That Was Easy! Expectancy Violations During Exposure and Response Prevention for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
This study evaluated overpredictions of distress during exposure tasks in 33 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; ages 8-17) participating in CBT. Youth with more variable prediction accuracy and a higher proportion of overpredictions experienced more rapid symptom reduction, b = -0.29, p = .002. Underpredictions were less common toward the end of therapy as youth experienced less severe OCD, b = 0.12, p= .001. Findings suggest that although youth often accurately predict the intensity of exposure, overpredictions are common as well. The frequency of these overpredictions promoted treatment outcome, supporting ex...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Guzick AG, Reid AM, Balkhi AM, Geffken GR, McNamara JPH Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Cognitive and Behavioral Flexibility in Fear and Anxiety Disorders.
Abstract Converging lines of research highlight the significance of cognitive and behavioral flexibility in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent empirical investigations, contemporary theory, and novel directions for future study. It is hoped that this special issue will (a) underscore the centrality of cognitive and behavioral flexibility to fear- and anxiety-related psychopathology, (b) call attention to cognitive science approaches investigating related neuropsychological correlates, and (c) highlight novel experimental and...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Boisseau CL, Garnaat SL Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

BPT for Early-Onset Behavior Disorders: Examining the Link Between Treatment Components and Trajectories of Child Internalizing Symptoms.
Abstract Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is the standard of care for early-onset Behavior Disorders (BDs). Preliminary evidence suggests that BPT may also lead to improvement in comorbid symptomatology, particularly internalizing problems, in children with BDs, yet less is currently known about how BPT produces such cascading effects. To begin to address this gap in the literature, trajectory analyses were used to examine the link between treatment components of one mastery-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child ( HNC), and child internalizing symptoms over the course of treatment. Findings revealed th...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rothenberg WA, Anton MT, Gonzalez M, Lafko Breslend N, Forehand R, Khavjou O, Jones DJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Efficacy of Habit Reversal Training in Children With Chronic Tic Disorders: A Within-Subject Analysis.
tecki K Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate a cognitive-behavioral treatment for children and adolescents with tic disorder including habit reversal training (HRT) in a sample of children and adolescents ( n = 27). Multiple outcome measures were used to assess the effects of the treatment on tic symptoms. In addition, impairment/subjective burden ratings and the self-efficacy to control tics were assessed. A within-subject design with two phases (8 weeks diagnostic; 16 sessions treatment) was analyzed using multilevel modeling (MLM). During the treatment phase, significant improvements in tic symptoms, i...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Viefhaus P, Feldhausen M, Görtz-Dorten A, Volk H, Döpfner M, Woitecki K Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Moderate Effects of Low-Intensity Behavioral Intervention.
Abstract We compared clinical outcomes in a treatment group of 98 individuals who received between 8 and 15 weekly hours ( M = 10.6; SD = 1.7) of applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention with a comparison group of 73 individuals who received another provision, including some ABA, (between 1.4-8 weekly hours, M = 5.7; SD = 1.6). After 2 years, the treatment group made greater gains than the comparison group on language and social skills, and other areas assessed by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). We evaluated the outcome on adaptive skills for a smaller sample of parti...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lotfizadeh AD, Kazemi E, Pompa-Craven P, Eldevik S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Exploration of Intervention Augmentation in a Single Case.
In conclusion, routine outcome assessment can be used to inform intervention augmentation with individual clients. Furthermore, regular assessment is needed to determine if a client may benefit from an alternative set of specific intervention strategies. PMID: 30136600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Boswell JF, Schwartzman CM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Review of the Literature on the Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior.
Abstract A functional analysis is a well-established and widely used assessment in the treatment of challenging behavior. Given the fact that functional analysis results can inform treatment selection and procedures, a review of the current literature regarding functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behavior (IMB) is warranted as it may guide researchers in conducting a functional analysis prior to treating IMB. This review summarizes the literature regarding functional analysis of IMB. Fourteen studies that implemented a functional analysis of IMB were identified and summarized based on procedural componen...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hodges A, Davis TN, Kirkpatrick M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Trichotillomania: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Adults and Adolescents.
This study suggests that ACT alone is an effective treatment for adults and adolescents with trichotillomania. Outcomes appear to be similar to trials that combined ACT and habit reversal training (HRT). PMID: 30117327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - August 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lee EB, Homan KJ, Morrison KL, Ong CW, Levin ME, Twohig MP Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluating Efficacy and Preference for Prompt Type During Discrete-Trial Teaching.
