and breast cancer incidence. Collectively, this sample of investigations suggest a positive correlation, including bisphenol A (BPA) (0.4–4.2 μg/kg-bw/day), phytoes...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 28, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nanotherapies for Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease: a Case for Antioxidant Targeted Delivery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) involves a broad range of clinical manifestations resulting from a dysfunctional vascular system. Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is causally implicated in the severity of vascular dysfunction and CVD. Antioxidant therapy is an attractive avenue for treatment of CVD-associated pathologies. Implementation of targeted nanoantioxidant therapies has the potential to overcome hurdles associated with systemic delivery of antioxidants. This review examines the currently available options for nanotherapeutic targeting CVD, and explores successful studies ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 27, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Using FFPE Tissue in Genomic Analyses: Advantages, Disadvantages and the Role of Biospecimen Science
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFormalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks are considered by some to be suboptimal for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) because, compared with fresh-frozen (FF) biospecimens, the nucleic acid obtained from them is fragmented and low in quantity, containing formalin-induced modifications and mutations. However, clinical workflows do not typically have the capability to collect FF tissue, so there is an inherent necessity to perform NGS using FFPE tissue. We review relevant literature that addresses the issue of extracting DNA from FFPE tissue biospecimens then applying it to NGS.Recent F...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Impact of Pre-analytical Factors on the Reliability of miRNA Measurements
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we highlight the importance of using standardized procedures and protocols for circulating miRNA isolation, detection, and quantification, in order to establish their role as non-invasive biomarkers in the clinical setting.Recent FindingsSpecific miRNAs have already been investigated as promising prognostic and diagnostic markers in various types of cancer. Circulating microRNAs detected in plasma are continuously and intensively explored as non-invasive prognostic and diagnostic markers in a variety of human diseases and mainly in cancer. These miRNAs are remarkably stable in biolo...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Biospecimen Science of Blood for Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) Functional Applications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are used in a wide variety of preclinical assays. Preanalytical variations can have a devastating impact on the results. In this review, we list critical preanalytical factors for PBMC-based assays to develop awareness and orientation to the types of sample preparation and storage that one may consider employing.Recent FindingsCritical factors during blood collection are the blood collection tube and anticoagulant, possible stabilizer used, and the pre-isolation blood storage temperature and time. During PBMC isolation, critical factors are the isolation m...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - May 11, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Biospecimen Science of Blood for cfDNA Genetic Analyses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewcfDNA is increasingly used for biomonitoring oncological diseases or pregnancy status by different genetic analyses. Uncontrolled pre-analytical variability impacts the quality and quantity and subsequently undermines the utility of this analyte. In this review, we summarize critical pre-analytical factors to be addressed, to avoid irreproducible results.Recent FindingscfDNA quantity and quality can be impacted by the in vivo condition of the donor and the ex vivo biospecimen handling prior to the downstream analysis. In vivo, physical and psychosocial stress, circadian rhythmicity, and age appear ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Standardization of Blood Collection and Processing for the Diagnostic Use of Extracellular Vesicles
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles released by many types of cells in both health and disease. EVs can be found in most body fluids, carrying a plethora of biomolecules, including proteins, RNA, and DNA, that reflect the biomolecular composition of the tissue of origin. Parenchymal and stromal cells actively release EVs in the extracellular milieu and in circulation, providing valuable information that may be exploited for diagnostic applications. However, isolation of these EV subpopulations in circulation is extremely challenging as they are diluted within more abundant EV s...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - January 18, 2019 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cancer Foraging Ecology: Diet Choice, Patch Use, and Habitat Selection of Cancer Cells
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHere we connect theories of diet choice, patch use, and habitat selection with cancer biology. Key and only partially answered questions include: Do cancer cells ’ uptake of nutrients conform to theory? What are the supply and total mass of resources within tumors? Can cancer cell foraging strategies provide indicators for tumor dynamics and therapies? We advocate for a new research subdiscipline of cancer foraging ecology.Recent FindingsForaging ecology studies feeding behaviors of organisms as adaptations. Virtually all of life exhibits adaptations relating to diet, patch use, and habitat s...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - November 27, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Virotherapy as Potential Adjunct Therapy for Graft-Vs-Host Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the pathophysiology, risk factors, and the advances in the prevention or treatment of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) by exploiting adjunct virotherapy. In addition, nonviral adjunct therapeutic options for the prevention of GvHD in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are discussed. The role of oncolytic viruses to treat different HSCT-eligible hematological cancers is also considered and correlated with the issue of GvHD in the context of allo-HSCT.Recent FindingsEmerging therapies focused on the prevention or treatment of GvHD include t...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - November 19, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Life History Trade-Offs in Tumors
