Effects of Video Modeling on the Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Playing with Imaginary Objects in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not have symbolic play skills. One type of symbolic play involves playing with imaginary objects, in which a child displays play actions without actual objects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of video modeling on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of playing with imaginary objects in young children with ASD. Three male Chinese children (aged 4-5 years) with ASD participated in this study. A multiple-probe across three behaviors design was used. The results indicated that video modeling was effective in establi...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lee GT, Hu X, Liu Y, Ren Y Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Examination of the Influence of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Components, Consumer Satisfaction and Engagement in Mothers Referred for Drug Abuse and Child Neglect on Treatment Outcomes.
In this study, the CBT components of an evidence-based treatment for child neglect and drug abuse (Family Behavior Therapy) were examined in regards to consumer preferences, consumer engagement and treatment outcomes. Thirty-five mothers identified for child neglect and drug abuse were administered various CBT components successively and cumulatively based on their preferences. Repeated measure ANOVAs indicated that participants chose to receive components that were specific to managing antecedents to drug abuse and child neglect most frequently, followed by parenting skills training, communication skills training, and job...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Plant CP, Donohue B, Freeman AJ, Allen DN Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Treatment Integrity Failures during Timeout from Play.
Abstract Timeout is an effective behavior-reduction strategy with considerable generality. However, little is known about how timeout is implemented under natural conditions, or how errors in implementation impact effectiveness. During Experiment 1, we observed teachers implementing timeout during play to evaluate how frequently the teachers implemented timeout following target behavior (omission errors) and other behaviors (commission errors) for four children. Teachers rarely implemented timeout; thus, omission errors were frequent, but commission errors rarely occurred. During Experiment 2, we used a reversal d...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Foreman AP, Peter CCS, Mesches GA, Robinson N, Romano LM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Assessing Consistency in Single-Case Alternation Designs.
Abstract Consistency is one of the crucial single-case data aspects that are expected to be assessed visually, when evaluating the presence of an intervention effect. Complementarily to visual inspection, there have been recent proposals for quantifying the consistency of data patterns in similar phases and the consistency of effects for reversal, multiple-baseline, and changing criterion designs. The current text continues this line of research by focusing on alternation designs using block randomization. Specifically, three types of consistency are discussed: consistency of superiority of one condition over anot...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Manolov R, Tanious R, De TK, Onghena P Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluation of Free-operant Preference Assessment: Outcomes of Varying Session Duration and Problem Behavior.
Abstract Previous researchers have found brief versions of preference assessments correspond to outcomes of longer preference assessments, and that varying levels of problem behavior occur in different preference assessments. Researchers conducted two studies to examine 1-, 2-, and 5-min duration outcomes of the free-operant preference assessment and evaluated the correspondence between the shorter and longer session durations and to identify frequency of problem behavior at each duration. Researchers also assessed relative reinforcing efficacy of the highest preferred stimulus from the shortest duration sessions....
Source: Behavior Modification - May 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Clay CJ, Schmitz BA, Clohisy AM, Haider AF, Kahng S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training as an Evidence-Based Practice When Training Parents to Intervene with Their Children.
Abstract The authors of this systematic review identified 20 individual single-subject studies examining the efficacy of Behavior Skills Training (BST) implemented with parents. Findings indicate that researchers have used BST to successfully train parents to implement a range of evidence-based practices (EBP) with their own children. Parents of children with autism or intellectual disability made up the large majority of participants in these studies. Applying the methodological quality standards set by What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), the authors detail the evidence from 67 individual cases provided by single-sub...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schaefer JM, Andzik NR Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Quality of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention as a Predictor of Children's Outcome.
ml;lte S Abstract Research has directed surprisingly little attention to the quality of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a potential predictor of outcome. Therefore, using a preschool delivery model within a sample of 30 children, we examined the predictive power of EIBI quality on treatment outcome. EIBI quality was assessed at baseline by the York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention (YMQI) and treatment outcome was evaluated after a period of 4 to 6 months using a battery of behavioral tests and scales to evaluate treatment success. Mu...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Långh U, Perry A, Eikeseth S, Bölte S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Naturalistic Behavioral Intervention to Increase Interaction between Siblings with and without Autism.
