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European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition - Chapter 2: Classification and terminology * Supported by the EGS Foundation: Part 1: Foreword; Introduction; Glossary; Chapter 2 Classification and Terminology
2Classification and Terminology2.1- Primary Congenital Forms/Childhood Glaucomas Primary congenital glaucoma is a rare disease but has a major impact on the child’s development and quality of life over his/her whole life span. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can make a huge difference in the visual outcome and can prevent lifelong disability. Surgical treatment is always necessary1, 2 [I,C]. 2.1.1Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG): from birth to>2 years of life Neonatal or newborn onset (0-1 month) Infantile onset (>1 until 24 months) Late onset or late recognized (>2 years) Spontaneously non-progress...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Open access Supplementary pages Source Type: research

Vision impairment and major eye diseases reduce vision-specific emotional well-being in a Chinese population
Aims To assess the relationship between vision impairment (VI) and major eye diseases, with vision-specific emotional well-being in a Chinese population. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3353 Chinese participants aged 40–80 years answered the emotional well-being scale of the Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire, validated using Rasch analysis. Participants underwent visual acuity testing and collection of sociodemographic and medical data from standardised questionnaires. The relationships between presenting bilateral VI, presence of major eye diseases (cataract, undercorrected refr...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Fenwick, E. K., Ong, P. G., Man, R. E. K., Sabanayagam, C., Cheng, C.-Y., Wong, T. Y., Lamoureux, E. L. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Lens and zonules, Optic nerve, Retina, Glaucoma, Optics and refraction, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Long-term complications of different porous orbital implants: a 21-year review
Conclusions Late exposures of porous orbital implants were noted during long-term follow-up. The causes of implant exposure may be associated with pegging procedures and evisceration. The implantation of dermis fat can be an effective procedure for the management of large-area implant exposure. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lin, C.-W., Liao, S.-L. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in Graves' ophthalmopathy
Aims To examine the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in human cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and investigate whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinical parameters of the disease. Methods The protein expression levels of CTGF were analysed by western blots in cultured orbital fibroblasts from 10 patients with GO and 7 age-matched normal controls. Associations between the protein expression of CTGF and the clinical factors of GO, including clinical demographics, thyroid function, clinical activity score (CAS) and ophthalmopa...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Huang, Y.-M., Chang, P.-C., Wu, S.-B., Kau, H.-C., Tsai, C.-C., Liu, C. J.-L., Wei, Y.-H. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Progression of asymptomatic optic disc swelling to non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy
Conclusions Current treatment options for NAION once vision loss occurs are limited and may not alter the natural history of the disorder. Subjects with NAION may have disc swelling for 2–10 weeks prior to the occurrence of visual loss, and with the development of new therapeutic agents, treatment at the time of observed disc swelling could prevent vision loss from NAION. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Subramanian, P. S., Gordon, L. K., Bonelli, L., Arnold, A. C. Tags: Optic nerve, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Is prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy for primary angle closure suspects a risk factor for cataract progression? The Chennai Eye Disease Incidence Study
Background To report the risk of cataract progression among primary angle closure suspects (PACS) 6 years after they underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Methods In the Chennai Eye Disease Incidence Study, 6 years after their baseline evaluation, 4421 subjects were examined again. As part of a detailed evaluation cataract was graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System II; progression was defined as change of cataract by two or more grades or history of cataract surgery in the 6-year period. Only bilaterally phakic subjects with less than N2 or C2 or P2 cataract at baseline with no history of any for...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vijaya, L., Asokan, R., Panday, M., George, R. Tags: Editor's choice Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Morphometric characterisation of pterygium associated with corneal stromal scarring using high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography
