The role of motor system in action-related language comprehension in L1 and L2: An fMRI study.
n T Abstract The framework of embodied cognition has challenged the modular view of a language-cognition divide by suggesting that meaning-retrieval critically involves the sensory-motor system. Despite extensive research into the neural mechanisms underlying language-motor coupling, it remains unclear how the motor system might be differentially engaged by different levels of linguistic abstraction and language proficiency. To address this issue, we used fMRI to quantify neural activations in brain regions underlying motor and language processing in Chinese-English speakers' processing of literal, metaphorical, a...
Source: Brain and Language - November 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tian L, Chen H, Zhao W, Wu J, Zhang Q, De A, Leppänen P, Cong F, Parviainen T Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Aging-related differences in the cortical network subserving intelligible speech.
Abstract Language communication is crucial throughout the lifespan. The current study investigated how aging affects the brain network subserving intelligible speech. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared brain responses to intelligible and unintelligible speech between older and young adults. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed reduced brain activation and lower regional pattern distinctions in response to intelligible versus unintelligible speech in the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the older compared with young adults. Nota...
Source: Brain and Language - November 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fei N, Ge J, Wang Y, Gao JH Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The hippocampus and semantic memory over time.
Abstract We previously reported impoverished semantic memory in patients with hippocampal amnesia (Klooster & Duff, 2015). Here, we test whether this disruption results from the patients not updating semantic representations since the onset of their amnesia. We extend previous work by comparing performance of hippocampal patients and their current age (CA) comparisons (M = 58.5 years) to a new comparison group matched to the patients' age of onset (AoO) of hippocampal damage (M = 36.8). Participants completed feature and senses-listing tasks and the Word Associates Test. Both comparison groups perfor...
Source: Brain and Language - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Klooster NB, Tranel D, Duff MC Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Mapping eloquent cortex: A voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study of core speech production capacities in brain tumour patients.
This study used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to examine the cortical and white matter regions associated with language production impairments in a sample of 63 preoperative tumour patients. We identified four cognitive functions considered crucial for spoken language production: semantic-to-lexical mapping (selecting the appropriate lexical label for the intended concept); phonological encoding (retrieving the word's phonological form); articulatory-motor planning (programming the articulatory motor movements); and goal-driven language selection (exerting top-down control over the words selected for production). Each...
Source: Brain and Language - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Faulkner JW, Wilshire CE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Monitoring of attentional oscillations through Spectral Similarity Analysis predicts reading comprehension.
Abstract Deviations of attention from the task at hand are often associated with worse reading performance (Schooler, Reichle, & Halpern, 2004). Ironically, current methods for detecting these shifts of attention typically generate task interruptions and further disrupt performance. In the current study, we developed a method to (1) track shifts of attention away from the reading task by examining the similarity between 5 min of eyes-closed-resting-state EEG and 5 min reading EEG; and (2) investigate, during reading, how the ratio between attention shifts and focused reading relates to readers' comprehensi...
Source: Brain and Language - November 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou P, Prat C, Yamasaki BL, Stocco A Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Enhanced left inferior frontal to left superior temporal effective connectivity for complex sentence comprehension: fMRI evidence from Chinese relative clause processing.
In this study, the neural network supporting the comprehension of Chinese relative clause was identified. Both the LIFG and LSTG exhibited higher activation in processing subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) than object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs). Moreover, a Granger causality analysis revealed that the effective connectivity from the LIFG to LSTG was significant only when participants read Chinese SRCs, which were argued to be more difficult than ORCs. Contrary to the observations of an SRC advantage in most other languages, the present results provide clear neuroimaging evidence for an ORC advantage in Chines...
Source: Brain and Language - November 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu K, Wu DH, Duann JR Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Brain volumes as predictors of tDCS effects in primary progressive aphasia.
Abstract The current study aims to determine the brain areas critical for response to anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in PPA. Anodal tDCS and sham were administered over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), combined with written naming/spelling therapy. Thirty people with PPA were included in this study, and assessed immediately, 2 weeks, and 2 months post-therapy. We identified anatomical areas whose volumes significantly predicted the additional tDCS effects. For trained words, the volumes of the left Angular Gyrus and left Posterior Cingulate Cortex predicted the additional tDCS gain...
