Neural mechanisms of language learning from social contexts.
In this study, 36 adults were asked to learn two sets of L2 spoken words through translation versus simulated social interactive videos (social learning). Brain activation during word learning was measured using fMRI. Greater activation was observed in the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyri, and right inferior parietal lobule during social learning as compared with translation learning. Furthermore, higher activity in the right temporal parietal junction, right hippocampus, and motor areas was observed during the initial stage of social learning, with the more successful performance being at...
Source: Brain and Language - November 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jeong H, Li P, Suzuki W, Sugiura M, Kawashima R Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

How to improve social communication in aging: Pragmatic and cognitive interventions.
Abstract Among all aspects of the linguistic and communicative competence, pragmatics seems especially vulnerable in aging, due also to cognitive decline. However, pragmatics has never been considered as an intervention target in healthy aging. Here we tested the effects of a novel training program to improve pragmatics (PragmaCom) in older adults, compared with an active cognitive control group in a randomized-controlled-trial design. Both the PragmaCom group and the control group improved in pragmatic skills such as understanding metaphors and avoiding off-topic speech, indicating that it is possible to improve ...
Source: Brain and Language - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bambini V, Tonini E, Ceccato I, Lecce S, Marocchini E, Cavallini E Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Understanding particularized and generalized conversational implicatures: Is theory-of-mind necessary?
Abstract A speaker's intended meaning can be inferred from an utterance with or without reference to its context for particularized implicature (PI) and/or generalized implicature (GI). Although previous studies have separately revealed the neural correlates of PI and GI comprehension, it remains controversial whether they share theory-of-mind (ToM) related inferential processes. Here we address this issue using functional MRI (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants listened to single-turn dialogues where the reply was indirect with either PI or GI or was direct for control conditio...
Source: Brain and Language - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng W, Yu H, Zhou X Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Dynamic EEG analysis during language comprehension reveals interactive cascades between perceptual processing and sentential expectations.
Abstract Understanding spoken language requires analysis of the rapidly unfolding speech signal at multiple levels: acoustic, phonological, and semantic. However, there is not yet a comprehensive picture of how these levels relate. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while listeners (N = 31) heard sentences in which we manipulated acoustic ambiguity (e.g., a bees/peas continuum) and sentential expectations (e.g., Honey is made by bees). EEG was analyzed with a mixed effects model over time to quantify how language processing cascades proceed on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis. Our results indicat...
Source: Brain and Language - October 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sarrett ME, McMurray B, Kapnoula EC Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Thinking outside the box: The brain-bilingualism relationship in the light of early neurobiological variability.
Abstract Bilingualism represents a distinctive way to investigate the interplay between brain and behaviour, and an elegant model to study the role of environmental factors in shaping this relationship. Past neuroimaging research has mainly focused on how bilingualism influences brain structure, and how eventually the brain accommodates a second language. In this paper, we discuss a more recent contribution to the field which views bilingualism as lens to understand brain-behaviour mappings from a different perspective. It has been shown, in contexts not related to bilingualism, that cognitive performance across s...
Source: Brain and Language - October 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Del Maschio N, Sulpizio S, Abutalebi J Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Measuring the influence of phonological neighborhood on visual word recognition with the N400: Evidence for semantic scaffolding.
Abstract Research in visual word recognition has shown that phonological neighborhood density facilitates visual word recognition. The current research was designed to determine the electrophysiological effect of phonological neighborhood density (PND). In two experiments, participants made lexical decisions to words varying on phonological neighborhood while Event-related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behaviorally, the results replicate previous research by showing that words with many phonological neighbors were responded to more rapidly than were words with few phonological neighbors. However, the main contr...
Source: Brain and Language - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yates M, Shelley-Tremblay J, Knapp DL Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Electrical brain activity and facial electromyography responses to irony in dysphoric and non-dysphoric participants.