Abstract Research suggests that including typically developing siblings in interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be beneficial. However, studies have predominantly involved only participants with mild symptoms of ASD and have not also reported outcomes for the typically developing sibling. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps by replicating and extending an intervention package consisting of structured, interest-based play activities, adult instruction and modeling, and response to child questions. A reversal design across two sibling dyads was used to demonstrate the ef...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Watkins L, Tomeny T, O'Reilly M, Sillis KH, Zamora C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Behavioral Activation and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
oto-Lesmes R, Pedrosa I Abstract Behavioural Activation (BA) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) aim to reduce the inflexible avoidance of painful thoughts, feelings and memories and to encourage involvement in relevant activities, objectives which are clearly relevant to the situation of cancer survivors with emotional problems. With a view to evaluating and comparing the efficacy of both therapies, applied on a group basis, a randomized controlled trial was developed. Cancer survivors (age 18-65 years) with anxiety and/or depression were assigned at random to two experimental groups (BA; ACT) and ...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fernández-Rodríguez C, González-Fernández S, Coto-Lesmes R, Pedrosa I Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of Obtrusive Observation and Rules on Classroom Behavior of Adolescents in a Juvenile Residential Treatment Setting.
Abstract Several studies have used interdependent group contingencies to decrease disruptive behavior and increase appropriate behavior for groups of adolescents. In addition, one study demonstrated that rules plus feedback about rule violations, without additional group contingencies, decreased problem behavior and increased appropriate behavior for adolescents in three classrooms within a residential juvenile facility. Given the rapid behavior change observed in the aforementioned study, it is possible behavior changes were produced by reactivity to obtrusive observation from program implementers. To address thi...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hamrick SA, Richling SM, Brogan KM, Rapp JT, Davis WT Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of an Interactive Web Training to Support Parents in Reducing Challenging Behaviors in Children with Autism.
Abstract Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) engage in challenging behaviors, which may interfere with their daily functioning, development, and well-being. To address this issue, we conducted a four-week randomized waitlist control trial to examine the effects of a fully self-guided interactive web training (IWT) on (a) child engagement in challenging behaviors and (b) parental intervention. After 4 weeks, parents in the treatment group reported lower levels of challenging behaviors in their children and more frequent use of behavioral interventions than those in the waitlist groups. Furthermore, wi...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Turgeon S, Lanovaz MJ, Dufour MM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Review of Recent Research on the Manipulation of Response Effort in Applied Behavior Analysis.
Abstract Response effort refers to the distance, force/pressure, or number of discrete behaviors required to engage in a response. In applied behavior analysis, response effort has been used as an independent variable to address a variety of target responses. In this manuscript, we summarize recent clinical and organizational studies in which response effort was manipulated to increase a desirable behavior or decrease a problematic behavior. Recent clinical applications include the manipulation of response effort to decrease self-injurious behavior and pica and increase appropriate eating, compliance, and manding....
Source: Behavior Modification - February 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wilder DA, Ertel HM, Cymbal DJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Using Vocal Production to Improve Long-Term Verbal Memory in Adults with Intellectual Disability.
Abstract Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) typically show weak long-term memory (LTM) skills. Understanding verbal LTM processes and searching for effective mnemonics in this population is important, to improve intervention programs. The current study aimed to assess verbal LTM abilities of adults with mild ID of mixed etiologies, and to offer a simple memorization technique based on vocal production. Participants (n = 55) learned lists of different study materials (images of familiar and unfamiliar objects, written words, and sentences) by vocal production (saying or reading aloud) or by no-production...
Source: Behavior Modification - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Icht M, Ben-David N, Mama Y Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Review of Methods to Equate Target Sets in the Adapted Alternating Treatments Design.