Source: Brain and Language - November 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Aguiar V, Zhao Y, Faria A, Ficek B, Webster KT, Wendt H, Wang Z, Hillis AE, Onyike CU, Frangakis C, Caffo B, Tsapkini K Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Age of acquisition effects differ across linguistic domains in sign language: EEG evidence.
We examined neural responses of a group of Deaf signers who received access to signed input at varying ages to three linguistic phenomena at the levels of classifier signs, syntactic structure, and information structure. The amplitude of the N400 response to the marked word order condition negatively correlated with the age of acquisition for syntax and information structure, indicating increased cognitive load in these conditions. Additionally, the combination of behavioral and neural data suggested that late learners preferentially relied on classifiers over word order for meaning extraction. This suggests that late acqu...
Source: Brain and Language - November 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Malaia EA, Krebs J, Roehm D, Wilbur RB Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Morphological processing in Chinese engages left temporal regions.
Abstract Morphological awareness, the ability to manipulate the smallest units of meaning, is critical for Chinese literacy. This is because Chinese characters typically reflect the morphemic, or morpho-syllabic units of language. Yet, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying Chinese speakers' morphological processing remain understudied. Proficient readers (N = 14) completed morphological and phonological judgment tasks in Chinese, in both auditory and visual modalities, during fMRI imaging. Key to our inquiry were patterns of activation in left temporal regions, especially the superior temporal gyrus, which ...
Source: Brain and Language - October 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ip KI, Marks RA, Hsu LS, Desai N, Kuan JL, Tardif T, Kovelman L Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Dynamic effects of habituation and novelty detection on newborn event-related potentials.
This study investigated trial-by-trial changes in newborn electrophysiological responses to auditory speech syllables as an index of habituation and novelty detection. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 16 term newborn infants, aged 1-3 days, in response to monosyllabic speech syllables presented during habituation and novelty detection tasks. Multilevel models demonstrated that newborns habituated to repeated auditory syllables, as ERP amplitude attenuated for a late-latency component over successive trials. Subsequently, during the novelty detection task, early- and late-latency component ampli...
Source: Brain and Language - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cortesa CS, Hudac CM, Molfese DL Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Shared premotor activity in spoken and written communication.
e N, Sato M Abstract The aim of the present study was to uncover a possible common neural organizing principle in spoken and written communication, through the coupling of perceptual and motor representations. In order to identify possible shared neural substrates for processing the basic units of spoken and written language, a sparse sampling fMRI acquisition protocol was performed on the same subjects in two experimental sessions with similar sets of letters being read and written and of phonemes being heard and orally produced. We found evidence of common premotor regions activated in spoken and written languag...
Source: Brain and Language - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Longcamp M, Hupé JM, Ruiz M, Vayssière N, Sato M Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Top-down and bottom-up mechanisms as reflected by beta and gamma oscillations in speech perception: An individual-difference approach.
We examined β and γ oscillations elicited to a tone contrast in a passive oddball paradigm, and their relationships with discrimination sensitivity d' and RT from two groups of healthy adults who showed high and low discrimination sensitivity to the contrast. The low-sensitivity group showed a significant reduction in β, which was further related to d'. Individual differences in RT were related to different frequency bands in the two groups, with a RT-β correlation in the low-sensitivity group, and a RT-γ relation in the high-sensitivity group. Based on these findings, we suggest that β, imp...
Source: Brain and Language - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ou J, Law SP Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Written sentence context effects on acoustic-phonetic perception: fMRI reveals cross-modal semantic-perceptual interactions.
This study examines cross-modality effects of a semantically-biased written sentence context on the perception of an acoustically-ambiguous word target identifying neural areas sensitive to interactions between sentential bias and phonetic ambiguity. Of interest is whether the locus or nature of the interactions resembles those previously demonstrated for auditory-only effects. FMRI results show significant interaction effects in right mid-middle temporal gyrus (RmMTG) and bilateral anterior superior temporal gyri (aSTG), regions along the ventral language comprehension stream that map sound onto meaning. These regions are...