Abstract We studied irony comprehension and emotional reactions to irony in dysphoric and control participants. Electroencephalography (EEG) and facial electromyography (EMG) were measured when spoken conversations were presented with pictures that provided either congruent (non-ironic) or incongruent (ironic) contexts. In a separate session, participants evaluated the congruency and valence of the stimuli. While both groups rated ironic stimuli funnier than non-ironic stimuli, the control group rated all the stimuli funnier than the dysphoric group. N400-like activity, P600, and EMG activity indicating smiling we...
Source: Brain and Language - October 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li X, Pesonen J, Haimi E, Wang H, Astikainen P Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Heterogeneity in abstract verbs: An ERP study.
Abstract It has been well documented that different types of nouns and action verbs are associated with behavioral and neural differences. In contrast, abstract verbs (e.g., think, dissolve) are often treated as a homogeneous category. We compared event-related potentials recorded during a syntactic classification task of four verb types; 1) abstract mental, 2) abstract emotional, 3) abstract nonbodily, and 4) concrete. Abstract nonbodily state verbs showed a sustained negativity at frontocentral electrodes and sustained positivity at parietal and occipital electrodes beginning 400 ms post-stimulus onset rela...
Source: Brain and Language - October 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Muraki EJ, Cortese F, Protzner AB, Pexman PM Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neuronavigated rTMS inhibition of right pars triangularis anterior in stuttering: Differential effects on reading and speaking.
In this study, we inhibited Broca's homologues using 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and assessed its effects on stuttering severity. The investigated cortical areas included pars opercularis (BA44), anterior and posterior pars triangularis (BA45), mouth area on the primary motor cortex (BA4). We collected reading and speaking samples before and after rTMS sessions and calculated the percentage of syllables stuttered. Only right anterior pars triangularis stimulation induced significant changes in speech fluency. Notably, the effects were differential for reading and speaking conditions. Overa...
Source: Brain and Language - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tezel-Bayraktaroglu O, Bayraktaroglu Z, Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Demiralp T, Oge AE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Negation as conflict: Conflict adaptation following negating vertical spatial words.
In this study, we investigated whether the processing of negated directional terms such as "not up" or "not down" poses a conflict for participants and results in similar processing adjustments as non-linguistic conflicts do (Dudschig & Kaup, 2019). In each trial, participants read one of the following four phrases "now up", "not up", "now down" or "not down" and responded with a button press on a response key mounted in the upper versus lower vertical space. Behavioral data indicated that processing negated phrases leads to considerable processing difficultie...
Source: Brain and Language - September 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dudschig C, Kaup B Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Distinct mechanisms drive hemispheric lateralization of object recognition in the visual word form and fusiform face areas.
nco M Abstract The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) and the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) represent classical examples of functional lateralization. The known hypothesis that lateralization of the VWFA and FFA are related remains controversial. We hypothesized that lateralization is independent and might be associated with lateralized high-level top-down mechanisms. For the VWFA this could emerge from left-lateralized language regions. This driving force might modulate local reorganization/recycling of function. Using an fMRI recognition paradigm, we quantified lateralization and investigated effective connectivity to exam...
Source: Brain and Language - September 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Canário N, Jorge L, Castelo-Branco M Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Behavioral and neurological effects of tDCS on speech motor recovery: A single-subject intervention study.
This report supports the possibility that tDCS may enhance both behavioral and neurological outcomes and indicates the importance of additional work in this area, although replication is required to confirm the extent and consistency of tDCS benefits on speech motor learning treatment outcomes. PMID: 32905863 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Buchwald A, Khosa N, Rimikis S, Duncan ES Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Reading proficiency influences the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: Evidence from selective modulation of dorsal and ventral pathways of reading in bilinguals.
