Feasible but Not Yet Efficacious: a Scoping Review of Wearable Activity Monitors in Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review explored the characteristics of interventions that use wearable activity monitors (WAM) and descriptively summarize their efficacy.Recent FindingsA total of 61 studies were included. Most of the WAM-based interventions (n = 58) were designed to improve physical activity (PA). Interventions targeting sedentary behavior (SB) were much less common (n = 12), and even less frequent were WAM-based sleep interventions (n = 3). Most studies tested the feasibility of WAM-based interventions. WAM-based interventions exhibited preliminary efficacy in incre...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pain and Multimorbidity in Late Life
This article addressed pain prevalence in older adults and the relationship between pain and multimorbidity. Risk factors and consequences of pain and multimorbidity were identified and recommendations for future research were provided. (Source: Current Epidemiology Reports)
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 23, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Anxious Generation: a Review of the Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease in Youth
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRising rates of youth anxiety may adversely affect later cardiovascular health (CVH); thus, this is an area of research that could be lacking.Recent FindingsAnxiety disorders and poor CVH have been linked in adults by way of negative effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and mortality. Anxiety disorders have also been linked to risky lifestyle and behavioral choices like adiposity, physical inactivity, substance abuse, and poor diet.SummaryThis paper explores CVD risk factors and diseases in relation to anxiety disorders and traits specifically in youth by exploring CVD diagnoses and...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Living Kidney Donors: Knowns and Unknowns
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aimed to summarize evidence regarding mid- and long-term cardiovascular risks associated with living kidney donation in adults.Recent FindingsChronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is known that glomerular filtration rate declines among many donors after donation; as a result, these donors can be classified as having early stage chronic kidney disease. Even though initial reports suggested no increase in adverse cardiovascular effects compared with control populations, recent data have shown a possible late increase in cardiovascular event rates and...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Functional Landscape of Common Variants Associated with Susceptibility to Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 39 genomic loci associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer at genome-wide significance level (p ≤ 5 × 10−8) and 13 additional loci using less strict thresholds. Follow-up functional dissection of these loci to uncover the underlining mechanisms driving cancer susceptibility has been challenging.Recent FindingsIn a manner similar to how post-linkage studies led the characterization of then poorly understood cellular pathways, functional analysis of GWAS loci is revealing new mechani...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 14, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis and Aging: Young Adults with Osteoarthritis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite perceptions that osteoarthritis only affects older adults, many people develop osteoarthritis before 65  years of age and live decades with pain and disability. It is critical to understand why some adults develop osteoarthritis early in life and the consequences of aging with osteoarthritis.Recent FindingsOver half of people diagnosed with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis are under 65  years of age. Key risk factors are joint injury, certain occupations (e.g., tactical athletes), obesity, and aberrant hip shape. Young adults with osteoarthritis report significant mental health con...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Frailty and Unintended Risks of Medications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this narrative review, we focus on aspects of the complicated relationship between frailty and medications that we feel would be of particular interest to researchers and health care practitioners.Recent FindingsFrailty and polypharmacy ( ≥5 medications) are inter-related with evidence of a bidirectional potentially casual relationship. Medication review and withdrawal of potentially inappropriate medications is frequently advised for the management of frailty. Changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs with frai lty are felt to parallel those seen with aging though possibl...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Role of Socioeconomic Interventions in Reducing Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdverse childhood experiences (ACE) are associated with key risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality. Most interventions to date target proximal risk factors and do not account for the structural determinants shaping the risk of childhood adversity. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the impact of socioeconomic interventions on ACE.Recent FindingsThirty-five percent of reviewed socioeconomic interventions reported reductions in exposure to ACE. Effect sizes were modest for family financial problems, adverse parenting, household mental illness, child maltreatment and neglect; mod...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - November 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Social Experience and the Developing Brain: Opportunities for Social Epidemiologists in the Era of Population-Based Neuroimaging
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere are an increasing number of studies using neuroimaging to understand associations between social conditions, including socioeconomic status, and the development of brain structure and function. From a population health perspective, this review summarizes the challenges of this work and highlights opportunities for collaboration with social epidemiologists as neuroimaging studies become more population-based.Recent FindingsWhile suggestive of broad associations with brain regions involved in cognitive and emotional processing, much of the work linking socioeconomic status to child brain struct...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - November 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Neighborhoods to Nucleotides —Advances and Gaps for an Obesity Disparities Systems Epidemiology Model