Aims To investigate the role of high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography (HR-ASOCT) in the assessment of pterygia. Methods Single centre cross-sectional study. Patients with primary pterygium and/or pingueculae were included. Clinical assessment included HR-ASOCT, colour photography, keratometry followed by histology. Associations were tested between HR-ASOCT features of the pterygium and the degree of corneal scarring and elastotic degeneration, astigmatism and best-corrected visual acuity. Results 29 eyes of 26 patients with pterygium and 6 patients with pinguecula were included. Apical anterior st...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Gasser, T., Romano, V., Seifarth, C., Bechrakis, N. E., Kaye, S. B., Steger, B. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Panoramic view of human corneal endothelial cell layer observed by a prototype slit-scanning wide-field contact specular microscope
Conclusions A prototype slit-scanning wide-field contact specular microscope enabled us to record the endothelial layer from the surgical limbus to limbus of the cornea and compare specific areas among subjects, and showed that ECD in each region of the cornea decreases with ageing. Trial registration number UMIN000021264, Results. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tanaka, H., Okumura, N., Koizumi, N., Sotozono, C., Sumii, Y., Kinoshita, S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Comparison of corneal biomechanics after microincision lenticule extraction and small incision lenticule extraction
Objectives To evaluate and compare the change in corneal biomechanical properties after microincision lenticule extraction (MILE) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Methods In this prospective study, 60 eyes received MILE surgery with 2 mm opening incision, while 64 eyes received SMILE procedure with 5 mm opening incision. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and 37 other biomechanical waveform parameters were quantitatively assessed using ocular response analyser (ORA) preoperatively and up to 6 months postoperatively. All changes were calculated as the difference between preoperati...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wu, Z., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Chan, T. C. Y., Ng, A. L. K., Cheng, G. P. M., Jhanji, V. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Safety outcomes and long-term effectiveness of ex vivo autologous cultured limbal epithelial transplantation for limbal stem cell deficiency
Conclusions This study addresses important issues regarding possible risks associated with disarray of the ocular surface homeostasis following autologous CLET in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency, despite the fact that the majority of patients experienced a favourable long-term benefit. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Fasolo, A., Pedrotti, E., Passilongo, M., Marchini, G., Monterosso, C., Zampini, R., Bohm, E., Birattari, F., Franch, A., Barbaro, V., Bertolin, M., Breda, C., Di Iorio, E., Ferrari, B., Ferrari, S., Meneguzzi, M., Ponzin, D. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Non-traumatic corneal perforations: aetiology, treatment and outcomes
Conclusions Corneal perforations represent an important cause of ocular morbidity. The use of a cyanoacrylate patch is useful as an initial therapy in corneal perforations; however, procedures such as PK are often necessary to achieve anatomical success, especially in non-infectious aetiologies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Loya-Garcia, D., Serna-Ojeda, J. C., Pedro-Aguilar, L., Jimenez-Corona, A., Olivo-Payne, A., Graue-Hernandez, E. O. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Characteristics and vitreoretinal management of retinal detachment in eyes with Boston keratoprosthesis
Conclusions The study showed that retinal detachment complicated by PVR, as demonstrated by the clinical and histological characteristics of this condition, is common in patients undergoing Boston keratoprosthesis. We also showed that 23-gauge vitrectomy can be effectively performed in patients with a permanent prosthesis. Visual acuity often remains poor, despite successful anatomical results. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Petrou, P., Banerjee, P. J., Wilkins, M. R., Singh, M., Eastlake, K., Limb, G. A., Charteris, D. G. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Retina, Vitreous Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Retinal reattachment and ERG recovery after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for advanced retinoblastoma in eyes with minimal baseline retinal function
Aim To report retinal function outcomes after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for advanced retinoblastoma (RB) in eyes with minimal pretreatment retinal function. Methods For 72 advanced RB eyes with baseline electroretinograms (ERGs) indistinguishable from noise (‘extinguished’) or flicker ERG amplitudes
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Abdelhakim, A. H., Francis, J. H., Marr, B. P., Gobin, Y. P., Abramson, D. H., Brodie, S. E. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Choroidal neovascularisation on optical coherence tomography angiography in punctate inner choroidopathy and multifocal choroiditis
Conclusion In patients with PIC and MCP complicated by CNV, OCTA successfully identified underlying CNV. Given the difficulty of differentiating inflammatory lesions from early CNV on OCT and FA, OCTA may provide a valuable method of monitoring patients with posterior uveitis highly correlated with development of CNV. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Levison, A. L., Baynes, K. M., Lowder, C. Y., Kaiser, P. K., Srivastava, S. K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomography angiography of myopic choroidal neovascularisation