CONCLUSION: Dorsal and ventral reading pathways can be selectively modulated by tDCS in bilingual readers with dorsal (sub-lexical) pathway stimulation affecting reading in both scripts and ventral (lexical) pathway stimulation selectively affecting Chinese reading. Dorsal pathway tDCS effects are modulated by sub-lexical reading proficiency. PMID: 32890855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - September 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhattacharjee S, Kashyap R, O'Brien BA, McCloskey M, Oishi K, Desmond JE, Rapp B, Chen SHA Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Lexical-semantic search related to side of onset and putamen volume in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic cell loss and reduced striatal volume. Prior studies have demonstrated striatal involvement in access to lexical-semantic knowledge and damage to this structure may be evident in the lexical properties of responses. Semantic fluency task responses from early stage, non-demented PD participants with right (PD-R) or left (PD-L) lateralizing symptoms were compared to matched controls on lexical properties (word frequency, age of acquisition) and correlated with striatal volumes segmented from T1-weighted brain MR images. PD-R participants produced sem...
Source: Brain and Language - August 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wagner D, Eslinger PJ, Sterling NW, Du G, Lee EY, Styner M, Lewis MM, Huang X Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The role of left vs. right superior temporal gyrus in speech perception: An fMRI-guided TMS study.
in RC Abstract Debate continues regarding the necessary role of right superior temporal gyrus (STG) regions in sublexical speech perception given the bilateral STG activation often observed in fMRI studies. To evaluate the causal roles, TMS pulses were delivered to inhibit and disrupt neuronal activity at the left and right STG regions during a nonword discrimination task based on peak activations from a blocked fMRI paradigm assessing speech vs. nonspeech perception (N = 20). Relative to a control region located in the posterior occipital lobe, TMS to the left anterior STG (laSTG) led to significantly worse a...
Source: Brain and Language - August 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramos Nuñez AI, Yue Q, Pasalar S, Martin RC Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

EEG signatures of elementary composition: Disentangling genuine composition and expectancy processes.
e-Lisboa JC Abstract We adapted Bemis & Pylkkänen's (2011) paradigm to study elementary composition in Spanish using electroencephalography, to determine if EEG is sensitive enough to detect a composition-related activity and analyze whether the expectancy of participants to compose contributes to this signal. We found relevant activity at the expected channels and times, and a putative composition-related activity before the second word onset. Using threshold-free cluster permutation analysis and linear models we show a task-progression effect for the composition task that is not present for the list tas...
Source: Brain and Language - August 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fló E, Cabana Á, Valle-Lisboa JC Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Noninvasive neurostimulation of left ventral motor cortex enhances sensorimotor adaptation in speech production.
This study demonstrates how focal noninvasive neurostimulation can enhance the integration of auditory feedback into speech motor plans. PMID: 32738502 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Scott TL, Haenchen L, Daliri A, Chartove J, Guenther FH, Perrachione TK Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Thalamus is a common locus of reading, arithmetic, and IQ: Analysis of local intrinsic functional properties.
Abstract Neuroimaging studies of basic achievement skills - reading and arithmetic - often control for the effect of IQ to identify unique neural correlates of each skill. This may underestimate possible effects of common factors between achievement and IQ measures on neuroimaging results. Here, we simultaneously examined achievement (reading and arithmetic) and IQ measures in young adults, aiming to identify MRI correlates of their common factors. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data were analyzed using two metrics assessing local intrinsic functional properties; regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude ...
Source: Brain and Language - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Koyama MS, Molfese PJ, Milham MP, Mencl WE, Pugh KR Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Cerebellar contributions to rapid semantic processing in reading.
PMID: 32688288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: D'Mello AM, Centanni TM, Gabrieli JDE, Christodoulou JA Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Phonetic discrimination mediates the relationship between auditory brainstem response stability and syntactic performance.
This study investigates whether one aspect of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), neural response stability, which is a metric reflecting trial-by-trial consistency in the neural encoding of sound, can predict syntactic, lexical, and phonetic performance in TD and ASD school-aged children. Pooling across children with ASD and TD, results showed that higher neural stability in response to the syllable /da/ was associated with better phonetic discrimination, and with better syntactic performance on a standardized measure. Furthermore, phonetic discrimination was a successful mediator of the relationship between neural stabi...