Abstract The adapted alternating treatments design is a commonly used experimental design in skill acquisition research. This design allows for the evaluation of two or more independent variables on responding to unique target sets. Equating target sets is necessary to ensure a valid comparison of the independent variables. To date, there is little guidance on best practice when equating target sets and it is unclear how researchers have done so previously. We reviewed the reported methods used to equate target sets in articles published using the adapted alternating treatments design in five behavior-analytic jou...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cariveau T, Batchelder S, Ball S, La Cruz Montilla A Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Using Contingency Contracting to Promote Social Interactions Among Students With ASD and Their Peers.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of peer training implemented alone and the effect of combining contingency contracting with peer training on promoting social interactions among students with ASD and their peers. Three students with ASD and six typically developing peers enrolled in an inclusive elementary school participated in the study. Ten-minute observations were conducted during recess time to collect data on the participants' social interactions. The data obtained showed that peer training alone did not result in improvement in social interactions. However, upon the introduction...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alwahbi A, Hua Y Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Tolerance Training with Adolescents in a Residential Juvenile Facility.
Abstract For individuals receiving treatment in residential juvenile facilities, the inability to tolerate typical but unpleasant stimulus events may manifest in aggressive behavior toward staff or other residents. Such behaviors can lead to loss of privileges, interfere with other treatments, and contribute to negative staff-student relationships. As a procedure, tolerance training (TT) involves systematically increasing the duration of exposure to an undesired stimulus event or situation. The current study evaluated the effects of a procedure to increase tolerance of aversive situations for four adolescents who ...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: O'Rourke S, Richling S, Brogan K, McDougale C, Rapp JT Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue: Communication Intervention for Individuals with Complex Communication Needs.
Abstract Individuals with complex communication needs are likely to experience considerable difficulties and challenges with everyday communication interactions due to limited use and understanding of natural speech. In this editorial, we review the nature of complex communication needs, describe the wide range of individuals who may experience such needs, and provide a brief history of behavioral approaches to addressing these needs. We also highlight the six papers in this special issue that contribute to the further understanding of the use of behavioral intervention approaches for addressing complex communicat...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sigafoos J, Gevarter C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Algorithm to Evaluate Methodological Rigor and Risk of Bias in Single-Case Studies.
This study aimed to develop an algorithm derived from the Risk of Bias in N-of-1 Trials (RoBiNT) Scale to classify MR and risk of bias magnitude in SCDs. The algorithm was applied to 46 SCD experiments. Two experiments (4%) were classified as Very High MR, 14 (30%) as High, 5 (11%) as Moderate, 2 (4%) as Fair, 2 (4%) as Low, and 21 (46%) as Very Low. These proportions were comparable to the What Works Clearinghouse classifications: 13 (28%) met standards, 8 (17%) met standards with reservations, and 25 (54%) did not meet standards. There was strong association between the two classification systems. PMID: 31466459 [Pu...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Perdices M, Tate RL, Rosenkoetter U Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Applying Standards of Effectiveness to Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Systematic Literature Review.
Abstract Noncontingent reinforcement is a time-based schedule of reinforcement that has been shown to decrease problem behavior. Although the intervention is considered well established, there exist concerns that much of the supporting research has been conducted under highly controlled experimental conditions that may lack ecological validity. That is, although the efficacy has been demonstrated, the effectiveness in less controlled settings has not. To evaluate this concern, we analyzed research on noncontingent reinforcement between 1993 and 2017. Standards of evidence for effectiveness were adapted from preven...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Meindl JN, Ivy JW, Glodowski KR, Noordin K Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Teaching Children with Autism Abduction-Prevention Skills May Result in Overgeneralization of the Target Response.
This study extends previous research by (a) employing abduction lures incorporating highly preferred tangible items; (b) assessing for maintenance and generalization across settings and caregivers; and (c) probing for overgeneralization of the safety response. A multiple baseline across participants design demonstrated target behavior acquisition and generalization to novel settings and caregivers. However, children who complied with directions from police officers during baseline emitted the safety response (e.g., running away) when approached by police officers following BST. Overgeneralization of the targeted safety res...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ledbetter-Cho K, Lang R, Lee A, Murphy C, Davenport K, Kirkpatrick M, Schollian M, Moore M, Billingsley G, O'Reilly M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Single-Case Data Analysis: A Practitioner Guide for Accurate and Reliable Decisions.
Abstract Practitioners frequently use single-case data for decision-making related to behavioral programming and progress monitoring. Visual analysis is an important and primary tool for reporting results of graphed single-case data because it provides immediate, contextualized information. Criticisms exist concerning the objectivity and reliability of the visual analysis process. When practitioners are equipped with knowledge about single-case designs, including threats and safeguards to internal validity, they can make technically accurate conclusions and reliable data-based decisions with relative ease. This pa...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ninci J Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of an iPad-based Speech-Generating Device Infused into Instruction with the Picture Exchange Communication System for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Spectrum Disorder.