Source: Brain and Language - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Guediche S, Zhu Y, Minicucci D, Blumstein SE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

fMRI evidence that left posterior temporal cortex contributes to N400 effects of predictability independent of congruity.
Abstract Previous electrophysiological work argues that predictability and semantic incongruity rapidly impact comprehension, as indicated by modulation of the N400 component between ~300 and 500 ms. An ongoing question is whether effects of predictability in fact reflect pre-activation in long-term memory as opposed to modulating the kind of integration processes triggered by incongruity. Using fMRI, we compared the impact of predictability and incongruity in adjective-noun phrases, in regions identified with lexical and phrasal localizer scans. We found that predictability impacted activity in left posterior m...
Source: Brain and Language - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lau EF, Namyst A Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

White noise facilitates new-word learning from context.
This study investigated whether auditory white noise facilitates the learning of novel written words from context in healthy young adults. Sixty-nine participants were required to determine the meaning of novel words placed within sentence contexts during a silent reading task. Learning was performed either with or without white noise, and recognition of novel word meanings was tested immediately after learning and after a short delay. Immediate recognition accuracy for learned novel word meanings was higher in the noise group relative to the no noise group, however this effect was no longer evident at the delayed recognit...
Source: Brain and Language - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Angwin AJ, Wilson WJ, Ripollés P, Rodriguez-Fornells A, Arnott WL, Barry RJ, Cheng BBY, Garden K, Copland DA Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Tapping to a beat in synchrony predicts brain print sensitivity in pre-readers.
, Lallier M Abstract This longitudinal study was aimed at testing the relation between rhythm sensitivity and behavioural and neural orthographic sensitivity in pre-reading stages. Basque-speaking children performed several behavioural and EEG tasks at two time points prior to formal reading acquisition (T1: 4 years old; T2: 5 years old). Neural sensitivity to print was measured via a novel child friendly N170-elicitation paradigm. Our results highlight a transversal and longitudinal relation between rhythm sensitivity and letter name knowledge in pre-reading children. Moreover, they show that children's rhyth...
Source: Brain and Language - September 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ríos-López P, Molinaro N, Lallier M Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Brain-behavior relationships in incidental learning of non-native phonetic categories.
Abstract Research has implicated the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in mapping acoustic-phonetic input to sound category representations, both in native speech perception and non-native phonetic category learning. At issue is whether this sensitivity reflects access to phonetic category information per se or to explicit category labels, the latter often being required by experimental procedures. The current study employed an incidental learning paradigm designed to increase sensitivity to a difficult non-native phonetic contrast without inducing explicit awareness of the categorical nature of the stimuli. Func...
Source: Brain and Language - September 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Luthra S, Fuhrmeister P, Molfese PJ, Guediche S, Blumstein SE, Myers EB Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Aerobic fitness relates to differential attentional but not language-related cognitive processes.
Abstract Compelling evidence supports an association between the attribute of aerobic fitness and achievement scores on standardized tests of reading. However, such standardized assessments provide only a broad valuation of a complex network of language related sub-processes that contribute to reading and are heavily confounded by other attention-related processes. The present investigation sought to clarify the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and language processing in a sample of college-aged adults. Participants were bifurcated based on aerobic fitness level and on a separate day were asked to...
Source: Brain and Language - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chandler MC, McGowan AL, Payne BR, Hampton Wray A, Pontifex MB Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Effects of bilingual language experience on basal ganglia computations: A dynamic causal modeling test of the conditional routing model.
Abstract Bilingual language control is characterized by the ability to select from amongst competing representations based on the current language in use. According to the Conditional Routing Model (CRM), this feat is underpinned by basal-ganglia signal-routing mechanisms, and may have implications for cognitive flexibility. The current experiment used dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data to compare network-level brain functioning in monolinguals and bilinguals during a task that required productive (semantic decision) and receptive (language) switches. Consistent with the CRM, results showed that: (1) both switch...