Source: Brain and Language - July 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tecoulesco L, Skoe E, Naigles LR Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Functional linguistic specificity of the left frontal aslant tract for spontaneous speech fluency: Evidence from intraoperative language mapping.
We present a series of 12 neurosurgical cases with awake language mapping of the cortex near the left FAT. Tasks for language mapping included the commonly used action picture naming, and sentence completion, tapping more specifically into spontaneous speech. A task dissociation was found in 10 participants: while being stimulated on specific sites, they were able to name a picture but could not complete a sentence. Overlaying of these sites on preoperative white-matter tract reconstructions revealed that in each individual case they were located on cortical terminations of the FAT. This corroborates the language functiona...
Source: Brain and Language - July 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dragoy O, Zyryanov A, Bronov O, Gordeyeva E, Gronskaya N, Kryuchkova O, Klyuev E, Kopachev D, Medyanik I, Mishnyakova L, Pedyash N, Pronin I, Reutov A, Sitnikov A, Stupina E, Yashin K, Zhirnova V, Zuev A Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The neural bases of argumentative reasoning.
This study shows that it is possible to use more ecologically valid tasks to study the neural bases of reasoning, and that using such tasks might point to different neural bases than those observed with the more abstract and artificial tasks typically used in the neuroscience of reasoning. Specifically, we speculate that reasoning in an argumentative context might rely on mechanisms supporting metarepresentational processes in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID: 32590183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Prado J, Léone J, Epinat-Duclos J, Trouche E, Mercier H Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

ERP indexes of number attraction and word order during correct verb agreement production.
Abstract Successful subject-verb agreement production requires retrieving the verbal forms that agree with the features of the subject head noun and not of other nouns in the sentence. We investigate, for the first time, the electrophysiological indexes of number attraction and word order during agreement production. Twenty-four Basque native speakers were tested while producing auxiliary verbs during sentence completion of transitive sentence preambles involving singular subjects and singular or plural objects in canonical (SOV) and non-canonical (OSV) structures. ERP results yielded a larger production P2 (pP2) ...
Source: Brain and Language - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Santesteban M, Zawiszewski A, Hatzidaki A Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Auditory event-related potentials index faster processing of natural speech but not synthetic speech over nonspeech analogs in children.
Abstract Given the crucial role of speech sounds in human language, it may be beneficial for speech to be supported by more efficient auditory and attentional neural processing mechanisms compared to nonspeech sounds. However, previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have found either no differences or slower auditory processing of speech than nonspeech, as well as inconsistent attentional processing. We hypothesized that this may be due to the use of synthetic stimuli in past experiments. The present study measured ERP responses during passive listening to both synthetic and natural speech and complexity-ma...
Source: Brain and Language - June 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Whitten A, Key AP, Mefferd AS, Bodfish JW Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Earlier age of second language learning induces more robust speech encoding in the auditory brainstem in adults, independent of amount of language exposure during early childhood.
This study compared three groups of adult bilinguals who differed in their age of L2 acquisition as well as the amount of exposure to the L2 during early childhood. We demonstrate for the first time that the neuroplastic effect in the brainstem remains stable until young adulthood and that the amount of L2 exposure does not influence behavioral or brainstem plasticity. Our study provides novel insights into low-level auditory plasticity as a function of varying bilingual experience. PMID: 32535187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - June 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Giroud N, Baum SR, Gilbert AC, Phillips NA, Gracco V Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Pre-treatment graph measures of a functional semantic network are associated with naming therapy outcomes in chronic aphasia.
In this study, 26 patients with chronic aphasia completed a semantic judgment fMRI task before receiving up to 12 weeks of naming treatment. Global (i.e., network-wide) and local (i.e., regional) graph theoretic measures of pre-treatment functional connectivity were analyzed to identify differences between patients who responded most and least favorably to treatment (i.e., responders and nonresponders) and determine if network measures predicted naming improvements. Responders had higher levels of global integration (i.e., average network strength and global efficiency) than nonresponders, and these measures predicted...