Conclusions We describe the OCT-A features of myopic CNV secondary to pathological myopia and demonstrate its high sensitivity and specificity for neovascular detection. Qualitative evaluation of OCT-A characteristics may allow one to recognise different patterns, possibly corresponding to different degrees of neovascular activity. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Querques, L., Giuffre, C., Corvi, F., Zucchiatti, I., Carnevali, A., De Vitis, L. A., Querques, G., Bandello, F. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Conclusions This study suggests that a change>23.2% of retinal thickness and 57.2 μm choroidal thickness in the central macular subfield is required to distinguish true clinical change from measurement variability when using the DRI OCT-1 device to manage patients with nAMD. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hanumunthadu, D., Ilginis, T., Restori, M., Sagoo, M. S., Tufail, A., Balaggan, K. S., Patel, P. J. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 3 neovascularisation in age-related macular degeneration after antiangiogenic therapy
Conclusions The microvascular morphology of type 3 neovascularisation secondary to AMD was assessed at baseline and follow-up and showed significant regression in response to anti-VEGF therapy by OCTA. Quantitative OCTA analysis was also performed and confirmed remarkable regression in response to a single intravitreal anti-VEGF injection. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Phasukkijwatana, N., Tan, A. C. S., Chen, X., Freund, K. B., Sarraf, D. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

The impact of typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy on vision-related quality of life in Asian patients
Conclusions Neovascular AMD, including both PCV and tAMD subtypes, has a detrimental impact on VRQoL in Asian subjects independent of level of vision impairment. Interventions to increase reading capacity, enhance mobility and independence and improve mental health outcomes for subjects with neovascular AMD further address the impact of the condition on VRQoL in addition to pharmacological therapies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Fenwick, E. K., Cheung, C. M. G., Ong, P. G., Tan, G., Lee, S. Y., Yeo, I., Cheng, C. Y., Wong, T. Y., Lamoureux, E. L. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Preferred practice pattern in central serous chorioretinopathy
Conclusions While there are some common practice patterns for of CSC, there are still variations in regional and individual practice patterns indicating the need to establish more definitive practice guidelines. This survey data could be useful to plan a prospective study to address many unanswered questions. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mehta, P. H., Meyerle, C., Sivaprasad, S., Boon, C., Chhablani, J. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

En face choroidal vascular feature imaging in acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy using swept source optical coherence tomography
Conclusions En face imaging of SS-OCT is useful when combined with angiography in CSC for evaluating choroidal vessel dilatation at Haller's layer and to identify obscured upper layers. We identified different choroidal vessel dilatation patterns between acute and chronic CSC. These findings might be useful for pathophysiological understanding of CSC. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lee, W. J., Lee, J. W., Park, S. H., Lee, B. R. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Impact of initial visual acuity on anti-VEGF treatment outcomes in patients with macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusions in routine clinical practice
Aim To determine the impact of initial visual acuity (VA) on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment outcomes in patients with macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusions in routine clinical practice. Methods A retrospective study was conducted at a single academic institution to identify 177 treatment naìˆve patients with macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) treated with intravitreal anti-VEGFs. Exclusion criteria included prior intravitreal injection or presence of active confounding ocular ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wai, K. M., Khan, M., Srivastava, S., Rachitskaya, A., Silva, F. Q., Deasy, R., Schachat, A. P., Babiuch, A., Ehlers, J. P., Kaiser, P. K., Yuan, A., Singh, R. P. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Optical coherence tomographic predictor of retinal non-perfused areas in eyes with macular oedema associated with retinal vein occlusion
Aim To determine whether the low reflective spaces in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images are related to the presence of the retinal non-perfused areas in eyes with macular oedema associated with a retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods We reviewed the medical records of 97 eyes with macular oedema associated with RVO. At the initial visit, eyes with macular oedema were classified into those with and those without low reflective spaces in the RNFL in the OCT images. In the fluorescein angiographic (FA) images, the eyes with more than one disc diameter of retinal non-perfus...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hasegawa, T., Yamashita, M., Maruko, I., Koizumi, H., Kogure, A., Ogata, N., Iida, T. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Image artefacts in swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography
Purpose To describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) image artefacts in eyes with and without ocular pathologies. Methods The OCTA images of healthy subjects and patients with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular occlusions were retrospectively reviewed. All OCTA images were obtained using a swept-source OCTA instrument (Triton, Topcon). The frequency of various image artefacts including segmentation, banding, motion, projection, masking, unmasking, doubling of the retinal vessels, blink, stretching, out-of-window and crisscross artefacts was assessed. The impact of th...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ghasemi Falavarjani, K., Al-Sheikh, M., Akil, H., Sadda, S. R. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Classification of diabetic macular oedema using ultra-widefield angiography and implications for response to anti-VEGF therapy
Conclusions UWFA facilitates the detection of peripheral ischaemia, which is associated with a significant proportion of DMO. While this group of DMO responded well to anti-VEGF therapy, it remains to be determined whether addressing the peripheral ischaemia may reduce recurrence. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xue, K., Yang, E., Chong, N. V. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Putative protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important microvascular complications of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in the working-age individuals. The exact aetiopathogenesis of DR remains elusive despite major advances in basic science and clinical research. Oxidative damage as one of the underlying causes for DR is increasingly being recognised. In humans, three hydroxycarotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), accumulate at the central retina (to the exclusion of all other dietary carotenoids), where they are collectively known as macular pigment. These hydroxycarotenoids by...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Neelam, K., Goenadi, C. J., Lun, K., Yip, C. C., Au Eong, K.-G. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Safety of anterior chamber paracentesis using a 30-gauge needle integrated with a specially designed disposable pipette
Conclusions Our findings show that AC paracentesis with a disposable pipette is safe with no severe complications. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kitazawa, K., Sotozono, C., Koizumi, N., Nagata, K., Inatomi, T., Sasaki, H., Kinoshita, S. Tags: Innovations Source Type: research

Improving services for glaucoma care in Nigeria: implications for policy and programmes to achieve universal health coverage
Glaucoma in Africa is sometimes referred to as the silent thief of sight. In Nigeria, glaucoma is common, it is serious, ophthalmologists face many constraints in managing it, people do not even know they have it until it is advanced, patients do not understand or comply with treatment after they are diagnosed and the poor are more likely to be glaucoma blind. Available evidence indicates that the health system in Nigeria is failing to meet the needs of patients with glaucoma. Based on evidence, we propose future directions for improving services for glaucoma care in Nigeria, and the implications for policy and programmes ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kyari, F., Gilbert, C., Blanchet, K., Wormald, R. Tags: Global issues Source Type: research

European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition - Part 1 * Supported by the EGS Foundation: Part 1: Foreword; Introduction; Glossary; Chapter 2 Classification and Terminology
2Classification and Terminology2.1- Primary Congenital Forms/Childhood Glaucomas Primary congenital glaucoma is a rare disease but has a major impact on the child’s development and quality of life over his/her whole life span. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can make a huge difference in the visual outcome and can prevent lifelong disability. Surgical treatment is always necessary1, 2 [I,C]. 2.1.1Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG): from birth to>2 years of life Neonatal or newborn onset (0-1 month) Infantile onset (>1 until 24 months) Late onset or late recognized (>2 years) Spontaneously non-progress...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Open access Supplementary pages Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Xue et al (see page 559) Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography was used to assess retinal perfusion in diabetic macular oedema. Eyes with significant peripheral ischaemia were associated with more diffuse macular oedema but responded well to anti-VEGF therapy. Sadda et al (see page 564) Optical coherence tomography angiography image artifact was present in 89.4% of eyes from normal subjects and patients with age-related macular degeneration and macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion. Hasegawa et al (see page 569) Low reflective spaces in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the optical coh...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - April 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barton, K., Chodosh, J., Jonas, J. B. Tags: At a glance Source Type: research

