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Advances in School-Based Interventions for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Introduction to the Special Issue.
Abstract As the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has increased, so too has research on interventions to address core and associated features of autism. Although many methodologically rigorous studies on interventions have been reported, their relevance to educators is somewaht unclear. For example, only about 32% of evidence-based strategies identifed in these reviews were conducted in k-12 settings. Current literature also is limited in that, although many studies show that interventions can improve the communication and social interaction skills of individuals with autism, most of this work has been conduct...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Anderson CM, Smith T, Wilczynski SM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Selection and Implementation of Skill Acquisition Programs by Special Education Teachers and Staff for Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract The present investigation examined special education teachers' selection and use of teaching strategies for receptive identification training with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their classrooms. Teachers first responded to a survey in which they provided examples of receptive identification tasks taught in their classrooms, rated the efficacy of teaching strategies, described how they determined whether skills were mastered, listed any assessments they conducted to identify relevant prerequisite skills prior to receptive identification training, described how they selected teaching strat...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kodak T, Cariveau T, LeBlanc BA, Mahon JJ, Carroll RA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Exploring the Moderating Effects of Cognitive Abilities on Social Competence Intervention Outcomes.
Abstract Many populations served by special education, including those identified with autism, emotional impairments, or students identified as not ready to learn, experience social competence deficits. The Social Competence Intervention-Adolescents' (SCI-A) methods, content, and materials were designed to be maximally pertinent and applicable to the social competence needs of early adolescents (i.e., age 11-14 years) identified as having scholastic potential but experiencing significant social competence deficits. Given the importance of establishing intervention efficacy, the current paper highlights the results...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stichter JP, Herzog MJ, Kilgus SP, Schoemann AM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Parent-Implemented Functional Communication Training for Children With ASD.
Abstract Supporting parents in reducing challenging behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires the identification of effective, feasible, and sustainable interventions. Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most well-established interventions in the behavioral literature and is used increasingly by parents. However, there is a need for additional evaluation of the literature related to parent-implemented FCT. In the present review, we identified 26 peer-reviewed studies on parent-implemented FCT. We conducted systematic descriptive and social validity analyses to summarize th...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gerow S, Hagan-Burke S, Rispoli M, Gregori E, Mason R, Ninci J Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Trial-Based Functional Analysis Informs Treatment for Vocal Scripting.
Abstract Research on trial-based functional analysis has primarily focused on socially maintained challenging behaviors. However, procedural modifications may be necessary to clarify ambiguous assessment results. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the utility of iterative modifications to trial-based functional analysis on the identification of putative reinforcement and subsequent treatment for vocal scripting. For all participants, modifications to the trial-based functional analysis identified a primary function of automatic reinforcement. The structure of the trial-based format led to identification o...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rispoli M, Brodhead M, Wolfe K, Gregori E Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Self-Injurious Behavior in Children With Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Literature.
Abstract We reviewed single-case research studies examining the effects of behavioral interventions for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in young children with autism and developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 46 studies (66 participants younger than the age of 12) meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were examined based on (a) participant demographics, (b) topography and function of SIB, (c) type of functional behavior assessment (FBA), (d) intervention procedures and outcomes, and (e) experimental design and measurement. Intervention strategi...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Erturk B, Machalicek W, Drew C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Systematic Changes in Preference for Schedule-Thinning Arrangements as a Function of Relative Reinforcement Density.
Abstract We treated destructive behavior maintained by both social-positive (i.e., access to tangibles) and social-negative (i.e., escape from demands) reinforcement in an individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using functional communication training (FCT). We then thinned the schedule of reinforcement for the tangible function using a multiple schedule (mult FCT) and later thinned the availability of escape using a chained schedule (chain FCT). Both treatments proved effective at maintaining functional communicative responses while decreasing destructive behavior to near-zero levels. In addition, trea...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Briggs AM, Akers JS, Greer BD, Fisher WW, Retzlaff BJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Further Analysis of the Predictive Effects of a Free-Operant Competing Stimulus Assessment on Stereotypy.
Abstract We conducted five experiments to evaluate the predictive validity of a free-operant competing stimulus assessment (FOCSA). In Experiment 1, we showed that each participant's repetitive behavior persisted without social consequences. In Experiment 2, we used the FOCSA to identify high-preference, low-stereotypy (HP-LS) items for 11 participants and high-preference, high-stereotypy (HP-HS) items for nine participants. To validate the results of the FOCSAs (Experiment 3), we used a three-component multiple schedule to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of an HP-LS stimulus, an HP-HS stimulus, or b...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brogan KM, Rapp JT, Sennott LA, Cook JL, Swinkels E Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors to Treat Challenging Behaviors Among Children With Autism: A Systematic and Quality Review.