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDisparities in prevalence of  obesity in the USA continue to increase. Here, we review progress and highlight gaps in understanding disparities in obesity with a focus on the Hispanic/Latino population from a systems epidemiology framework. We review seven domains: environment, behavior, biomarkers, nutrition, microbiome, geno mics, and epigenomics/transcriptomics. We focus on recent advances that integrate at least two or more of these domains, and then provide a real-world example of data collection efforts that encompass these domains.Recent FindingsResearch into discrimination-related...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - October 30, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using Genomic Profiling for Understanding and Improving Response to Smoking Cessation Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on the implementation of genomic discoveries associated with smoking behaviors and smoking-related illnesses to improve prevention efforts and smoking cessation.Recent FindingsLarge-scale studies have discovered genomic variation that contributes to smoking heaviness and smoking cessation. Variation in theα5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRNA5) and the primary nicotine metabolizing gene (CYP2A6) strongly contribute to smoking behaviors, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The analytic and clinical validity of these genes is clearly establis...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - October 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Social Epidemiology of Sleep: Extant Evidence and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHow well people sleep and what social factors determine their sleep are two key questions that have generated great interests in public health and epidemiology recently. The goal of this review is to assess the evidence of how multi-level of social constructs relates to unhealthy sleep in recent studies.Recent FindingsStudies document a wide range of social correlates of sleep at the individual, interpersonal, community, and societal levels. A growing number of population-based studies incorporate objective measures. Overall, disadvantaged statuses and poor social environment predict unhealthy slee...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - October 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Green Environments and Allergic Diseases in Children: a Scoping Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUrbanization and urbanization-related detrimental exposures are commonly indicated as responsible determinants for the dramatic increase in allergy and asthma, and one of the main urbanization factors that have been recently associated with the development of allergic sensitization is the reduced access to natural and biodiverse spaces. The present review aimed to compile and discuss the recent findings from studies focused on neighbourhood greenspace effect on asthma and allergic disease development in children.Recent FindingsGreen areas neighbouring children residences play a role on the prevalen...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - September 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Socio-Economic Position Under the Microscope: Getting ‘Under the Skin’ and into the Cells
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewRecent developments in the field of genetics and epigenetics are advancing our understanding of how socio-economic adversity throughout the life course gets embodied at a more fundamental level to accelerate the ageing process. This review summarises current research in relation to two candidate mechanisms: DNA methylation and telomere attrition that have been touted to provide biological intermediaries between socio-economic position and health.Recent FindingsAlthough many studies have documented cross-sectional associations between measures of socio-economic position and these ‘hallmark...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - September 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Space and Place in Alcohol Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the recent literature on social and physical environments and their links to alcohol use and identify empirical research strategies that will lead to a better understanding of alcohol use in contexts.Recent FindingsRecent research has continued to describe the importance of neighborhood and regional contexts on alcohol use, while a smaller emerging scientific literature assesses the impacts of contexts on drinking.SummaryThe dynamic, longitudinal, and multiscale processes by which social and physical structures affect social interactions and substance use have not yet been uncovered or...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - September 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Legionella Epidemiologic and Environmental Risks
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLegionella bacteria cause Legionnaires ’ disease (LD), a severe and potentially fatal pneumonia. Legionellosis has been increasing in the USA and in Europe. We reviewed the literature to describe host factors predisposing to LD, environmental factors facilitatingLegionella proliferation, and transmission modes leading to legionellosis cases and outbreaks.FindingsMen, smokers, and persons 50  years and older, or with chronic pulmonary or immunocompromising conditions, are at risk for LD. Stagnated water and warm water temperature promoteLegionella growth. Most legionellosis cases result f...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - August 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Machine Learning for Feature Selection and Cluster Analysis in Drug Utilisation Research