AbstractPurposeIn this paper, we provide an overview of a life history theory and how it applies to cancer evolution.Recent FindingsWe review the literature on trade-offs in tumors, focusing on the trade-offs among cellular proliferation, survival, and motility. Trade-offs are critical natural constraints for almost all evolutionary processes. Many ecological studies show that trade-offs among these cellular functions maintain a genetic diversity. In addition, these trade-offs are not fixed, but rather can shift depending on the ecological circumstances in the microenvironment. This can lead to selection for the cellular c...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - November 10, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hepatic Manifestations in Glycogen Storage Disease Type III
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) is an orphan disease that mainly affects the liver, heart, and skeletal muscles. It is caused by the deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE), resulting in accumulation of glycogen (limit dextrin) primarily in the cytoplasm. With an increase in life expectancy in patients and advances in research, long-term hepatic manifestations are being recognized. This review examines our understanding of the natural history of the hepatic manifestations of GSD III and the importance of developing definitive therapies.Recent FindingsAnimal models have shown spe...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - November 5, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nanotechnology Enabled Inhalation of Bio-therapeutics for Pulmonary Diseases: Design Considerations and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to critically discuss design considerations for the development of nanoparticle-based formulations for inhalation delivery of bio-therapeutics in pulmonary diseases. We will also discuss the challenges towards clinical translation of this approach, highlighting the directions for future research.Recent FindingsNanotechnology-based inhalation delivery of bio-therapeutics in pulmonary diseases can potentially overcome the shortcomings of clinically used parenteral route. Exploration of inhalable nanoparticles for delivery of bio-therapeutics in pulmonary diseases is still at an early...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - October 24, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nanoparticles Based Drug Delivery for Tissue Regeneration Using Biodegradable Scaffolds: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewToday, tissue engineering is advancing rapidly due to application of technologies like computer-aided designing; solid free-form fabrication, nanomedicine, etc. Excessive requirement of artificial organs like skin, blood vessels, cartilage, bladder, etc. is helping in its rapid development. Nanomedicines are used to bind/encapsulate in porous biodegradable scaffolds in the form of antibiotics, proteins, growth factors, specific micro- and macro-nutrients to promote the tissue regeneration.Recent FindingsIn our recent study, we reported that the chitosan-silver-based nanocomposite supports the growt...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Liquid Biopsy Preservation Solutions for Standardized Pre-Analytical Workflows —Venous Whole Blood and Plasma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLiquid biopsy analyses based on circulating cell-free nucleic acids, circulating tumor cells or other diseased cells from organs, and exosomes or other microvesicles in blood offer new means for non-invasive diagnostic applications. The main goal of this review is to explain the importance of preserving whole blood specimens after blood draw for use as liquid biopsies, and to summarize preservation solutions that are currently available.Recent FindingsDespite the great potential of liquid biopsies for diagnostics and disease management, besides non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), only a few liqui...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - October 18, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Perioperative Developments in Biliary Atresia Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper presents an overview of the current developments in the perioperative biliary atresia (BA) treatment.Recent FindingsBiliary atresia is a rare cholangiopathy and the most common indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Kasai portoenterostomy is the primary therapy, leading to sufficient biliary drainage in 20 –30% of patients with native liver. Multiple strategies in preoperative, operative, and postoperative care were tested to improve survival with native liver (SNL). Screening methods, centralization of care to specialized centers, laparoscopic Kasai procedure, and adjuvan...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - October 17, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tumor Pre-Analytics in Molecular Pathology: Impact on Protein Expression and Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPrecision medicine promises patient tailored, individualized diagnosis and treatment of diseases and relies on clinical specimen integrity and accuracy of companion diagnostic testing. Therefore, pre-analytics, which are defined as the collection, processing, and storage of clinical specimens, are critically important to enable optimal diagnostics, molecular profiling, and clinical decision-making around harvested specimens. This review article discusses the impact of tumor pre-analytics on molecular pathology focusing on biospecimen protein expression and analysis.Recent FindingsDue to busy clinic...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 6, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Injuries in Astronauts: Review of Pre-flight, In-flight, Post-flight, and Extravehicular Activity Injuries