Source: Brain and Language - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamasaki BL, Stocco A, Liu AS, Prat CS Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The relationship between bilingual experience and gyrification in adulthood: A cross-sectional surface-based morphometry study.
Abstract Neuroimaging evidence suggests that bilingualism may act as a source of neural plasticity. However, prior work has mostly focused on bilingualism-induced alterations in gray matter volume and white matter tract microstructure, with additional effects related to other neurostructural indices that might have remained undetected. The degree of cortical folding or gyrification is a morphometric parameter which provides information about changes on the brain's surface during development, aging and disease. We used Surface-based Morphometry (SBM) to investigate the contribution of bilingual experience to gyrifi...
Source: Brain and Language - August 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Del Maschio N, Fedeli D, Sulpizio S, Abutalebi J Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Testing the influence of musical expertise on novel word learning across the lifespan using a cross-sectional approach in children, young adults and older adults.
r S Abstract Word learning is a multifaceted perceptual and cognitive task that is omnipresent in everyday life. Currently, it is unclear whether this ability is influenced by age, musical expertise or both variables. Accordingly, we used EEG and compared behavioral and electrophysiological indices of word learning between older adults with and without musical expertise (older adults' perspective) as well as between musically trained and untrained children, young adults, and older adults (lifespan perspective). Results of the older adults' perspective showed that the ability to learn new words is preserved in elde...
Source: Brain and Language - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dittinger E, Scherer J, Jäncke L, Besson M, Elmer S Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Bilingual children access multiplication facts from semantic memory equivalently across languages: Evidence from the N400.
Abstract Typically, bilinguals learn multiplication facts in only one instruction language. Consequently, these facts may be represented and/or accessed as language-specific memories, requiring a qualitatively different retrieval process in their other language. Indeed, behavioral studies reveal that bilinguals verify arithmetic facts faster and better in the language of learning. Here, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used as a window into the neurocognitive processes underlying this language bias in children. ERPs were recorded while bilingual children verified the correctness of multiplication solutions. Op...
Source: Brain and Language - August 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cerda VR, Grenier AE, Wicha NYY Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neural processing critical for distinguishing between speech sounds.
Abstract We aimed to identify neural regions where ischemia acutely after stroke is associated with impairment in phoneme discrimination, and to determine whether such deficits are associated with impairment of spoken word comprehension. We evaluated 33 patients within 48 h of left hemisphere ischemic stroke onset with tests of phoneme discrimination and word-picture matching. We identified Pearson correlations between accuracy in phoneme discrimination and accuracy of word comprehension and identified areas where the percentage of infarcted tissue was associated with severity of phoneme discrimination deficit. ...
Source: Brain and Language - August 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim K, Adams L, Keator LM, Sheppard SM, Breining BL, Rorden C, Fridriksson J, Bonilha L, Rogalsky C, Love T, Hickok G, Hillis AE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of clinically unclassifiable primary progressive aphasia.
Abstract Many patients who meet core/root criteria for Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) are not classifiable as a recognized variant and are often excluded from neuroimaging studies. Here, we detail neurological, neuropsychological, speech and language assessments, and anatomic and molecular neuroimaging (MRI, PiB-PET, and FDG-PET) for fifteen (8 female) clinically unclassifiable PPA patients. Median age of onset was 64 years old with median 3 years disease duration at exam. Three patients were amyloid positive on PiB-PET. 14/15 patients had abnormal FDG-PETs with left predominant hypometabolism, affecting fr...
Source: Brain and Language - August 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Utianski RL, Botha H, Martin PR, Schwarz CG, Duffy JR, Clark HM, Machulda MM, Butts AM, Lowe VJ, Jack CR, Senjem ML, Spychalla AJ, Whitwell JL, Josephs KA Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Alternating-color words influence Chinese sentence reading: Evidence from neural connectivity.
Abstract In order to investigate how language and attention systems are affected by word boundary information during reading, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which text-color in naturally unspaced Chinese sentences were systematically manipulated in three experimental conditions, that is, text-color alternation consistent or inconsistent with word boundary (i.e., alternating-color word and non-word conditions), as well as a mono-color baseline condition. Twenty college students (14 females; 23.1 years old) were required to silently read 72 sentences during fMRI scanning....