We describe current unsupervised learning methods for phenotyping and discovery and illustrate their application for detecting features and sub-groups related to drug use within a population.Recent FindingsPatient representation or phenotyping and discovery is one of the main branches of health data analysis. Phenotyping concerns identifying features that are representative of the population from raw patient data. Discovery involves analysing these features, for example, to identify patterns in the population such as sub-groups and to predict outcomes. Most studies use unsupervised learning methods for phenotyping as they ...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of Cardiovascular Health and Cognition
The objective of this review is to summarize the evidence linking overall cardiovascular health (CVH) profile and modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF) with cognition.Recent FindingsWe conducted online searches for all relevant literature describing the relationship between CVDRF, overall CVH profile, and dementia. Studies have shown a positive association with the presence of clinical or subclinical CVD and accelerated cognitive decline. Individual CVH factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical activity, and diet are independently associated with cognition. The association is, however, less...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk Factors Associated with Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli : a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to characterize the current body of knowledge regarding risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) uropathogenicEscherichia coli (UPEC). Our purpose is to identify major knowledge gaps, suggest potential areas for improved public health intervention, and propose future research directions.Recent FindingsThis review contains two parts. Part one reviews 15 studies that included 2,930 ESBL-producing UPEC infections in 10 countries. Of the 103 risk factors for these infections examined, only two of ...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mixed Bag “Polypharmacy”: Methodological Pitfalls and Challenges of This Exposure Definition
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of multiple medications is common in older adults but is associated with negative health outcomes. However, polypharmacy is not uniformly defined, and there is scant data on how the variety of definitions and their limitations hinder the development of sound scientific knowledge. The article intends to illustrate the challenges of this exposure definition.Recent FindingsThe array of thresholds for defining polypharmacy renders comparisons between results difficult. Few studies take into account the fact that polypharmacy is a changing exposure over time. In addition, although studies tend t...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Big Data in Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular diseases exert a wide-reaching epidemiological impact as the number one cause of death worldwide. Emerging technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence (AI) are poised to significantly change the field of cardiology. However, their applications are still emerging. We aimed to define the role of big data and AI in cardiovascular disease with a focus on research.Recent FindingsThere are zettabyte levels (1021 bytes) of big data in the US that can be directed towards healthcare research. There are applications of big data analytics already being put to use with genomics, he...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Identifying Heterogeneous Treatment Effects of Drug Policy in Quasi-experimental Settings
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe sought to describe the difference-in-differences study design and how they can be applied to identify the average treatment effect. We then extend this approach to identify heterogeneity in treatment effects based on (1) an individuals ’ baseline risk of an event using risk scores, (2) the outcome distribution using quantile regression, and (3) prior trajectories of outcomes using group-based trajectory models.Recent FindingsThe methods for the identification of heterogeneous treatment effect have developed in ways that can provide researchers and policymakers a more nuanced understanding ...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pregnancy Complication History in 10-Year Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction: a Review of Recent Evidence
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWomen with prevalent pregnancy complications (including preterm birth and preeclampsia) have twice the risk of later cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to unaffected women. Current prevention guidelines recommend that reproductive history should be part of a woman ’s CVD risk assessment. This review synthesizes recent findings on the value of history of pregnancy complications in 10-year CVD risk prediction.Recent FindingsThe associations between several pregnancy complications and CVD are still evident when conventional predictors are considered in middle age. However, comprehensive evalu...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Data Science in Environmental Health Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewData science is an exploding trans-disciplinary field that aims to harness the power of data to gain information or insights on researcher-defined topics of interest. In this paper, we review how data science can help advance environmental health research.Recent FindingsWe discuss the concepts of computationally scalable handling of big data and the design of efficient research data platforms and how data science can provide solutions for methodological challenges in environmental health research, such as high-dimensional outcomes and exposures and prediction models. Finally, we discuss tools for r...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 15, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Drug Safety in Pregnancy: Review of Study Approaches Requested by Regulatory Agencies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed postauthorization pregnancy safety studies requested by regulatory agencies to explore which study approaches have been typically requested and to what extent these have changed over time.Recent FindingsThe most common study approach requested by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is pregnancy exposure registries (observational cohorts with prospective data collection), per the FDA ’s Postmarketing Requirements and Commitments (PMR/PMC) database. Since 2017, this requirement has often been paired with a request for a database study (observational study using preexisting ele...