Source: Brain and Language - June 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Johnson JP, Meier EL, Pan Y, Kiran S Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Recruiting the right hemisphere: Sex differences in inter-hemispheric communication during semantic verbal fluency.
Abstract Sex differences in cognitive functions are heavily debated. Recent work suggests that sex differences do stem from different processing strategies utilized by men and women. While these processing strategies are likely reflected in different brain networks, so far the link between brain networks and processing strategies remains speculative. In the present study we seek for the first time to link sex differences in brain activation patterns to sex differences in processing strategies utilizing a semantic verbal fluency task in a large sample of 35 men and 35 women, all scanned thrice. For verbal fluency, ...
Source: Brain and Language - June 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Scheuringer A, Harris TA, Pletzer B Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Effects of age and left hemisphere lesions on audiovisual integration of speech.
Abstract Neuroimaging studies have implicated left temporal lobe regions in audiovisual integration of speech and inferior parietal regions in temporal binding of incoming signals. However, it remains unclear which regions are necessary for audiovisual integration, especially when the auditory and visual signals are offset in time. Aging also influences integration, but the nature of this influence is unresolved. We used a McGurk task to test audiovisual integration and sensitivity to the timing of audiovisual signals in two older adult groups: left hemisphere stroke survivors and controls. We observed a positive ...
Source: Brain and Language - May 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Michaelis K, Erickson LC, Fama ME, Skipper-Kallal LM, Xing S, Lacey EH, Anbari Z, Norato G, Rauschecker JP, Turkeltaub PE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Articulation lost in space. The effects of local orobuccal anesthesia on articulation and intelligibility of phonemes.
Abstract Motor speech requires numerous neural computations including feedforward and feedback control mechanisms. A reduction of auditory or somatosensory feedback may be implicated in disorders of speech, as predicted by various models of speech control. In this paper the effects of reduced somatosensory feedback on articulation and intelligibility of individual phonemes was evaluated by using topical anesthesia of orobuccal structures in 24 healthy subjects. The evaluation was done using a combination of perceptual intelligibility estimation of consonants and vowels and acoustic analysis of motor speech. A sign...
Source: Brain and Language - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: De Letter M, Criel Y, Lind A, Hartsuiker R, Santens P Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

A domain-general perspective on the role of the basal ganglia in language and music: Benefits of music therapy for the treatment of aphasia.
Abstract In addition to cortical lesions, mounting evidence on the links between language and the subcortical regions suggests that subcortical lesions may also lead to the emergence of aphasic symptoms. In this paper, by emphasizing the domain-general function of the basal ganglia in both language and music, we highlight that rhythm processing, the function of temporal prediction, motor programming and execution, is an important shared mechanism underlying the treatment of non-fluent aphasia with music therapy. In support of this, we conduct a literature review on the music therapy treating aphasia. The results s...
Source: Brain and Language - May 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shi ER, Zhang Q Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neuromodulation of cursing in American English: A combined tDCS and pupillometry study.
We examined whether right vs. left lateralized prefrontal neurostimultion via tDCS could modulate taboo word production in neurotypical adults. We employed a pre/post design with a bilateral frontal electrode montage. Half the participants received left anodal and right cathodal stimulation; the remainder received the opposite polarity stimulation at the same anatomical loci. We employed physiological (pupillometry) and behavioral (reaction time) dependent measures as participants read aloud taboo and non-taboo words. Pupillary responses demonstrated a crossover reaction, suggestive of modulation of phasic arousal during c...
Source: Brain and Language - April 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Reilly J, Zuckerman B, Kelly A, Flurie M, Rao S Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Set focus and anaphoric reference: An ERP study.