European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition - Part 1 * Supported by the EGS Foundation
Foreword It gives me pleasure to introduce the 4th edition of the EGS Guidelines. The Third edition proved to be extremely successful, being translated into 7 languages with over 70000 copies being distributed across Europe; it has been downloadable, free, as a pdf file for the past 4 years. As one of the main objectives of the European Glaucoma Society has been to both educate and standardize glaucoma practice within the EU, these guidelines were structured so as to play their part. Glaucoma is a living specialty, with new ideas on causation, mechanisms and treatments constantly appearing. As a number of years have passed...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Open access Supplementary pages Source Type: research

European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition - Part 1: Supported by the EGS Foundation * Part 1: Foreword; Introduction; Glossary; Chapter 1 Patient Examination
Foreword It gives me pleasure to introduce the 4th edition of the EGS Guidelines. The Third edition proved to be extremely successful, being translated into 7 languages with over 70000 copies being distributed across Europe; it has been downloadable, free, as a pdf file for the past 4 years. As one of the main objectives of the European Glaucoma Society has been to both educate and standardize glaucoma practice within the EU, these guidelines were structured so as to play their part. Glaucoma is a living specialty, with new ideas on causation, mechanisms and treatments constantly appearing. As a number of years have passed...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Open access Supplementary pages Source Type: research

European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition: Part 1: Foreword; Introduction; Glossary; Chapter 1 Patient Examination
Foreword It gives me pleasure to introduce the 4th edition of the EGS Guidelines. The Third edition proved to be extremely successful, being translated into 7 languages with over 70000 copies being distributed across Europe; it has been downloadable, free, as a pdf file for the past 4 years. As one of the main objectives of the European Glaucoma Society has been to both educate and standardize glaucoma practice within the EU, these guidelines were structured so as to play their part. Glaucoma is a living specialty, with new ideas on causation, mechanisms and treatments constantly appearing. As a number of years have passed...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Supplementary pages Source Type: research

miRNA-200c and miRNA-141 as potential prognostic biomarkers and regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma
Background MicroRNA (miRNA)-200c and miRNA-141 are tumour suppressors, which regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to tumour invasion and metastasis in various malignancies. miRNA-200c and miRNA-141 maintain the epithelial phenotype by post-transcriptionally inhibiting the E-cadherin repressors, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB)1 and ZEB2. The present study was performed to determine the prognostic significance of miRNA-200c and miRNA-141, and their association with EMT markers ZEB1, ZEB2 and E-cadherin in eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC). Methods Expression levels of miRNA-200c and miRNA-...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Bhardwaj, M., Sen, S., Chosdol, K., Sharma, A., Pushker, N., Kashyap, S., Bakhshi, S., Bajaj, M. S. Tags: Original articles - Laboratory science Source Type: research

The use of Bruch's membrane opening-based optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head for glaucoma detection in microdiscs
Purpose To assess the performance of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO)-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the optic nerve head for glaucoma detection in microdiscs in comparison with confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods 82 eyes of 82 patients with disc size
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Enders, P., Schaub, F., Adler, W., Nikoluk, R., Hermann, M. M., Heindl, L. M. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Association between self-reported bupropion use and glaucoma: a population-based study
Purpose To investigate the relationship between self-reported bupropion use and self-reported glaucoma in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6760 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2005 and 2008, age ≥40 years, who responded to a question regarding their glaucoma status. Participants were interviewed regarding the use of prescription medications, and those ascertained as having used bupropion were further divided into groups based on duration of usage. Other relevant information, including demograph...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Masis, M., Kakigi, C., Singh, K., Lin, S. Tags: Angle, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Aquaporin expression in the lacrimal sac of patients with primary and functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Conclusions AQP expression in functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction had a tendency towards being higher than in primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction, although this was only statistically significant on immunohistochemistry. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Park, J., Kim, J., Kim, M., Baek, S. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Boston keratoprosthesis type I in the elderly