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo provide a comprehensive review of musculoskeletal injuries in astronauts during pre-flight, in-flight (including extravehicular activity), and post-flight periods. The discussion is inclusive of etiology and nature of the injury, preventative measures, and future considerations.Recent FindingsThe most common injuries were to the hand, shoulder, and back/spine. Patterns and location of injury depend on the phase of flight during which they occurred. Current countermeasures are effective for some concerns, but do not ameliorate all musculoskeletal risks, thus new countermeasure and preventativ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanistic Clues to Overcome Spaceflight-Induced Immune Dysregulation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo recapitulate the latest findings from comprehensive studies of relatively long-duration spaceflight aboard the International Space Station, followed by exciting research published recently that illuminates the means by which we may be able to correct the immune system disturbances associated with spaceflight.Recent FindingsWhile in space, most astronauts experience immune perturbations that may manifest as a form of immunodeficiency or, alternatively, a hypersensitivity reaction. When it occurs, the dysregulation persists stably for the duration of the mission. T lymphocytes – a population...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Partial Gravity on the Function and Particle Handling of the Human Lung
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe challenges presented to the lung by the space environment are the effects of prolonged absence of gravity, the challenges of decompression stress associated with spacewalking, and the changes in the deposition of inhaled particulate matter.Recent FindingsAlthough there are substantial changes in the function of the lung in partial gravity, the lung is largely unaffected by sustained exposure, returning rapidly to a normal state after return to 1G. Provided there is adequate denitrogenation prior to a spacewalk, avoiding the development of venous gas emboli, the lung copes well with the low-pres...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Space Radiation Effects on Crew During and After Deep Space Missions
AbstractPurposeOverview and perspectives are provided of radiation hazards associated with deep space human missions, such as to Mars.Recent FindingsSignificant associations between radiation dose and effects of principal concern from space radiation (cancer, cardiovascular, CNS) have not yet been detected in astronauts. Therefore, estimates of radiation-induced health consequences from extended deep space missions are based on studies available from radiation-exposed human populations on Earth (e.g., A-bomb survivors) supplemented with data from biological experiments (primarily rodents) using space-type radiations obtain...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Challenge of Human Pathobiology in Space
(Source: Current Pathobiology Reports)
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vestibular and Sensorimotor Dysfunction During Space Flight
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review dysfunctions in spatial orientation, cognition, gaze stabilization, and posture and locomotor control recently documented in astronauts during and immediately after both short- and long-duration space flights.Recent FindingsThe spatial disorientation and cognitive deficits experienced by astronauts in microgravity are similar to those observed in individuals with vestibular disorders on Earth. After space flight, astronauts take more time to acquire visual targets while moving their head. Balance and locomotion control are impaired for approximately 15  days after lon...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evolutionary Stem Cell Poker and Cancer Risks: the Paradox of the Large and Small Intestines
AbstractPurpose of reviewRecent studies demonstrate that normal human tissues accumulate substantial numbers of somatic mutations with aging, to levels comparable to their corresponding cancers. If mutations cause cancer, how do tissues avoid cancer when mutations are unavoidable?Recent findingsThe small intestines (SI) and colon accumulate similar numbers of replication errors, but SI adenocarcinoma is much rarer than colorectal cancer. Both the small and large intestines are subdivided into millions of small neighborhoods (crypts) that are maintained by small numbers of stem cells. To explain the SI cancer paradox, four ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: Emerging Imaging Modalities in Regenerative Medicine
The article Emerging Imaging Modalities in Regenerative Medicine, written by Mitchel R. Stacy and Albert J. Sinusas, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 January 2015 without open access. (Source: Current Pathobiology Reports)
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Injuries in Astronauts: Review of Pre-flight, In-flight, Post-flight, and Extravehicular Activity Injuries
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo provide a comprehensive review of musculoskeletal injuries in astronauts during pre-flight, in-flight (including extravehicular activity), and post-flight periods. The discussion is inclusive of etiology and nature of the injury, preventative measures, and future considerations.Recent FindingsThe most common injuries were to the hand, shoulder, and back/spine. Patterns and location of injury depend on the phase of flight during which they occurred. Current countermeasures are effective for some concerns, but do not ameliorate all musculoskeletal risks, thus new countermeasure and preventativ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 28, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Challenge of Human Pathobiology in Space