This article reports the results from an ERP study on the processing of anaphoric reference to quantifying expressions in Swedish (e.g. Many students attended the lecture and that they were present was noted). Negative quantifiers (e.g. few) differ from positive quantifiers (e.g. many), in allowing anaphoric expressions to target either the ref(erence) set ('students attending the lecture') or the comp(lement) set ('students not attending the lecture'), while positive quantifiers only allow Refset continuations. Results from the present study show that negative quantifiers give rise to an enhanced frontal negativity at the...
Source: Brain and Language - April 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Heinat F, Klingvall E Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Stronger right hemisphere functional connectivity supports executive aspects of language in older adults.
Abstract Healthy older adults commonly report increased difficulties with language production. This could reflect decline in the language network, or age-related declines in other cognitive abilities that support language production, such as executive function. To examine this possibility, we conducted a whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis in older and younger adults using two seed regions-the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus. Whole-brain connectivities were then correlated with Stroop task performance to investigate the relationship between RSFC ...
Source: Brain and Language - April 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gertel VH, Zhang H, Diaz MT Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Prosodic and phonetic subtypes of primary progressive apraxia of speech" [Brain Lang. 184 (2018) 54-65].
Corrigendum to "Prosodic and phonetic subtypes of primary progressive apraxia of speech" [Brain Lang. 184 (2018) 54-65]. Brain Lang. 2020 Apr 02;:104792 Authors: Utianski RL, Duffy JR, Clark HM, Strand EA, Botha H, Schwarz CG, Machulda MM, Senjem ML, Spychalla AJ, Jack CR, Petersen RC, Lowe VJ, Whitwell JL, Josephs KA PMID: 32248963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - April 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Utianski RL, Duffy JR, Clark HM, Strand EA, Botha H, Schwarz CG, Machulda MM, Senjem ML, Spychalla AJ, Jack CR, Petersen RC, Lowe VJ, Whitwell JL, Josephs KA Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The role of semantics and repair processes in article-noun gender disagreement in Italian: An ERP study.
Abstract In this sentence reading study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the processing mechanism of article-noun gender disagreement in two kinds of nouns in Italian. The first are nouns with syntactic gender (il trenoM 'train'; la sediaF 'chair') for which the processing and repair of gender disagreement entails only one repair option, namely for the article (morphosyntactic repair). The second kind are nouns with semantic gender (il bambinoM 'boy', la bambinaF 'girl'). Here, there are two options for processing and repairing gender mismatch: repairing the article (morphosyntactic repair) ...
Source: Brain and Language - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Popov S, Miceli G, Ćurčić-Blake B, Bastiaanse R Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Procedural and declarative memory brain systems in developmental language disorder (DLD).
Abstract The aim of the current study was to examine microstructural differences in white matter relevant to procedural and declarative memory between adolescents/young adults with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The findings showed atypical age-related changes in white matter structures in the corticostriatal system, in the corticocerebellar system, and in the medial temporal region in individuals with DLD. Results highlight the importance of considering the age factor in research on DLD. Future studies are needed to examine the developmental relationship be...
Source: Brain and Language - March 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee JC, Nopoulos PC, Tomblin JB Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Introduction to special issue on neurodevelopmental and computational underpinnings of bilingualism.
PMID: 32220694 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - March 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hernandez AE Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

The right visual field advantage for word processing is stronger in older adults.
Abstract The human brain is functionally asymmetric. Producing and understanding language, for instance, engages the left hemisphere to a larger extent than the right in most people. Recent research showed that lateralization for auditory word processing increases with age. The present study extends these findings to the visual domain. We measured lateralization for visual word processing with the visual half field task in young (20-30 years) and older participants (70-80 years). The older cohort had a larger right visual field advantage in terms of reaction time (p = .016, dolder adults =...
Source: Brain and Language - March 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Van der Cruyssen I, Gerrits R, Vingerhoets G Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Multisession transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates verbal learning and memory consolidation in young and older adults.