Background/aims To determine the outcomes of Boston type I keratoprosthesis implanted in elderly patients. Methods A retrospective case series was performed on patients at least 75 years old who received the Boston type I keratoprosthesis between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012. Preoperative diagnosis, interval visual acuity, keratoprosthesis retention and postoperative complications were recorded for each patient. Results Forty-four Boston type I keratoprostheses were implanted in 44 eyes of 43 patients. The most common indication for surgery was corneal graft failure (n=23; 52.3%) followed by corneal scar (n=8...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Homayounfar, G., Grassi, C. M., Al-Moujahed, A., Colby, K. A., Dohlman, C. H., Chodosh, J. Tags: Public health, Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Choroid, Cornea, Eye (globe), Ocular surface, Vision, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Variant lattice corneal dystrophy associated with compound heterozygous mutations in the TGFBI gene
Conclusions The p.(Val113Ile) mutation results in an alteration of the atypical LCD phenotype associated with the p.(Leu558Pro) mutation. This represents only the second report of the alteration of the phenotype of a TGFBI dystrophy by a second, non-homozygous pathogenic mutation, and thus provides insight into the phenotype-genotype correlation of the TGFBI dystrophies. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Ann, L. B.-T., Abbouda, A., Frausto, R. F., Huseynli, S., Gupta, K., Alio, J. L., Aldave, A. J. Tags: Vision, Neurology, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Epithelium-off versus transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking for progressive corneal ectasia: a randomised and controlled trial
Conclusions At 24 months of follow-up, subjects in the epithelium-off CXL group demonstrated a greater improvement in Ksteep compared with subjects in the transepithelial CXL group, but no statistically significant difference in BSCVA was found between groups. Trial registration number NCT01708538; pre-results. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Rush, S. W., Rush, R. B. Tags: Ophthalmologic surgical procedures, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Case-control study of risk factors for acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus
Purpose To determine risk factors for the development of acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus in the UK in a case-controlled study. Methods Between November 2009 and December 2010, we prospectively identified 73 individuals who developed acute corneal hydrops. We then identified 174 controls from nine regions in the UK with keratoconus who had not had hydrops. For cases and controls we recorded demographics and clinical features. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors. Results Univariate analysis suggested strong associations between the odds of hydrops and each of verna...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Barsam, A., Brennan, N., Petrushkin, H., Xing, W., Quartilho, A., Bunce, C., Foot, B., Cartwright, N. K., Haridas, A., Agrawal, P., Suleman, H., Ahmad, S., MacDonald, E., Johnston, J., Tuft, S. Tags: Conjunctiva, Cornea, Ocular surface, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of a new optical biometer based on swept-source optical coherence tomography and comparison with IOLMaster
Conclusions The repeatability and reproducibility of SS-OCT were excellent for all parameters including AL, K, ACD, LT and CD values. High agreement was shown between SS-OCT and PCI for most biometrical parameters. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Huang, J., Savini, G., Hoffer, K. J., Chen, H., Lu, W., Hu, Q., Bao, F., Wang, Q. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of a hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based lubricant eye-drop in patients with dry eye
Aims To demonstrate non-inferiority of a hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol lubricating eye-drop (HPG/PEG/PG) compared with an osmoprotective carboxymethylcellulose/glycerine eye-drop (O/CMC) for ocular surface staining. Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, observer-masked, parallel-group study. Adults with dry eye instilled HPG/PEG/PG/ or O/CMC 4 times daily for 35 days and then as needed through day 90. Total ocular surface staining (TOSS) score changes from baseline and Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL) treatment satisfaction module scores were assessed. Non-inferiority, based ...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Labetoulle, M., Messmer, E. M., Pisella, P.-J., Ogundele, A., Baudouin, C., Baillif-Gostoli, Bohringer, Chiambaretta, Cochener, Gabison, Gabisson, Girard, Gohier, Moremousque, Mouriaux, Touboul, Ziemssen Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Functional impairment of reading in patients with dry eye