(Source: Current Pathobiology Reports)
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 26, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Space Radiation Effects on Crew During and After Deep Space Missions
AbstractPurposeOverview and perspectives are provided of radiation hazards associated with deep space human missions, such as to Mars.Recent FindingsSignificant associations between radiation dose and effects of principal concern from space radiation (cancer, cardiovascular, CNS) have not yet been detected in astronauts. Therefore, estimates of radiation-induced health consequences from extended deep space missions are based on studies available from radiation-exposed human populations on Earth (e.g., A-bomb survivors) supplemented with data from biological experiments (primarily rodents) using space-type radiations obtain...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanistic Clues to Overcome Spaceflight-Induced Immune Dysregulation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo recapitulate the latest findings from comprehensive studies of relatively long-duration spaceflight aboard the International Space Station, followed by exciting research published recently that illuminates the means by which we may be able to correct the immune system disturbances associated with spaceflight.Recent FindingsWhile in space, most astronauts experience immune perturbations that may manifest as a form of immunodeficiency or, alternatively, a hypersensitivity reaction. When it occurs, the dysregulation persists stably for the duration of the mission. T lymphocytes – a population...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 19, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evolutionary Stem Cell Poker and Cancer Risks: the Paradox of the Large and Small Intestines
AbstractPurpose of reviewRecent studies demonstrate that normal human tissues accumulate substantial numbers of somatic mutations with aging, to levels comparable to their corresponding cancers. If mutations cause cancer, how do tissues avoid cancer when mutations are unavoidable?Recent findingsThe small intestines (SI) and colon accumulate similar numbers of replication errors, but SI adenocarcinoma is much rarer than colorectal cancer. Both the small and large intestines are subdivided into millions of small neighborhoods (crypts) that are maintained by small numbers of stem cells. To explain the SI cancer paradox, four ...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 16, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Partial Gravity on the Function and Particle Handling of the Human Lung
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe challenges presented to the lung by the space environment are the effects of prolonged absence of gravity, the challenges of decompression stress associated with spacewalking, and the changes in the deposition of inhaled particulate matter.Recent FindingsAlthough there are substantial changes in the function of the lung in partial gravity, the lung is largely unaffected by sustained exposure, returning rapidly to a normal state after return to 1G. Provided there is adequate denitrogenation prior to a spacewalk, avoiding the development of venous gas emboli, the lung copes well with the low-pres...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 13, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vestibular and Sensorimotor Dysfunction During Space Flight
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper aims to review dysfunctions in spatial orientation, cognition, gaze stabilization, and posture and locomotor control recently documented in astronauts during and immediately after both short- and long-duration space flights.Recent FindingsThe spatial disorientation and cognitive deficits experienced by astronauts in microgravity are similar to those observed in individuals with vestibular disorders on Earth. After space flight, astronauts take more time to acquire visual targets while moving their head. Balance and locomotion control are impaired for approximately 15  days after lon...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - July 3, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Correction to: Emerging Imaging Modalities in Regenerative Medicine
The article Emerging Imaging Modalities in Regenerative Medicine, written by Mitchel R. Stacy and Albert J. Sinusas, was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 January 2015 without open access. (Source: Current Pathobiology Reports)
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 5, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical Applications of Bone Tissue Engineering in Orthopedic Trauma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOrthopedic trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many fractures tend to heal if treated appropriately either by non-operative or operative methods, delayed or failed healing, as well as infections, can lead to devastating complications. Tissue engineering is an exciting, emerging field with much scientific and clinical relevance in potentially overcoming the current limitations in the treatment of orthopedic injuries.Recent FindingsWhile direct translation of bone tissue engineering technologies to clinical use remains challenging, considerable research has been don...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