This study used a multiple baseline, single-subject research design to investigate the efficacy of an iPad®-based speech-generating device (SGD). The iPad was equipped with the SPEAKall!® application to function as a SGD. SGDs are a form of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) allowing a user to communicate using digitized and/or synthesized speech. Instruction followed a modified version of the intervention phases from the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). This modified PECS protocol was implemented with two adolescents and one young adult between the ages of 14 and 23. All three part...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wendt O, Hsu N, Simon K, Dienhart A, Cain L Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Reading Instruction for Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Mixed-Methods Investigation.
Abstract Although there is a substantial body of observation research investigating the manner in which reading instruction is provided to students with learning disabilities, there is little research in this area involving students with and at risk for emotional disturbance. The purpose of this investigation was to contribute to the limited corpus of observation studies investigating school-based practice in reading for this student population. In this investigation, 11 teachers from two states were systematically observed while providing reading instruction over the course of the 2017-2018 school year. Participa...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: McKenna JW, Adamson R, Solis M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluating Preference and Performance in Accumulated versus Distributed Response-Reinforcer Arrangements.
Abstract To determine the effects of response-reinforcer arrangements on task performance and preference, participants completed tasks on accumulated and distributed response-reinforcer arrangements. Three males diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder completed tasks before receiving 5-min or 30-seconds access to a preferred stimulus. To enhance discrimination between the two arrangements, color-coded token boards were used to represent each arrangement. Responding was evaluated within a multielement design to compare the response rate across conditions for each participant. A preference assessment was conducte...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Weston R, Davis T, Ross RK Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Improvements in Children's Feeding Behavior after Intensive Interdisciplinary Behavioral Treatment: Comparisons by Developmental and Medical Status.
This study examined changes in child mealtime behavior, diet variety, and family mealtime environment after intensive interdisciplinary behavioral treatment (IIBT) for 52 children referred to a day treatment feeding program. Children fell into three developmental status groups including autism spectrum disorder (n = 16), other special needs (n = 19), and no special needs (n = 17), with some having no known medical problems (n = 22) and some having gastrointestinal, cardiopulmonary, and/or endocrine-metabolic problems (n = 28). At pre-intervention and post-intervention, caregivers completed the About Your Child's Eating sca...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Seiverling L, Hendy HM, Yusupova S, Kaczor A, Panora J, Rodriguez J Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Examination of Measurement Procedures and Characteristics of Baseline Outcome Data in Single-Case Research.
In this study, we examine several features of SCDs with behavioral outcome measures in order to inform development of statistical methods. Drawing on a corpus of over 300 studies, including approximately 1,800 cases, from seven systematic reviews that cover a range of interventions and outcome constructs, we report the distribution of study designs, distribution of outcome measurement procedures, and features of baseline outcome data distributions for the most common types of measurements used in single-case research. We discuss implications for the development of more realistic assumptions regarding outcome distributions ...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pustejovsky JE, Swan DM, English KW Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Interventions to Promote Varied Social-Communication Behavior in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may engage in repetitive social-communication behaviors that can limit their skill acquisition, access to reinforcement, and access to less restrictive settings. Basic and applied research indicates that variability, or the extent to which responses are topographically different from one another, is influenced by antecedent and consequence interventions. Our purpose in this study is to systematically review the literature on interventions to increase variable social-communication behaviors in individuals with ASD. We identified 32 studies through a database ...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wolfe K, Pound S, McCammon MN, Chezan LC, Drasgow E Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Using AB Designs With Nonoverlap Effect Size Measures to Support Clinical Decision-Making: A Monte Carlo Validation.
Abstract Single-case experimental designs often require extended baselines or the withdrawal of treatment, which may not be feasible or ethical in some practical settings. The quasi-experimental AB design is a potential alternative, but more research is needed on its validity. The purpose of our study was to examine the validity of using nonoverlap measures of effect size to detect changes in AB designs using simulated data. In our analyses, we determined thresholds for three effect size measures beyond which the type I error rate would remain below 0.05 and then examined whether using these thresholds would provi...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Giannakakos AR, Lanovaz MJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of the High-Probability Instructional Sequence in Children With Feeding Disorders: A Synthesis.