Source: Brain and Language - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou W, Liu Y, Su M, Yan M, Shu H Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

A longitudinal investigation of structural brain changes during second language learning.
Abstract Few studies have examined the time course of second language (L2) induced neuroplasticity or how individual differences may be associated with brain changes. The current longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study examined changes in cortical thickness (CT) and gray matter volume (GMV) across two semesters of L2 Spanish classroom learning. Learners' lexical processing was assessed via a language decision task containing English and Spanish words. Our findings indicated that (1) CT increased in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) after L2 learning, (2...
Source: Brain and Language - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Legault J, Grant A, Fang SY, Li P Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Stable auditory processing underlies phonological awareness in typically developing preschoolers.
Abstract Sound processing is an important scaffold for early language acquisition. Here we investigate its relationship to three components of phonological processing in young children (∼age 3): Phonological Awareness (PA), Phonological Memory (PM), and Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN). While PA is believed to hinge upon consistency of sound processing to distinguish and manipulate word features, PM relies on an internal store of the sounds of language and RAN relies on fluid production of those sounds. Given the previously demonstrated link between PA and the auditory system, we hypothesized that only this comp...
Source: Brain and Language - July 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bonacina S, Otto-Meyer S, Krizman J, White-Schwoch T, Nicol T, Kraus N Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neural correlates and functional connectivity of lexical tone processing in reading.
Abstract Lexical tone processing in speech is mediated by bilateral superior temporal and inferior prefrontal regions, but little is known concerning the neural circuitries of lexical tone phonology in reading. Using fMRI, we examined the neural systems for lexical tone in visual Chinese word recognition. We found that the extraction of lexical tone phonology in print was subserved by bilateral fronto-parietal regions. Seed-to-voxel analyses showed that functionally connected cortical regions involved right inferior frontal gyrus and SMA, right middle frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule, and SMA and b...
Source: Brain and Language - July 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kwok VPY, Matthews S, Yakpo K, Tan LH Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Noninvasive neurostimulation of left temporal lobe disrupts rapid talker adaptation in speech processing.
Abstract Talker adaptation improves speech processing efficiency by reducing possible mappings between talkers' speech acoustics and listeners' phonemic representations. We investigated the functional neuroanatomy of talker adaptation by applying noninvasive neurostimulation (high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation; HD-tDCS) to left superior temporal lobe while participants performed an auditory word identification task. We factorially manipulated talker variability (single vs. mixed talkers) and speech context (isolated words vs. connected speech), measuring listeners' speech processing efficiency...
Source: Brain and Language - July 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Choi JY, Perrachione TK Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Microstructural plasticity in the bilingual brain.
In this study, using the quantitative MRI (qMRI) combined with functional MRI (fMRI) techniques, we quantified the microstructural properties and tested whether second language learning modulates the microstructure in the bilingual brain. We found significant microstructural variations related to age of acquisition of second language in the left inferior frontal region and the left fusiform gyrus that are crucial for resolving lexical competition of bilinguals' two languages. Early second language acquisition contributes to enhance cortical development at the microstructural level. PMID: 31306932 [PubMed - as supplied...
Source: Brain and Language - July 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Luo D, Kwok VPY, Liu Q, Li W, Yang Y, Zhou K, Xu M, Gao JH, Tan LH Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Language learning experience and mastering the challenges of perceiving speech in noise.
Abstract Given the ubiquity of noisy environments and increasing globalization, the necessity to perceive speech in noise in a non-native language is common and necessary for successful communication. In the current investigation, bilingual individuals who learned their non-native language at different ages underwent magnetic resonance imaging while listening to sentences in both of their languages, in quiet and in noise. Sentence context was varied such that the final word could be of high or low predictability. Results show that early non-native language learning is associated with superior ability to benefit fr...
Source: Brain and Language - July 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kousaie S, Baum S, Phillips NA, Gracco V, Titone D, Chen JK, Chai XJ, Klein D Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

English only? Monolinguals in linguistically diverse contexts have an edge in language learning.