Background/aims To evaluate the impact of dry eye on reading performance. Methods Out-loud and silent reading in patients with clinically significant dry eye (n=41) and controls (n=50) was evaluated using standardised texts. Dry eye measures included tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test and corneal epithelial staining. Symptoms were assessed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Results The dry eye group had a greater proportion of women as compared with the control group but did not differ in age, race, education level or visual acuity (p≥0.05 for all). Out-loud reading speed averaged 148 words per minute (...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Mathews, P. M., Ramulu, P. Y., Swenor, B. S., Utine, C. A., Rubin, G. S., Akpek, E. K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Validation of an instrument to assess visual ability in children with visual impairment in China
Objective To validate a visual ability instrument for school-aged children with visual impairment in China by translating, culturally adopting and Rasch scaling the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC). Methods The 25-item CVAQC was translated into Mandarin using a standard protocol. The translated version (CVAQC-CN) was subjected to cognitive testing to ensure a proper cultural adaptation of its content. Then, the CVAQC-CN was interviewer-administered to 114 school-aged children and young people with visual impairment. Rasch analysis was carried out to assess its psychometric properties. The correlat...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Huang, J., Khadka, J., Gao, R., Zhang, S., Dong, W., Bao, F., Chen, H., Wang, Q., Chen, H., Pesudovs, K. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Are all children with visual impairment known to the eye clinic?
Discussion The study demonstrates significant unmet need or undiagnosed visual impairment in a high-risk population. It also highlights the poor uptake of hospital eye care for children identified with significant visual needs and suggests the importance of providing in-school assessment and support, including refractive correction, to fully realise the benefits of a visual assessment programme. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Pilling, R. F., Outhwaite, L. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Strabismus in children with white matter damage of immaturity: MRI correlation
Conclusions The prevalence of strabismus increased with the severity of WMDI and was higher among patients with WMDI than among healthy individuals. The severity of WMDI might be related to the presence and constancy of strabismus. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jeon, H., Jung, J., Kim, H., Yeom, J. A., Choi, H. Tags: Muscles, Optic nerve, Neurology, Optics and refraction, Epidemiology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Outcome of two-muscle surgery for large-angle intermittent exotropia in children
Background/aims To evaluate the surgical outcomes of two-muscle surgery for childhood intermittent exotropia comparing large angles with moderate angles. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 178 children who had undergone bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) or unilateral recess-resect (RR) for large-angle (≥40 prism dioptres (PD); group A) or moderate-angle (≥20 and
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jin, K. W., Choi, D. G. Tags: Paediatrics, Muscles, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Crowded letter and crowded picture logMAR acuity in children with amblyopia: a quantitative comparison
This study compared VA measurements with the LogMAR Crowded Kay Picture test to the LogMAR Crowded Keeler Letter acuity test in a group of young children with amblyopia. Methods 58 children (34 male) with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic and 18 with both strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia) aged 4–6 years (mean=68.7, range=48–83 months) underwent VA measurements. VA chart testing order was randomised, but the amblyopic eye was tested before the fellow eye. All participants wore up-to-date refractive correction. Results The Kay Picture test significantly overestimated VA by 0.098 logMAR (95%...
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: O'Boyle, C., Chen, S. I., Little, J.-A. Tags: Vision, Open access, Neurology Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Retinopathy of prematurity: applicability and compliance of guidelines in Hong Kong
Conclusions Current ROP screening using the UK guidelines (2008) is applicable, effective and safe to our predominantly Asian population in Hong Kong, with a low rate of delayed screening. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Luk, A. S. W., Yip, W. W. K., Lok, J. Y. C., Lau, H. H. W., Young, A. L. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research

Repeatability of automated vessel density measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography
Conclusions Commercial automated vessel density measurements using OCT-A showed excellent repeatability in healthy individuals. Although repeatability will also need to be established in the setting of disease, the level of reproducibility should be useful for assessing the significance of differences in capillary density over time or under different conditions. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Al-Sheikh, M., Tepelus, T. C., Nazikyan, T., Sadda, S. R. Tags: Original articles - Clinical science Source Type: research