Abstract The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence is an intervention commonly used to increase compliance in a variety of skill domains, including compliance with low-probability (low-p) mealtime demands in children with pediatric feeding disorders. However, the effects of the high-p sequence on feeding have varied across studies, a systematic synthesis of the literature to guide practice and further research is lacking, and whether the high-p sequence, as an intervention for feeding problems, meets current evidence-based practice standards in special education is unknown. First, we conducted a systema...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Silbaugh BC, Calderon GA, Eslava VH Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Implementing Aided Augmentative Communication Systems With Persons Having Complex Communicative Needs.
Abstract Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems can support communication skills for people with significant developmental disabilities who experience complex communication needs (CCNs). There is a need to tailor best practices in AAC assessment and intervention to create individualized communication systems with this population. In this article, we outline the important components of AAC systems that can be implemented in authentic settings. However, given the limited evidence on AAC interventions specific to people with CCNs, we also identify some priority areas for future inquiry. Among these ...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Reichle J, Simacek J, Wattanawongwan S, Ganz J Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluating ACT Processes in Relation to Outcome in Self-Help Treatment for Anxiety-Related Problems.
This study provided support for the ACT model of change in a self-help context and highlighted the importance of actively applying self-help material, addressing theoretical and practical questions about how and why ACT self-help works. PMID: 31220920 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - June 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ritzert TR, Berghoff CR, Tifft ED, Forsyth JP Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Effects of Varying Magnitudes of Reinforcement on Variable Responding Exhibited by Individuals With Autism.
Abstract Interventions aimed at increasing communicative response variability hold particular importance for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several procedures have been demonstrated in the applied and translational literature to increase response variability. However, little is known about the relationship between reinforcer magnitude and response variability. In the basic literature, Doughty, Giorno, and Miller evaluated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on behavioral variability by manipulating reinforcer magnitude across alternating relative frequency threshold contingencies, with results s...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ferguson RH, Falcomata TS, Ramirez-Cristoforo A, Vargas Londono F Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Consistency in Single-Case ABAB Phase Designs: A Systematic Review.
Abstract The current article presents a systematic review of consistency in single-case ABAB phase designs. We applied the CONsistency of DAta Patterns (CONDAP) measure to a sample of 460 data sets retrieved from 119 applied studies published over the past 50 years. The main purpose was to (a) identify typical CONDAP values found in published ABAB designs and (b) develop interpretational guidelines for CONDAP to be used for future studies to assess the consistency of data patterns from similar phases. The overall distribution of CONDAP values is right-skewed with several extreme values to the right of the center o...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tanious R, De TK, Michiels B, Van den Noortgate W, Onghena P Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Vocabulary and Main Idea Reading Intervention Using Text Choice to Improve Content Knowledge and Reading Comprehension of Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract This simultaneous replication single-case design study investigated a vocabulary and main idea intervention with an aspect of text choice provided to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Five middle school students with ASD participated in two instructional groups taught by school-based personnel. Results were initially mixed. These results were followed by upward and stable trends, indicating a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Social validity measures indicated that students appreciated the opportunity to make choices on text selection. PMID: 31177808...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Solis M, Reutebuch CK, Falcomata T, Steinle PK, Miller VL, Vaughn S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of Brief Acceptance and Cognitive Reappraisal Interventions on Experiential Avoidance in Socially Anxious Individuals: A Preliminary Investigation.
Abstract The current study compared the effects of 15-min acceptance-based and cognitive reappraisal-based interventions on experiential avoidance (EA) in socially anxious college students who participated in an experimental public speaking task. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one of the two interventions designed to aid in preparation for a 5-min laboratory-based public speaking task. Results indicated that participants receiving the acceptance-based intervention reported significantly lower levels of EA at the post-public speaking task measurement time, indicating that this brief acceptance-based...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Spencer SD, Buchanan JA, Masuda A Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Visual Aid and Objective Rule Encompassing the Data Features of Visual Analysis.