Abstract The components of discrete-trial teaching (DTT) may be individualized to each learner during instruction (e.g., the type of prompts used). However, there is limited research on the relative efficiency and effectiveness of these different prompt types. In addition, the learner's preference for how they are taught is not always considered. The present study compared relative effectiveness of three prompt types (i.e., a gesture, modeling, physical guidance) to a no-prompt control condition during a receptive identification task with three boys with autism. One participant met the mastery criterion first in t...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Markham V, Giles A, May R Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Rethinking Research on Prediction and Prevention of Psychotherapy Dropout: A Mechanism-Oriented Approach.
Abstract Dropout is a ubiquitous psychotherapy outcome in clinical practice and treatment research alike, yet it remains a poorly understood problem. Contemporary dropout research is dominated by models of prediction that lack a strong theoretical foundation, often drawing on data from clinical trials that report on dropout in an inconsistent and incomplete fashion. In this article, we assert that dropout is a critical treatment outcome that is worthy of investigation as a mechanistic process. After briefly describing the scope of the dropout problem, we discuss the many factors that limit the field's present unde...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cooper AA, Kline AC, Baier AL, Feeny NC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Applying the Generalized Logistic Model in Single Case Designs: Modeling Treatment-Induced Shifts.
Abstract Many analytical approaches to single-case data assume either linear effects (regression-based methods) or instant effects (mean-based methods). Neither assumption is realistic; therefore, these approaches' assumptions are often violated. In this article, we propose modeling curvilinear effects to appropriately parametrize the characteristics of singe-case data. Specifically, we introduce the generalized logistic function as adequate function for this situation. The merits of the proposed procedure are demonstrated using data previously used in single case research that represent typical single case data. ...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Verboon P, Peters GY Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Sustainability of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Community Setting.
This study examined whether outcomes in early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) during a university-led multisite project could be replicated by the same community agency independently of the project. Participants, age 18 to 75 months at onset of intervention, were 48 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enrolled in 35 hr per week of publicly funded, community-based EIBI for 3 years and 46 children who were matched on baseline characteristics and received early childhood services as usual (SAU) through local early childhood special education providers. Linear mixed models indicated that EIBI participants imp...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Waters CF, Amerine Dickens M, Thurston SW, Lu X, Smith T Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Introduction to Special Issue Part 2 on Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior Among Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
PMID: 29862850 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - June 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Davis TN, Rispoli M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Brief Therapist-Guided Exposure Treatment of Panic Attacks: A Pilot Study.
Abstract A three-session therapist-guided exposure treatment was tested in a consecutive series of eight primary health care patients suffering from panic attacks who specifically used distraction techniques as their primary safety behavior. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale Self-Report (PDSS-SR) was administered at baseline (1-3 weeks before the first session), and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. Weekly ratings on the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) during treatment were undertaken to explore when reliable change took place on these measures. The results s...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hall CB, Lundh LG Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Simulation Study on Two Analytical Techniques for Alternating Treatments Designs.
Abstract Alternating treatments designs (ATDs) are single-case experimental designs entailing the rapid alternation of conditions, and the specific sequence of conditions is usually determined at random. The visual analysis of ATD data entails comparing the data paths formed by connecting the measurements from the same condition. Apart from visual analyses, there are at least two quantitative analytical options also comparing data paths. On option is a visual structured criterion (VSC) regarding the number of comparisons for which one conditions has to be superior to the other to consider that the difference is no...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Manolov R Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Transdiagnostic Treatment Personalization: The Feasibility of Ordering Unified Protocol Modules According to Patient Strengths and Weaknesses.
This study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the personalized delivery of a mechanistically transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol (UP) for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders. Using an AB phase change design in accordance with the single-case reporting guideline for behavioral interventions (SCRIBE), 18 individuals with heterogeneous emotional disorders were randomly assigned to receive UP treatment modules ordered according to either their pretreatment strengths or weaknesses. Results support the feasibility of reordering the treatment modules as the majority of patients pre...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sauer-Zavala S, Cassiello-Robbins C, Ametaj AA, Wilner JG, Pagan D Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Follow-Up of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder 1 Year After Early Behavioral Intervention.