This study investigated effects of multisession transcranial direct-current stimulation on learning and maintenance of novel memory content and scrutinised effects of baseline cognitive status and the role of multi-session tDCS on overnight memory consolidation. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, sham-tDCS controlled design, 101 healthy young and older adults completed a five-day verbal associative learning paradigm while receiving multisession tDCS to the task-relevant left prefrontal cortex. In older adults, active multisession tDCS enhanced recall performance after each daily training session. E...
Source: Brain and Language - March 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Perceval G, Martin AK, Copland DA, Laine M, Meinzer M Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Effects of theta burst stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on language switching - A behavioral and ERP study.
This study investigated the role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in language switching using theta burst stimulation (TBS) and electroencephalography in late bilinguals. After a sham-controlled baseline, participants received either excitatory or inhibitory TBS over the left DLPFC before conducting picture naming tasks in pure language blocks and a language switching block, as well as a nonverbal switching task. On the behavioral level, we found no effect of TBS. However, the ERP-analysis revealed an effect of Stimulation for the picture naming tasks, characterized by alterations in the left DLPFC at 20-...
Source: Brain and Language - March 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pestalozzi MI, Annoni JM, Müri RM, Jost LB Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Effect of muscular activation on surrounding motor networks in developmental stuttering: A TMS study.
Abstract Previous studies regarding developmental stuttering (DS) suggest that motor neural networks are strongly affected. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate neural activation of the primary motor cortex in DS during movement execution, and the influence of muscle representations involved in movements on "surrounding" ones. TMS was applied over the contralateral abductor digiti minimi (ADM) motor representation, at rest and during the movement of homologue first dorsal interosseous muscles (tonic contraction, phasic movements cued by acoustic signalling, and "self-paced...
Source: Brain and Language - March 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Busan P, Del Ben G, Tantone A, Halaj L, Bernardini S, Natarelli G, Manganotti P, Battaglini PP Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Metaphor processing is supramodal semantic processing: The role of the bilateral lateral temporal regions in multimodal communication.
Abstract This paper presents an fMRI study on healthy adult understanding of metaphors in multimodal communication. We investigated metaphors expressed either only in coverbal gestures ("monomodal metaphors") or in speech with accompanying gestures ("multimodal metaphors"). Monomodal metaphoric gestures convey metaphoric information not expressed in the accompanying speech (e.g. saying the non-metaphoric utterance, "She felt bad" while dropping down the hand with palm facing up; here, the gesture alone indicates metaphoricity), whereas coverbal gestures in multimodal metaphors indicat...
Source: Brain and Language - February 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Joue G, Boven L, Willmes K, Evola V, Demenescu LR, Hassemer J, Mittelberg I, Mathiak K, Schneider F, Habel U Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical correlates of phonologic errors in logopenic progressive aphasia.
Abstract While phonologic errors may be one of the salient features of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), sparse data are available on their neuroimaging correlates. The purpose of this study was to identify brain regions associated with different types of phonologic errors across several tasks for participants with lvPPA. Correlational analyses between phonologic errors across tasks most likely to elicit such errors and specific left hemisphere gray matter volume regions were conducted for 20 participants. Findings point to the inferior parietal lobe and supramarginal gyrus as being the...
Source: Brain and Language - February 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Petroi D, Duffy JR, Borgert A, Strand EA, Machulda MM, Senjem ML, Jack CR, Josephs KA, Whitwell JL Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Growing Random Forests reveals that exposure and proficiency best account for individual variability in L2 (and L1) brain potentials for syntax and semantics.
Abstract Late second language (L2) learners report difficulties in specific linguistic areas such as syntactic processing, presumably because brain plasticity declines with age (following the critical period hypothesis). While there is also evidence that L2 learners can achieve native-like online-processing with sufficient proficiency (following the convergence hypothesis), considering multiple mediating factors and their impact on language processing has proven challenging. We recorded EEG while native (n = 36) and L2-speakers of French (n = 40) read sentences that were either well-formed or c...