Abstract Visual analysis of single-case research is commonly described as a gold standard, but it is often unreliable. Thus, an objective tool for applying visual analysis is necessary, as an alternative to the Conservative Dual Criterion, which presents some drawbacks. The proposed free web-based tool enables assessing change in trend and level between two adjacent phases, while taking data variability into account. The application of the tool results in (a) a dichotomous decision regarding the presence or absence of an immediate effect, a progressive or delayed effect, or an overall effect and (b) a quantificati...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Manolov R, Vannest KJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Decentering in Mindfulness and Cognitive Restructuring for Social Anxiety: An Experimental Study of a Potential Common Mechanism.
Abstract The present study examined whether cognitive restructuring (CR) or mindfulness led to increases in decentering and whether changes in decentering were related to changes in anxiety and willingness to approach anxiety-provoking situations. Forty-six individuals with social anxiety completed speaking tasks before and after receiving CR, mindfulness, or control instructions. Overall, anxiety decreased and willingness increased from the first to second speech, with no differences across conditions. Decentering (measured by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale [TMS]) increased, with those in the mindfulness condition...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hayes-Skelton SA, Lee CS Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Effects of Peer Presence on Variables Maintaining Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Children.
This study furthers research on the identification of variables that evoke MVPA in young children and emphasizes the interaction of peer presence and contingent social positive reinforcement as relevant variables. PMID: 31113216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - May 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gonzales T, Jackson ML, Nicolson A Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Using a Textual Prompt to Teach Multiword Requesting to Two Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social and communication impairment, but some children appear to have relative strength in areas such as reading printed words. The present study involved two children with limited expressive communication skills, but relatively stronger reading ability. Based on this existing strength, we evaluated a textual prompting procedure for teaching the children to produce multiword spoken requests. The effect of providing textual prompts on production of multiword requests was evaluated in an ABAB design. The results showed that multiword requests increased when textu...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Roche L, Carnett A, Sigafoos J, Stevens M, O'Reilly MF, Lancioni GE, Marschik PB Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Program Based on Common Technology to Support Communication Exchanges and Leisure in People With Intellectual and Other Disabilities.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess a new smartphone-based program version to allow seven participants with intellectual plus visual and/or motor disabilities and hesitant speech to send out and receive WhatsApp messages, make telephone calls, and access leisure activities. This program version relied on a Samsung A3 smartphone, which was automated through the MacroDroid application and responded to the input of specific cards and miniature objects. During the baseline (i.e., without the program), the participants' performance was zero or close to zero on communication and leisure. During the use of the p...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lancioni GE, Singh NN, O'Reilly MF, Alberti G, Chiariello V, Campanella C, Grillo G, Tagliente V Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Randomization Procedures for Changing Criterion Designs.
Abstract To strengthen the scientific credibility arguments for single-case intervention studies, randomization design-and-analysis methods have been developed for the multiple-baseline, ABAB, and alternating treatment designs, including options for preplanned designs, wherein the series and phase lengths are established prior to gathering data, as well as options for response-guided designs, wherein ongoing visual analyses guide decisions about when to intervene. Our purpose here is to develop randomization methods for another class of single-case design, the changing criterion design. We first illustrate randomi...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ferron J, Rohrer LL, Levin JR Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Behavioral Interventions for Pediatric Food Refusal Maintain Effectiveness Despite Integrity Degradation: A Preliminary Demonstration.
Abstract Food refusal is commonly treated using behavioral treatment packages consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and escape extinction. However, the effectiveness of such behavioral interventions is inextricably linked to the integrity with which the procedures are conducted. Although previous research has evaluated the effects of treatment integrity failures for behavioral interventions related to severe problem behavior and academic skill acquisition, the effects of these failures in the area of pediatric food refusal remain unknown. We conducted a parametric analysis to asses...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Ulloa G, Borrero CSW, Borrero JC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Effects of Social Skills Interventions for Students With EBD and ASD: A Single-Case Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Social skills interventions are critical for promoting social, emotional, and behavioral competence for students with or at risk of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This single-case meta-analysis examined the effects of social skills interventions (SSIs) for students with EBD and ASD. Effect sizes were calculated for 78 cases across 25 included studies using a nonparametric effect size, Baseline Corrected Tau. The overall weighted mean effect size of 0.54 suggested a moderate effect across the 25 studies. The overall weighted mean effects for studies reporting ...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hutchins NS, Burke MD, Bowman-Perrott L, Tarlow KR, Hatton H Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Innovations in Technology and Mechanisms of Change in Behavioral Interventions.