Abstract The effectiveness of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been demonstrated by many studies and meta-analyses. Although it is considered an exemplary practice in several countries, few studies have investigated the maintenance of gains made in EIBI over time. Thirty-two children were assessed at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up after they attended a low-to-moderate-intensity (10 to 20 hr per week) EIBI program delivered by a public rehabilitation center. Between baseline and posttreatment, children showed significant gains in most areas of...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rivard M, Morin M, Mello C, Terroux A, Mercier C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue: Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior Among Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise. In addition to the social communication skill deficits and restrictive repetitive behaviors and interests, many individuals with ASD engage in challenging behavior. Challenging behavior is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes. Challenging behavior may cause harm to the individual with ASD as well as limit opportunities for educational, vocational, and social participation and development. In addition, caregivers experience high stress and low quality of mental health. As a result, challenging behavior warrants intervention that i...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Davis TN, Rispoli M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: Abstract Keuthen, N.J., Tung, E.S., Woods, D.W., Franklin, M.E., Altenburger, E.M., Pauls, D.L., & Flessner, C.A. (2015). Replication study of the Milwaukee inventory for subtypes of trichotillomania-adult version in a clinically-characterized sample. Behavior Modification. 39(4):580-599. DOI: 10.1177/0145445515580533 The authors regret that there is an error in the first paragraph of page 595. It should read as follows and the changes are shown in bold. "Thus, strategies likely to enhance awareness (e.g., stimulus control and habit reversal) would now be primarily appropriate for those with low...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Decreasing Inappropriate Use of Mobile Devices in Urban High School Classrooms: Comparing an Antecedent Intervention With and Without the Good Behavior Game.
Discussion focuses on contributions to the current literature, implications for practice, and suggestions for future areas of research. PMID: 29553287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - March 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hernan CJ, Collins TA, Morrison JQ, Kroeger SD Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluating Tau-U With Oral Reading Fluency Data and the Impact of Measurement Error.
This study evaluated Tau-U effect sizes, derived from multiple-baseline designs, where researchers used curriculum-based measures of reading (CBM-R) to measure reading fluency. Specifically, we evaluated the distribution of the summary Tau-U statistic when applied to a large set of CBM-R data and assessed how the variability inherent in CBM-R data may influence the obtained Tau-U values. Findings suggest that the summary Tau-U statistic may be susceptible to ceiling effects. Moreover, the results provide initial evidence that error inherent in CBM-R scores may have a small but meaningful influence on the obtained effect si...
Source: Behavior Modification - March 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Klingbeil DA, Van Norman ER, McLendon KE, Ross SG, Begeny JC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Responsible Inclusion of Students Receiving Special Education Services for Emotional Disturbance: Unraveling the Practice to Research Gap.
Abstract The majority of students receiving special education services for emotional disturbance (ED) receive a significant amount of instruction in general education classrooms, which emphasizes curriculums based on college and career readiness standards. In turn, those teachers who provide instruction to students with ED in inclusive settings are responsible for using evidence-based practices (EBPs) for those teaching situations in which they exist to meet free appropriate public education (FAPE) mandates. However, the identification of EBPs is a necessary pre-condition to eventual school adoption and teacher us...
Source: Behavior Modification - March 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: McKenna JW, Solis M, Brigham F, Adamson R Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Further Evaluation of a Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism.
Abstract Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only, contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, generalization assessments, and maintenance evaluations. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which modifications to the model were needed to train 15 children with ASD to engage in eye contact. Results show that 11 of 15 partic...
Source: Behavior Modification - February 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rapp JT, Cook JL, Nuta R, Balagot C, Crouchman K, Jenkins C, Karim S, Watters-Wybrow C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue: Interventions to Reduce Challenging Behavior Among Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise. In addition to the social communication skill deficits and restrictive repetitive behaviors and interests, many individuals with ASD engage in challenging behavior. Challenging behavior is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes. Challenging behavior may cause harm to the individual with ASD as well as limit opportunities for educational, vocational, and social participation and development. In addition, caregivers experience high stress and low quality of mental health. As a result, challenging behavior warrants intervention that i...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Davis TN, Rispoli M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Children.
Abstract The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Children (UP-C) is an intervention for children aged 7 to 13 targeting high negative emotion, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation deficits common across emotional disorders. Our objective was to collect pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) data on the efficacy of the UP-C, comparing UP-C with an active, anxiety-focused intervention. Participants were 47 children with at least one primary anxiety disorder; approximately one half had elevated depression symptoms. Participants received either UP-C or the anxiety-focused ...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kennedy SM, Bilek EL, Ehrenreich-May J Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Assessing Mand Topography Preference When Developing a Functional Communication Training Intervention.