A New Paradigm for Tissue Diagnostics: Tools and Techniques to Standardize Tissue Collection, Transport, and Fixation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudying and developing preanalytical tools and technologies for the purpose of obtaining high-quality samples for histological assays is a growing field. Currently, there does not exist a standard practice for collecting, fixing, and monitoring these precious samples. There has been some advancement in standardizing collection for the highest profile tumor types, such as breast, where HER2 testing drives therapeutic decisions. This review examines the area of tissue collection, transport, and monitoring of formalin diffusion and details a prototype system that could be used to help standardize tis...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology and Pre-Analytic Variables: Impact on Clinical Practice From a Breast Pathology Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancer therapy is increasingly becoming dependent on the ability to target specific molecular pathways that drive disease progression. Consequently, the identification of specific molecular pathways requires the use of companion diagnostic assays that are accurate and reproducible. This review will discuss the data and concerns surrounding pre-analytic variables in the evaluation of breast cancer tissue.Recent FindingsAlthough ASCO/CAP guidelines offer recommendations for the collection and preservation of diagnostic clinical tissues, standard clinical practice has paid little attention to the suit...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Targeting Pericytes to Improve Wound Healing Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecently, pericytes, a mesenchymal stem-like cell population, has been of great interest due to its plasticity and for its role in different pathologies. This review will focus on the contributions of pericytes specifically to wound healing and the potential to manipulate this specific cell population for better healing outcome.Recent FindingsSeveral studies point towards the capability of pericytes to regulate inflammation, angiogenesis and the remodeling phase of healing. Interestingly, findings also show that the source from which pericytes are isolated has differential and varied effects during...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Pro-reparative Engine: Stem Cells Aid Healing by Dampening Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStem cells have been proposed as sources for tissue replacement when healing does not occur. These cells could contribute directly to skin structures via differentiation, or via producing trophic factors that would ‘educate’ the microenvironment to encourage tissue repair. Studies in animals have supported both mechanisms, but translation to humans has been challenged by poor cell survival after transplantation. However, the improvement noted with even transient existence suggests another new possibility, that of suppressing the inflammatory response that limits regenerative healing. He...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology and Pre-Analytic Variables: Impact on Clinical Practice From a Breast Pathology Perspective
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancer therapy is increasingly becoming dependent on the ability to target specific molecular pathways that drive disease progression. Consequently, the identification of specific molecular pathways requires the use of companion diagnostic assays that are accurate and reproducible. This review will discuss the data and concerns surrounding pre-analytic variables in the evaluation of breast cancer tissue.Recent FindingsAlthough ASCO/CAP guidelines offer recommendations for the collection and preservation of diagnostic clinical tissues, standard clinical practice has paid little attention to the suit...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - May 11, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

A New Paradigm for Tissue Diagnostics: Tools and Techniques to Standardize Tissue Collection, Transport, and Fixation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudying and developing preanalytical tools and technologies for the purpose of obtaining high-quality samples for histological assays is a growing field. Currently, there does not exist a standard practice for collecting, fixing, and monitoring these precious samples. There has been some advancement in standardizing collection for the highest profile tumor types, such as breast, where HER2 testing drives therapeutic decisions. This review examines the area of tissue collection, transport, and monitoring of formalin diffusion and details a prototype system that could be used to help standardize tis...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - April 25, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical Applications of Bone Tissue Engineering in Orthopedic Trauma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOrthopedic trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many fractures tend to heal if treated appropriately either by non-operative or operative methods, delayed or failed healing, as well as infections, can lead to devastating complications. Tissue engineering is an exciting, emerging field with much scientific and clinical relevance in potentially overcoming the current limitations in the treatment of orthopedic injuries.Recent FindingsWhile direct translation of bone tissue engineering technologies to clinical use remains challenging, considerable research has been don...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - April 19, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Pro-reparative Engine: Stem Cells Aid Healing by Dampening Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStem cells have been proposed as sources for tissue replacement when healing does not occur. These cells could contribute directly to skin structures via differentiation, or via producing trophic factors that would ‘educate’ the microenvironment to encourage tissue repair. Studies in animals have supported both mechanisms, but translation to humans has been challenged by poor cell survival after transplantation. However, the improvement noted with even transient existence suggests another new possibility, that of suppressing the inflammatory response that limits regenerative healing. He...
Source: Current Pathobiology Reports - March 20, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research