Abstract The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of, and rationale for, the increasing adoption of a wide range of cutting-edge technological methods in assessment and intervention which are relevant for treatment. First, we review traditional approaches to measuring and monitoring affect, behavior, and cognition in behavior and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Second, we describe evolving active and passive technology-enabled approaches to behavior assessment including emerging applications of digital phenotyping facilitated through fitness trackers, smartwatches, and social media. Third, we describ...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nugent NR, Pendse SR, Schatten HT, Armey MF Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of Magnitude on the Displacement of Leisure Items by Edible Items During Preference Assessments.
In this study, participants chose between preferred leisure items and the edible items that had previously been shown to displace those leisure items in a preference hierarchy. Duration of access to the leisure item was systematically increased across series to identify the magnitude at which leisure items became more preferred than edible items. Results indicate that as the duration of access to leisure items increases, displacement decreases. PMID: 30983381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Clark SB, Call NA, Simmons CA, Scheithauer MC, Muething CS, Parks N Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Enhancing Social Skills of Young Children With ADHD: Effects of a Sibling-Mediated Intervention.
Abstract Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for experiencing problems with social functioning that are associated with adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. To date, the most common ADHD treatments for children, psychostimulants and adult-mediated interventions, have had limited success reducing social impairments associated with ADHD. Using a non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design, we examined the efficacy of a sibling-mediated social intervention for reducing negative and increasing positive social behaviors of three children with ADHD. We also...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Daffner MS, DuPaul GJ, Kern L, Cole CL, Cleminshaw CL Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Transition States in Single Case Experimental Designs.
This study reviewed 20 volumes in a journal that publishes primarily SCEDs studies. We defined a transition state as a situation wherein at least the first three consecutive data points of a treatment phase or condition are within the range of the baseline phase or condition. Results indicate that transitions states (a) were present for 7.4% of graphs that met inclusion criteria and (b) occurred for a mean of 4.9 data points before leading to behavior change. We discuss some implications and directions for future research on transition states. PMID: 30961351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - April 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brogan KM, Rapp JT, Sturdivant BR Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Further Analysis of the Immediate and Subsequent Effect of RIRD on Vocal Stereotypy.
Abstract Although numerous studies have shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can decrease vocal stereotypy displayed by children with autism spectrum disorder, relatively few have evaluated the subsequent effects of RIRD. We evaluated the immediate (when a change agent implemented RIRD) and subsequent (after a change agent discontinued RIRD) effects of RIRD on two participants' vocal stereotypy using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design with an embedded reversal design combined with a multiple schedule. As a part of the analysis, we conducted the fourth component 25 min after the third compo...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sivaraman M, Rapp JT Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Participation in Social Skills Therapy is Associated With Enhanced Recall Memory by Children With Down Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.
Abstract Participation in social skills therapy (SST) facilitates cognitive functioning in children with developmental disabilities. The present pilot study examined whether participation in SST was associated with enhanced encoding and 1-month delayed recall in children with Down syndrome (DS). Children were presented with novel three-step event sequences in an elicited imitation procedure. Immediate imitation was permitted as an index of encoding; long-term memory was assessed 1 month later. Parents completed questionnaires inquiring about children's participation in SST. Participation in SST was associated with...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Milojevich HM, Slonecker EM, Lukowski AF Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Effects of Functional Discrimination Training on Initial Receptive Language in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
We examined the effects of two reinforcement contingencies, functional and arbitrary, on increasing the level of auditory-visual conditional discriminations in children with ASD with a history of having difficulty learning discriminations. We evaluated the effects of the reinforcement contingencies by comparing the number of trials needed to establish discriminations in an adapted alternating treatment design. We found that five out of eight participants showed more rapid acquisition and demonstrated discrimination between more items in the functional reinforcement condition. The remaining three participants did not exhibi...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Eldevik S, Aarlie H, Titlestad KB, Kazemi E, Elsky G Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research