Abstract Accumulating evidence shows how language context shapes bilingual language use and its cognitive consequences. However, few studies have considered the impact of language context for monolinguals. Although monolinguals' language processing is assumed to be relatively stable and homogeneous, some research has shown novel learning through exposure alone. Monolinguals living in linguistically diverse contexts regularly overhear languages they do not understand, and may absorb information about those languages in ways that shape their language networks. The current study used behavioral and ERP measures to co...
Source: Brain and Language - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bice K, Kroll JF Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Bilingual effects on lexical selection: A neurodevelopmental perspective.
man I Abstract When a listener hears a word, multiple lexical items may come to mind; for instance, /kæn/ may activate concepts with similar phonological onsets such as candy and candle. Acquisition of two lexicons may increase such linguistic competition. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging, we investigate whether bilingualism impacts word processing in the child's brain. Bilingual and monolingual children (N = 52; ages 7-10) completed a lexical selection task in English, where participants adjudicated phonological competitors (e.g., car/cat vs. car/pen). Children were less accurate...
Source: Brain and Language - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Arredondo MM, Hu XS, Satterfield T, Tsutsumi Riobóo A, Gelman SA, Kovelman I Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

BiLex: A computational approach to the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on bilingual lexical access.
We examined whether BiLex can (i) simulate their naming performance in each language while taking into account their L2 age of acquisition, use and exposure to each language, and (ii) predict naming performance in other participants not used in model training. Our findings showed that BiLex could accurately simulate naming performance in bilinguals, suggesting that differences in L2 age of acquisition, language use and exposure can account for individual differences in bilingual lexical access. PMID: 31247403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Peñaloza C, Grasemann U, Dekhtyar M, Miikkulainen R, Kiran S Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Inconsistency of findings due to low power: A structural MRI study of bilingualism.
Abstract Research on structural brain differences between monolinguals and bilinguals remains inconsistent, and this has been proposed by some to be due in part to inadequate sample sizes. The aim of the present study is to reveal the expected degrees of uncertainty among neuroimaging findings by analyzing random samples of varying sizes from a larger-than-average sample. Bilinguals (n = 216) were compared with monolinguals (n = 146) using grey matter volume measures across region-of-interest tests. Variability among findings were compared with the true full-sample findings, and taken in the context of exp...
Source: Brain and Language - June 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Munson BA, Hernandez AE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Brain activity during spoken word recognition in subacute aphasia.
PMID: 31220584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Roxbury T, McMahon K, Wong A, Farrell A, Burfein P, Taubert S, O'Brien K, Read S, Coulthard A, Copland D Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Chunking of phonological units in speech sequencing.
Abstract Efficient speech communication requires rapid, fluent production of phoneme sequences. To achieve this, our brains store frequently occurring subsequences as cohesive "chunks" that reduce phonological working memory load and improve motor performance. The current study used a motor-sequence learning paradigm in which the generalization of two performance gains (utterance duration and errors) from practicing novel phoneme sequences was used to infer the nature of these speech chunks. We found that performance improvements in duration from practicing syllables with non-native consonant clusters la...
Source: Brain and Language - June 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Segawa J, Masapollo M, Tong M, Smith DJ, Guenther FH Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The neurocognitive signature of focus alternatives.
Abstract Focus alternatives are words/phrases that can substitute for the focused constituent of an utterance. In "Carsten has picked [CHERRIES]F from the tree.", (marked by pitch focus on cherries), the speaker wants to not only convey the fact that Carsten has picked cherries, but also to contrast cherries with other fruit that could have been picked, such as plums. Although focus alternatives are key to understanding the implicit aspects of an utterance, nothing is known about their neural representation. We directly contrasted neural representations of lexico-semantic similarity and focus alternative...
Source: Brain and Language - May 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Spalek K, Oganian Y Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Semantic and BCI-performance in completely paralyzed patients: Possibility of language attrition in completely locked in syndrome.