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - July 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Melanoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review has been to elucidate the sex differences in cancer incidence and mortality in cutaneous melanoma. We have evaluated biological and behavioral research to determine where the critical questions exist.Recent FindingsThe most recent findings, through 2015, are exploratory in nature but seem to indicate that the differences are more likely due to biological variations rather than behavioral. While behavioral studies do show that women are more likely than men to seek health care and practice healthy behaviors, these differences are not sufficiently strong to explain the variati...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Applications for Quantile Regression in Epidemiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo illustrate the utility of quantile regression in epidemiology for outcomes that are continuous and when exposure effects may differ across the distribution of the outcome. Linear regression methods estimate only the effects at the mean level which may be an incomplete and biased summary of the effect of exposures for some continuous health outcomes.Recent FindingsThere are several variations of the quantile regression method including classical linear quantile regression, nonparametric quantile regression for growth trajectories, and the modified quantile regression for case –control desig...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Primary and Secondary Prevention of Pancreatic Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal of malignancies with 5-year survival of only 8%. A number of reasons account for the high fatality rate including few known modifiable risk factors, no effective screening tools, and lack of early diagnostic symptoms. Therefore, in this review, we aim to summarize existing evidence from major studies concerning (1) risk factors for risk assessment and risk stratification, and (2) screening modalities and early detection markers to better understand the ways to prevent pancreatic cancer or identify it at earlier stages. Improvements in primary and sec...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

DNA Methylation and Smoking: Implications for Understanding Effects of Electronic Cigarettes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUse of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased sharply recently although understanding of toxicity is limited, particularly target organ effects. Altered DNA methylation is a reversible response to environmental exposures, including smoking, and may be useful as a biomarker of e-cig harm.Recent FindingsAmong studies examining DNA methylation in blood by smoking status, there is considerable variability in differentially methylated CpGs identified; certain CpGs are consistently found. These includeAHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene), particularly cg05575921, cg0363183 in the F2RL2 g...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Measurement of Bystander Actions in Violence Intervention Evaluation: Opportunities and Challenges
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses design and methodological challenges specific to measuring bystander actions in the evaluation of bystander-based violence prevention programming. “Bystanders” are defined as people who are present immediately before, during, and/or after a violent event, but are not a perpetrator nor the intended victim. Bystander-based violence prevention programs seek to prevent or mitigate violent events by empowering bystanders to intervene on acts of violence and social norms that promulgate violence.Recent FindingsEffective bystander-based violence prevention programs demons...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Involving Firearm Stakeholders in Community-Based Suicide Prevention Efforts
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAbout half of all suicide deaths in the USA are by firearm. Putting time and distance between a person in suicidal crisis and means of inflicting lethal force is an effective suicide prevention strategy. The current review summarizes the emerging literature on the involvement of firearm stakeholders in community-based efforts to reduce access to lethal means for people at risk for suicide.Recent FindingsA small but growing set of scholarly articles indicates that the personal values underlying firearm ownership need not be impediments to firearm suicide prevention. By engaging gun owners in helping...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Changing Epidemiology of Primary Liver Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn prior decades, liver cancer was viewed as a neoplasm that almost exclusively arose among high-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries. Incidence rates in some high-risk populations, however, have been declining, while rates in low-risk populations have been increasing, reflecting changes in underlying etiology. In this review, we highlight the evolving epidemiology of liver cancer, focusing on recent research and advances.Recent FindingsEfforts to reduce or eliminate the risk associated with major risk factors such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and aflatoxin B...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 3, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Methodological Complexities in Quantifying Rates of Fatal Opioid-Related Overdose
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEffective responses to the US opioid overdose epidemic rely on accurate and timely drug overdose mortality data, which are generated from medicolegal death investigations (MDI) and certifications of overdose deaths. We identify nuances of MDI and certification of overdose deaths that can influence drug overdose mortality surveillance, as well as recent research, recommendations, and epidemiological tools for improved identification and quantification of specific drug involvement in overdose mortality.Recent FindingsDeath certificates are the foundation of drug overdose mortality surveillance. Accor...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Differential Item Functioning and its Relevance to Epidemiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, I trace the origins, applications, limitations, and future prospects for research on measurement item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) in the context of health research. DIF arises in the context of using multiple item or symptom health instruments to rate the level of a particular condition, and describes the situation where not all persons at the same level of the underlying condition have the same probability of endorsing one or more symptoms. The presence of DIF can lead to biased assessment of group differences and confound risk factor and outcomes research.Recent Fi...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Policies to Prevent Illegal Acquisition of Firearms: Impacts on Diversions of Guns for Criminal Use, Violence, and Suicide