This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition for two adults with autism who had no functional communication skills. Both participants demonstrated a clear preference for one mand topography during choice probes, and the preferred topography was then reinforced during FCT to reduce problem behavior and increase independent communication. The implications of the results for future research on mand selection during FCT are discussed. PMID: 29353486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kunnavatana SS, Wolfe K, Aguilar AN Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Assessment of Parental Acceptability and Preference for Behavioral Interventions for Feeding Problems.
dez A Abstract The present study evaluates the treatment acceptability and preference for behavioral interventions for feeding problems with parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and other developmental disabilities. The impact of behavioral severity on acceptability and preference was also evaluated by comparing results of parents who responded with respect to a vignette of a child with food refusal with those who responded to a vignette of a child with food selectivity. Overall, parents rated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior as the most preferred and most acceptable strategy across ...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vazquez M, Fryling MJ, Hernández A Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Rapport Building and Instructional Fading Prior to Discrete Trial Instruction: Moving From Child-Led Play to Intensive Teaching.
Abstract Discrete trial instruction (DTI) is effective for teaching skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although effective, instructional settings can become aversive resulting in avoidant and escape-related behaviors. Given the significant social impairments associated with ASD, interventions that promote social approach and reduce avoidance are warranted. Rapport building or "pairing" the therapist and teaching setting with highly preferred activities prior to instruction can reduce problematic behaviors during subsequent instruction. However, the path from child-led play to DTI is ...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Shillingsburg MA, Hansen B, Wright M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Preoperative Preparation for Improving Perioperative Outcomes in Children and Caregivers.
This study aimed to develop a family-centered preoperative preparation program and to evaluate the effects of this program on children's preoperative emotional behaviors, postoperative behavior, and posthospital behavior, and on caregiver anxiety. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted. The population consisted of children who underwent minor surgery and their caregivers. The control group received standard care, and the experimental group received standard care plus preoperative preparation, which included a tour, a cartoon video depicting a boy's surgical journey, and familiarization with medical equipm...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lin CJ, Liu HP, Wang PY, Yu MH, Lu MC, Hsieh LY, Lin TC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Investigation of Executive Functioning in Pediatric Anxiety.
Abstract Although science's understanding (e.g., etiology, maintaining factors, etc.) of pediatric anxiety and related problems has grown substantially over recent years, several aspects to anxiety in youths remain elusive, particularly with relation to executive functioning. To this end, the current study sought to examine several facets to executive functioning (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, working memory) within a transdiagnostic sample of youths exhibiting varying degrees of anxiety symptoms. One hundred six youths completed a comprehensive battery, including several self-report measures ...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Murphy YE, Luke A, Brennan E, Francazio S, Christopher I, Flessner CA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Advances in School-Based Interventions for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Introduction to the Special Issue.
Abstract As the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has increased, so too has research on interventions to address core and associated features of autism. Although many methodologically rigorous studies on interventions have been reported, their relevance to educators is somewaht unclear. For example, only about 32% of evidence-based strategies identifed in these reviews were conducted in k-12 settings. Current literature also is limited in that, although many studies show that interventions can improve the communication and social interaction skills of individuals with autism, most of this work has been conduct...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Anderson CM, Smith T, Wilczynski SM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Selection and Implementation of Skill Acquisition Programs by Special Education Teachers and Staff for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The present investigation examined special education teachers' selection and use of teaching strategies for receptive identification training with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their classrooms. Teachers first responded to a survey in which they provided examples of receptive identification tasks taught in their classrooms, rated the efficacy of teaching strategies, described how they determined whether skills were mastered, listed any assessments they conducted to identify relevant prerequisite skills prior to receptive identification training, described how they selected teaching strat...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kodak T, Cariveau T, LeBlanc BA, Mahon JJ, Carroll RA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Exploring the Moderating Effects of Cognitive Abilities on Social Competence Intervention Outcomes.
Abstract Many populations served by special education, including those identified with autism, emotional impairments, or students identified as not ready to learn, experience social competence deficits. The Social Competence Intervention-Adolescents' (SCI-A) methods, content, and materials were designed to be maximally pertinent and applicable to the social competence needs of early adolescents (i.e., age 11-14 years) identified as having scholastic potential but experiencing significant social competence deficits. Given the importance of establishing intervention efficacy, the current paper highlights the results...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stichter JP, Herzog MJ, Kilgus SP, Schoemann AM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Parent-Implemented Functional Communication Training for Children With ASD.