Source: Brain and Language - February 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fromont LA, Royle P, Steinhauer K Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Cognitive control regions are recruited in bilinguals' silent reading of mixed-language paragraphs.
Abstract When switching languages, bilinguals recruit a language control network that overlaps with brain regions known to support general cognitive control, but it is unclear whether these same regions are recruited in passive comprehension of language switches. Using fMRI with a blocked design, 24 Spanish-English bilinguals silently read 36 paragraphs in which the default language was Spanish or English, and that had either (1) no switches, (2) function word switches or (3) content word switches. Relative to no switches, function switches activated the right IFG, bilateral MFG, and left IPL/SMG. In contrast, swi...
Source: Brain and Language - February 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Stasenko A, Hays C, Wierenga CE, Gollan TH Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Long-term discourse outcomes and their relationship to white matter damage in moderate to severe adulthood traumatic brain injury.
PMID: 32078946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain and Language)
Source: Brain and Language - February 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Marcotte K, Sanchez E, Arbour C, Brambati SM, Bedetti C, Martineau S, Descoteaux M, Gosselin N Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Mind the stimulation site: Enhancing and diminishing sentence comprehension with anodal tDCS.
Abstract In a previous sham-controlled study, we showed the feasibility of increasing language comprehension in healthy participants by applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In the present work, we present a follow-up experiment targeting with atDCS the left inferior parietal cortex (LIPC) while participants performed the same auditory comprehension task used in our previous experiment. Both neural sites (LIFG and LIPC) are crucial hubs of Baddeley's model of verbal short-term memory (vSTM). AtDCS over LIPC decreased accuracy as compared to sha...
Source: Brain and Language - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vergallito A, Varoli E, Giustolisi B, Cecchetto C, Del Mauro L, Romero Lauro LJ Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Language and motor processing in reading and typing: Insights from beta-frequency band power modulations.
Abstract Power modulations of the EEG activity within the beta-frequency band were investigated across silent-reading and copy-typing tasks featuring emotionally negative and neutral words in order to clarify the interplay between language and motor processing. In reading, a single desynchronization surfaced 200-600 ms after target presentation, with a stronger power-decrease in lower beta frequencies for neutral compared to negative words. The typing task revealed two distinct desynchronizations. A first one surfaced within spatio-temporal coordinates closely resembling those of the desynchronization observed i...
Source: Brain and Language - February 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Scaltritti M, Suitner C, Peressotti F Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Effects of prosody on the cognitive and neural resources supporting sentence comprehension: A behavioral and lesion-symptom mapping study.
Abstract Non-canonical sentence comprehension impairments are well-documented in aphasia. Studies of neurotypical controls indicate that prosody can aid comprehension by facilitating attention towards critical pitch inflections and phrase boundaries. However, no studies have examined how prosody may engage specific cognitive and neural resources during non-canonical sentence comprehension in persons with left hemisphere damage. Experiment 1 examines the relationship between comprehension of non-canonical sentences spoken with typical and atypical prosody and several cognitive measures in 25 persons with chronic le...
Source: Brain and Language - February 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: LaCroix AN, Blumenstein N, Tully M, Baxter LC, Rogalsky C Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal dynamics of predictive brain mechanisms during speech processing: an MEG study.
Abstract Rapid and efficient speech processing benefits from the prediction derived from prior expectations based on the identification of individual words. It is known that speech processing is carried out within a distributed frontotemporal network. However, the spatiotemporal causal dynamics of predictive brain mechanisms in sound-to-meaning mapping within this network remain unclear. Using magnetoencephalography, we adopted a semantic anomaly paradigm which consists of expected, unexpected and time-reversed Mandarin Chinese speech, and localized the effects of violated expectation in frontotemporal brain regio...
Source: Brain and Language - January 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Z, Shu S, Lu L, Ge J, Gao JH Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: research