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFirearm-related deaths are a significant source of mortality in the USA. More than 30,000 individuals die annually from firearm-related injuries, including homicide and suicide, in our nation. This review summarizes recent findings on policies designed to prevent illegal acquisition of firearms and their impacts on diversions of guns into underground markets and firearm-related homicide and suicide.Recent FindingsA significant body of evidence has been produced between 2013 and 2018 demonstrating the effectiveness of laws requiring prospective handgun purchasers to obtain a permit (PTP). The eviden...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Opioid Use and Intimate Partner Violence: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review was to answer two questions: A) What is the prevalence of opioid use in samples of people who are victims and/or perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV), and B) what is the prevalence of IPV among those who have used opioids?Recent FindingsThere were five times as many research studies of IPV in people who use opioids (B) than of opioids in IPV-experienced people (A). Across the five studies that reported estimates of opioid use among IPV-experienced people, for victimization, estimates ranged from 2.4% having an opioid use disorder (OUD) to 46 –50% having had ...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Pain Burden and Pain Management in the Context of Opioid Overdose Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOpioid deaths have risen to unprecedented rates in the USA. Efforts to mitigate the opioid crisis include supply-side strategies that reduce opioid availability. However, Patients of Color have historically reported less access to analgesia and worse pain burden and pain management than Whites. In this narrative review, we examine the recent literature on racial/ethnic disparities in pain care, including opioid access, and provide recommendations for advancing equity in pain management.Recent FindingsBoth cancer pain and non-cancer pain studies provide strong evidence of racial/ethnic disparities i...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

How the Intended Use of Polygenic Risk Scores Guides the Design and Evaluation of Prediction Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo explain how the intended use of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) in healthcare guides the design and evaluation of prediction studies.Recent FindingsThe advances in gene discovery in common complex diseases have fueled the interest in the potential of PRSs to predict risks and improve the prevention and early detection of disease. As the predictive ability of a PRS differs between populations and settings, it is important that prediction studies are designed and evaluated with the intended use of the risk scores in mind, but this is rarely done.SummaryThe intended use indicates in whom and how the P...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 29, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Is It Time to Rethink the Way We Assess the Burden of Work-Related Cancer?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPopulation attributable fractions (PAFs) are increasingly used for setting cancer prevention priorities. Our review aims, first, to gather published estimates of the percentage of cancer attributed to causal agents in the workplace and, second, to analyze them from the perspective of their potential effects on population health inequities.Recent FindingsThe estimates generally ranged from less than 2% to more than 8%, with an average of 4 –5%. While most authors acknowledge that exposures concentrate in lower-socioeconomic status and more vulnerable workers, the literature has never considere...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Identifying and Addressing Confounding Bias in Violence Prevention Research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewViolence prevention research has enhanced our understanding of individual and community risk and protective factors for aggression and violence. However, our knowledge of risk and protective factors for violence is highly dependent on observational studies, since there are few randomized trials of risk and protective factors for violence. Observational studies are susceptible to systematic errors, specifically confounding, and may lack internal validity.Recent FindingsMany violence prevention studies utilize methods that do not correctly identify the set of covariates needed for statistical adjustm...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Metabolome: a Key Measure for Exposome Research in Epidemiology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewApplication of omics to study human health has created a new era of opportunities for epidemiology research. However, approaches to characterize exogenous health triggers have largely not leveraged advances in analytical platforms and big data. In this review, we highlight the exposome, which is defined as the cumulative measure of exposure and biological responses across a lifetime as a cornerstone for new epidemiology approaches to study complex and preventable human diseases.Recent FindingsWhile no universal approach exists to measure the entirety of the exposome, use of high-resolution mass spe...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using GIS to Address Epidemiologic Research Questions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGIS provide us with a view of human health that cannot be obtained by other methods. The review considers recent uses of GIS to address epidemiologic questions by taking into account their spatial dimensions, highlighting the most commonly adopted methods and current trends.Recent FindingsMethods for geocoding individual health data vary by place depending on the databases available and are not always described in sufficient detail. Open and proprietary online geocoding services are becoming more widely used, but they pose issues for health research. Spatial scan statistics have been joined by stat...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