Abstract Supporting parents in reducing challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires the identification of effective, feasible, and sustainable interventions. Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most well-established interventions in the behavioral literature and is used increasingly by parents. However, there is a need for additional evaluation of the literature related to parent-implemented FCT. In the present review, we identified 26 peer-reviewed studies on parent-implemented FCT. We conducted systematic descriptive and social validity analyses to summarize th...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gerow S, Hagan-Burke S, Rispoli M, Gregori E, Mason R, Ninci J Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Trial-Based Functional Analysis Informs Treatment for Vocal Scripting.
Abstract Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement. The structure of the trial-based format led to identification o...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rispoli M, Brodhead M, Wolfe K, Gregori E Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Self-Injurious Behavior in Children With Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Literature.
Abstract We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement. Intervention strategi...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Erturk B, Machalicek W, Drew C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Systematic Changes in Preference for Schedule-Thinning Arrangements as a Function of Relative Reinforcement Density.
Abstract We treated destructive behavior maintained by both social-positive (i.e., access to tangibles) and social-negative (i.e., escape from demands) reinforcement in an individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using functional communication training (FCT). We then thinned the schedule of reinforcement for the tangible function using a multiple schedule (mult FCT) and later thinned the availability of escape using a chained schedule (chain FCT). Both treatments proved effective at maintaining functional communicative responses while decreasing destructive behavior to near-zero levels. In addition, trea...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Briggs AM, Akers JS, Greer BD, Fisher WW, Retzlaff BJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Further Analysis of the Predictive Effects of a Free-Operant Competing Stimulus Assessment on Stereotypy.
Abstract We conducted five experiments to evaluate the predictive validity of a free-operant competing stimulus assessment (FOCSA). In Experiment 1, we showed that each participant's repetitive behavior persisted without social consequences. In Experiment 2, we used the FOCSA to identify high-preference, low-stereotypy (HP-LS) items for 11 participants and high-preference, high-stereotypy (HP-HS) items for nine participants. To validate the results of the FOCSAs (Experiment 3), we used a three-component multiple schedule to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of an HP-LS stimulus, an HP-HS stimulus, or b...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brogan KM, Rapp JT, Sennott LA, Cook JL, Swinkels E Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors to Treat Challenging Behaviors Among Children With Autism: A Systematic and Quality Review.
Abstract This review summarizes the literature regarding differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) to treat challenging behavior among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determines the quality of studies among the current literature according to the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Studies that focused on the use of DRO in the treatment of challenging behavior for individuals with ASD were included for systematic analysis. Forty-five studies were identified for inclusion in this review and were evaluated using the eigh...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Weston R, Hodges A, Davis TN Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Lag Schedules and Functional Communication Training: Persistence of Mands and Relapse of Problem Behavior.
Abstract We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement and functional communication training (FCT) on mand variability and problem behavior in two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we implemented FCT with increasing lag schedules and compared its effects on problem behavior with baseline conditions. The results showed that both participants exhibited low rates of problem behavior during treatment relative to baseline during and following schedule thinning (up to a Lag 5 schedule arrangement). Variable and total mands remained high during schedule thinning. With one participant, var...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Falcomata TS, Muething CS, Silbaugh BC, Adami S, Hoffman K, Shpall C, Ringdahl JE Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Treatment of Elopement Without Blocking With a Child With Autism.
Abstract Elopement is a dangerous behavior common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to other forms of problematic behavior, elopement has received little attention in both assessment and treatment. The current study entailed a functional analysis of elopement of one child with ASD, results of which suggested a partially automatic function. We then evaluated a differential reinforcement procedure, along with a rule, which successfully decreased elopement without the use of blocking. A changing-criterion design embedded within a withdrawal design was used to gradually increase the criterion f...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Boyle MA, Keenan G, Forck KL, Curtis KS Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Individualized Levels System and Systematic Stimulus Pairing to Reduce Multiply Controlled Aggression of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Research has shown that physical aggression is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Interventions for multiply controlled aggression may be complex and difficult to implement with fidelity. As a result, the probability of treatment efficacy for this class of behavior may suffer. We designed an individualized levels system to reduce the physical aggression of an 11-year-old female with ASD. We then employed a systematic stimulus pairing procedure to facilitate generalization. Results suggest individualized levels systems can suppress multiply controlled aggression and that systematic ...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Randall KR, Lambert JM, Matthews MP, Houchins-Juarez NJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Individuals With Autism.