In this study we have investigated effects of semantic content of sentences presented to a CLIS patient on the performance of the BCI system during a YES/NO paradigm. Comparison of communication success rate in BCI classification between different semantic categories indicate that semantic content of sentences presented to a CLIS patient can affect the BCI performance. Affected concepts are mostly associated with executive words. These findings can be beneficial towards development of more reliable communication device for patients in CLIS. In addition, these results may assist in elucidating the cognitive changes in compl...
Source: Brain and Language - May 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Khalili Ardali M, Rana A, Purmohammad M, Birbaumer N, Chaudhary U Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Are you really cursing? Neural processing of taboo words in native and foreign language.
We report that for L1 socio-pragmatic knowledge is automatically conveyed and taboo words are processed with less effort than non-taboo words. For L2 the processing of taboo words is more effortful and engages additional structures (anterior cingulate cortex, insula) involved in social-norm representation and evaluation. Our results contribute to understand the interface between language and social-norm processing indicating that lexical processing is affected by socio-pragmatic knowledge, but only when the speaker has a contextual use of the language. PMID: 31146214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - May 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sulpizio S, Toti M, Del Maschio N, Costa A, Fedeli D, Job R, Abutalebi J Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Effects of formant proximity and stimulus prototypicality on the neural discrimination of vowels: Evidence from the auditory frequency-following response.
hl PK Abstract Cross-language speech perception experiments indicate that for many vowel contrasts, discrimination is easier when the same pair of vowels is presented in one direction compared to the reverse direction. According to one account, these directional asymmetries reflect a universal bias favoring "focal" vowels (i.e., vowels with prominent spectral peaks formed by the convergence of adjacent formants). An alternative account is that such effects reflect an experience-dependent bias favoring prototypical exemplars of native-language vowel categories. Here, we tested the predictions of these acc...
Source: Brain and Language - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao TC, Masapollo M, Polka L, Ménard L, Kuhl PK Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Failure to attune to language predicts autism in high risk infants.
Abstract Young humans are typically sensitive to evolutionarily important aspects of information in the surrounding environment in a way that makes us thrive. Seeking to probe the putative disruptions of this process in infancy, I examined the statistical character of head movements in 52 9-10 mo-old infants, half at high familial risk (HR) for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), who underwent an fMRI scan while listening to words spoken with alternating stress patterns on syllables. Relative to low risk (LR) infants, HR infants, in particular those showing the least rapid receptive language progress, had significant...
Source: Brain and Language - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Denisova K Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neurocognitive correlates of category ambiguous verb processing: The single versus dual lexical entry hypotheses.
Abstract Word-class ambiguous words engender greater processing time and fMRI (BOLD signal) activation than unambiguous ones. Theoretical accounts of this phenomenon suggest that words with multiple meanings (1) are associated with multiple lexical entries and thus require greater selection demands, or (2) undergo computationally expensive grammatical processes that convert words from one word-class to another. Using an fMRI grammaticality judgment task, we tested these accounts by examining word-class ambiguous polysemic (e.g., brush) and homonymic (e.g., bear) verbs, and unambiguous verbs (e.g., bake). Results s...
Source: Brain and Language - May 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lukic S, Meltzer-Asscher A, Higgins J, Parrish TB, Thompson CK Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Brain volumetric correlates of dysarthria in multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Although dysarthria is a common pattern in multiple sclerosis (MS), the contribution of specific brain areas to key factors of dysarthria remains unknown. Speech data were acquired from 123 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6.5 and 60 matched healthy controls. Results of computerized acoustic analyses of subtests on spastic and ataxic aspects of dysarthria were correlated with MRI-based brain volume measurements. Slow articulation rate during reading was associated with bilateral white and grey matter loss whereas reduced maximum speed during oral diadochokinesis w...
Source: Brain and Language - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rusz J, Vaneckova M, Benova B, Tykalova T, Novotny M, Ruzickova H, Uher T, Andelova M, Novotna K, Friedova L, Motyl J, Kucerova K, Krasensky J, Horakova D Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Stuttering and gray matter morphometry: A population-based neuroimaging study in young children.