System Dynamics Applications to Injury and Violence Prevention: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSystem dynamics (SD) is an approach to solving problems in the context of dynamic complexity. The purpose of this review was to summarize SD applications in injury prevention and highlight opportunities for SD to contribute to injury prevention research and practice.Recent FindingsWhile SD has been increasingly used to study public health problems over the last few decades, uptake in the injury field has been slow. We identified 18 studies, mostly conducted in the last 10  years. Applications covered a range of topics (e.g., road traffic injury, overdose, and violence), employed different type...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Arsenic Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence Needed to Inform the Dose-Response at Low Levels
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEpidemiologic and experimental evidence support that exposure to moderate-to-high arsenic (As) is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Little is known, however, on the cardiovascular effects of low water As exposure (  100 μg/L) constitutes a CVD risk factor. In experimental studies, chronic inorganic As in drinking water increased atherosclerotic lesions in mice. Cohort studies at low-to-moderate levels of exposure (
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Improving the Epidemiological Understanding of the Dynamic Relationship Between Life Course Financial Well-being and Health
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The name of the third author should be presented as “First name: Adina” “Last name: Zeki Al Hazzouri” and should be cited as Zeki Al Hazzouri, A. (Source: Current Epidemiology Reports)
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - April 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Review of Metal Exposure Studies Conducted in the Rural Southwestern and Mountain West Region of the United States
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent literature examining exposure to environmental metals in rural areas of the southwestern/mountain west region of the U.S. focusing on the range of exposures and exposure pathways unique to this region.Recent FindingsRecent studies (2013 –2018) indicated that exposures to arsenic (As), uranium (U), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly quantified metals in the study area. One or more of these three metals was analyzed in each study reviewed.SummaryThe current review draws attention to the variety of exposure assessment methods, analytical tools, and unique non-o...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - February 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Type 2 Diabetes in Adults
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe identified 24 publications from January 2010 until September 2018 in the peer-reviewed literature addressing the relationship of long-term air pollution exposures and type 2 diabetes-related morbidity and mortality among adults. We examine key methodological issues, synthesize findings, and address study strengths and limitations. We also discuss biological mechanisms, policy implications, and future research needed to address existing knowledge gaps.Recent FindingsIn general, the studies included in this review employed rigorous methodology with large sample sizes, appropriate study designs to ...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - February 9, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Environmental Risk Factors for Liver Cancer and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
The objective of this review was to summarize recent epidemiologic research examining the associations between environmental exposures and liver cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Recent FindingsThere were 28 liver cancer studies showing positive associations for exposures to aflatoxin, air pollution, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chimney sweeping occupation, and paints; an inverse association for ultraviolet radiation; and null/inconsistent results for organic solvents, pesticides, perfluorooctanoic acid, nuclear radiation, iron foundry occupation, and brick kiln pollution. There weren&thins...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - February 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Immortal Time Bias in Epidemiology
We describe immortal time and the context in which it introduces bias and describe several approaches to avoid immortal time bias via design or mitigate it through analysis.Recent FindingsSeveral authors have described examples of immortal time bias in clinical epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology, and perinatal epidemiology. Solutions to immortal time bias include analyses that appropriately account for time-varying exposure, and design solutions that align exposure with the start of follow-up.SummaryImmortal time bias is pervasive in epidemiology. It can cause substantial bias. It is, however, easily avoided and can be con...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - February 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Improving the Epidemiological Understanding of the Dynamic Relationship Between Life Course Financial Well-Being and Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe posit that there are many different measures of financial well-being such as income, debt, assets, and wealth, which may have different consequences for health at different times in the life course. We frame our discussion of financial well-being within existing theories and mechanisms by which financial well-being may influence health.Recent FindingsWe contrast the influences of “snap shot” or one point in time measures of financial well-being with those of repeated measures of financial well-being across the life course. Reviewing recent research, we show the importance of measures...
Source: Current Epidemiology Reports - February 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research