Abstract The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully redu...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: MacNaul HL, Neely LC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Further Evaluation of Presentation Format of Competing Stimuli for Treatment of Automatically Maintained Challenging Behavior.
This study adds to the literature on reducing CB in children with ASD by incorporating a CSA before the evaluation of different formats of delivering competing stimuli, across extended duration session times. PMID: 29115163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Clay CJ, Clohisy AM, Ball AM, Haider AF, Schmitz BA, Kahng S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Using a Visual Structured Criterion for the Analysis of Alternating-Treatment Designs.
Abstract Although visual inspection remains common in the analysis of single-case designs, the lack of agreement between raters is an issue that may seriously compromise its validity. Thus, the purpose of our study was to develop and examine the properties of a simple structured criterion to supplement the visual analysis of alternating-treatment designs. To this end, we generated simulated data sets with varying number of points, number of conditions, effect sizes, and autocorrelations, and then measured Type I error rates and power produced by the visual structured criterion (VSC) and permutation analyses. We al...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lanovaz MJ, Cardinal P, Francis M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Development of a Storytelling Video Self-Help Intervention Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Major Depression: Open Trial Results.
This study involved the initial development and testing of a video self-help intervention called LifeStories, which features real patients describing their use of coping strategies for depression based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. We conducted a baseline-controlled open trial (AB design) of 11 individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and transportation (i.e., engagement) after watching LifeStories. No significant changes were observed during the 4-week baseline period in terms of interviewer-rated depression severity (primary outcome), but a significan...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gaudiano BA, Davis CH, Miller IW, Uebelacker LA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Increasing "Object-Substitution" Symbolic Play in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
We report an experiment regarding a procedure targeting "object-substitution" symbolic play skills. The "object-substitution" symbolic play behavior occurred when the child labeled a common object with the name of a substitute and used the object to perform a play action (e.g., As she put a bowl on her head, she called it a hat). A multiple probe across behaviors design was employed with five children (four boys and one girl, aged 3 to 6 years) with ASD. All children had verbal communication and demonstrated functional play and generalized imitation, but no symbolic play skills prior to the study. The i...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lee GT, Feng H, Xu S, Jin SJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Upregulating Positive Affectivity in the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Randomized Pilot Study.
In this study, we propose to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of a transdiagnostic treatment protocol for ED that includes, as an innovative feature, a specific treatment component to directly upregulate positive affectivity based on positive psychology interventions. A total of 24 participants were randomized to either a transdiagnostic treatment protocol ( n = 12) or a transdiagnostic treatment protocol with an additional component designed to regulate positive affectivity ( n = 12). Participants completed measures of anxiety, depression, positive and negative affectivity, and quality of life, as well ...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: González-Robles A, García-Palacios A, Baños R, Quero S, Botella C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Role of Emotion Regulation and Socialization in Behavioral Parent Training: A Proof-of-Concept Study.
Abstract Low-income families are less likely to effectively engage in Behavioral Parent Training (BPT), the standard of care for early-onset (3-8 years old) disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs); however, relatively little is known about predictors of treatment process and outcome within this vulnerable group. Given literature to suggest compromises associated with both low-income status and DBDs, this study examined the role of caregiver emotion regulation and socialization practices in 15 low-income families who participated in one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). Findings suggest...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zachary C, Jones DJ, McKee LG, Baucom DH, Forehand RL Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Development of a Single-Session, Transdiagnostic Preventive Intervention for Young Adults at Risk for Emotional Disorders.
Abstract Cognitive-behavioral prevention programs have demonstrated efficacy in reducing subclinical symptoms of anxiety and depression, and there is some evidence to suggest that they can lower the risk of future disorder onset. However, existing interventions tend to be relatively lengthy and target specific disorders or problem areas, both of which limit their potential for widespread dissemination. To address these limitations, we aimed to develop a single-session, transdiagnostic preventive intervention based on the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders for young adults at risk...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bentley KH, Boettcher H, Bullis JR, Carl JR, Conklin LR, Sauer-Zavala S, Pierre-Louis C, Farchione TJ, Barlow DH Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research