Abstract Stuttering is a developmental speech disorder originating in early childhood. We aimed to replicate the association of stuttering and structural morphometry using a large, population-based prospective cohort, the Generation R Study, and explore the neurobiological mechanism of stuttering in children. Twenty-six children with a history of stuttering and 489 fluent speaking peers (ages 6-9) were included in the MRI sub-study. Cortical and subcortical regions of interest were analyzed using linear regression models. Compared to fluent speakers, children with a history of stuttering had less gray matter volum...
Source: Brain and Language - May 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Koenraads SPC, El Marroun H, Muetzel RL, Chang SE, Vernooij MW, Baatenburg de Jong RJ, White T, Franken MC, van der Schroeff MP Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

A longitudinal study of speech production in primary progressive aphasia and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.
We examined longitudinal change in language expression during a semi-structured speech sample in 48 patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) or behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and related this to longitudinal neuroimaging of cortical thickness available in 25 of these patients. All patient groups declined significantly on measures of both speech fluency and grammar, although patients with nonfluent/agrammatic PPA (naPPA) declined to a greater extent than patients with the semantic variant, the logopenic variant, and bvFTD. These patient groups also declined on several neuropsychological measures, ...
Source: Brain and Language - May 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ash S, Nevler N, Phillips J, Irwin DJ, McMillan CT, Rascovsky K, Grossman M Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neurocognitive basis of repetition deficits in primary progressive aphasia.
Abstract Previous studies indicate that repetition is affected in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), particularly in the logopenic variant, due to limited auditory-verbal short-term memory (avSTM). We tested repetition of phrases varied by length (short, long) and meaning (meaningful, non-meaningful) in 58 participants (22 logopenic, 19 nonfluent, and 17 semantic variants) and 21 healthy controls using a modified Bayles repetition test. We evaluated the relation between cortical thickness and repetition performance and whether sub-scores could discriminate PPA variants. Logopenic participants showed impaired repet...
Source: Brain and Language - May 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lukic S, Mandelli ML, Welch A, Jordan K, Shwe W, Neuhaus J, Miller Z, Hubbard HI, Henry M, Miller BL, Dronkers NF, Gorno-Tempini ML Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Prefrontal sensitivity to changes in language form and semantic content during speech production.
We examined bilingual speech production using a picture-naming paradigm that teased apart language and semantic switching. Bilingual participants named two serially presented pictures, which show the same or different object, with one or two languages. The three switching conditions showed distinct neural activation patterns within the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, neural substrates shared by all switching conditions were primarily found in fronto-parietal regions. Besides, forward switching (L1-to-L2) activated a more widespread neural network than backward switching (L2-to-L1). We discuss differential engagement of the co...
Source: Brain and Language - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, Wang K, Yue C, Gao S, Huang P, Wang T, Wen X, Qiu J, Wu YJ Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Brain networks involved in accented speech processing.
A, Ávila C Abstract We investigated the neural correlates of accented speech processing (ASP) with an fMRI study that overcame prior limitations in this line of research: we preserved intelligibility by using two regional accents that differ in prosody but only mildly in phonetics (Latin American and Castilian Spanish), and we used independent component analysis to identify brain networks as opposed to isolated regions. ASP engaged a speech perception network composed primarily of structures related with the processing of prosody (cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus). This network also included anterior front...
Source: Brain and Language - April 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hernández M, Ventura-Campos N, Costa A, Miró-Padilla A, Ávila C Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Profiling sentence repetition deficits in primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: Error patterns and association with digit span.
Abstract The use of sentence repetition tasks to distinguish dementia syndromes, particularly variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), is receiving growing attention. Impaired sentence repetition is a core feature of logopenic variant PPA, although the underlying cognitive mechanisms of this impairment and its significance as a diagnostic criterion remain poorly understood. Sentence repetition abilities of 12 people with dementia, using an adapted error classification schema, were analyzed, along with digit span abilities, a measure frequently used to assess working memory capacity, to explore error patterns...
Source: Brain and Language - April 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Beales A, Whitworth A, Cartwright J, Panegyres PK, Kane RT Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research