Abstract This review summarizes the literature regarding differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) to treat challenging behavior among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determines the quality of studies among the current literature according to the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children (CEC): Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education. Studies that focused on the use of DRO in the treatment of challenging behavior for individuals with ASD were included for systematic analysis. Forty-five studies were identified for inclusion in this review and were evaluated using the eigh...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Weston R, Hodges A, Davis TN Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Lag Schedules and Functional Communication Training: Persistence of Mands and Relapse of Problem Behavior.
Abstract We evaluated the effects of lag schedules of reinforcement and functional communication training (FCT) on mand variability and problem behavior in two children with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, we implemented FCT with increasing lag schedules and compared its effects on problem behavior with baseline conditions. The results showed that both participants exhibited low rates of problem behavior during treatment relative to baseline during and following schedule thinning (up to a Lag 5 schedule arrangement). Variable and total mands remained high during schedule thinning. With one participant, var...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Falcomata TS, Muething CS, Silbaugh BC, Adami S, Hoffman K, Shpall C, Ringdahl JE Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Treatment of Elopement Without Blocking With a Child With Autism.
Abstract Elopement is a dangerous behavior common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to other forms of problematic behavior, elopement has received little attention in both assessment and treatment. The current study entailed a functional analysis of elopement of one child with ASD, results of which suggested a partially automatic function. We then evaluated a differential reinforcement procedure, along with a rule, which successfully decreased elopement without the use of blocking. A changing-criterion design embedded within a withdrawal design was used to gradually increase the criterion f...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Boyle MA, Keenan G, Forck KL, Curtis KS Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Individualized Levels System and Systematic Stimulus Pairing to Reduce Multiply Controlled Aggression of a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Research has shown that physical aggression is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Interventions for multiply controlled aggression may be complex and difficult to implement with fidelity. As a result, the probability of treatment efficacy for this class of behavior may suffer. We designed an individualized levels system to reduce the physical aggression of an 11-year-old female with ASD. We then employed a systematic stimulus pairing procedure to facilitate generalization. Results suggest individualized levels systems can suppress multiply controlled aggression and that systematic ...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Randall KR, Lambert JM, Matthews MP, Houchins-Juarez NJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Individuals With Autism.
Abstract The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully redu...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: MacNaul HL, Neely LC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Further Evaluation of Presentation Format of Competing Stimuli for Treatment of Automatically Maintained Challenging Behavior.
This study adds to the literature on reducing CB in children with ASD by incorporating a CSA before the evaluation of different formats of delivering competing stimuli, across extended duration session times. PMID: 29115163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavior Modification)
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Clay CJ, Clohisy AM, Ball AM, Haider AF, Schmitz BA, Kahng S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Using a Visual Structured Criterion for the Analysis of Alternating-Treatment Designs.
Abstract Although visual inspection remains common in the analysis of single-case designs, the lack of agreement between raters is an issue that may seriously compromise its validity. Thus, the purpose of our study was to develop and examine the properties of a simple structured criterion to supplement the visual analysis of alternating-treatment designs. To this end, we generated simulated data sets with varying number of points, number of conditions, effect sizes, and autocorrelations, and then measured Type I error rates and power produced by the visual structured criterion (VSC) and permutation analyses. We al...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lanovaz MJ, Cardinal P, Francis M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Development of a Storytelling Video Self-Help Intervention Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Major Depression: Open Trial Results.
This study involved the initial development and testing of a video self-help intervention called LifeStories, which features real patients describing their use of coping strategies for depression based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. We conducted a baseline-controlled open trial (AB design) of 11 individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and transportation (i.e., engagement) after watching LifeStories. No significant changes were observed during the 4-week baseline period in terms of interviewer-rated depression severity (primary outcome), but a significan...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gaudiano BA, Davis CH, Miller IW, Uebelacker LA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Increasing "Object-Substitution" Symbolic Play in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
We report an experiment regarding a procedure targeting "object-substitution" symbolic play skills. The "object-substitution" symbolic play behavior occurred when the child labeled a common object with the name of a substitute and used the object to perform a play action (e.g., As she put a bowl on her head, she called it a hat). A multiple probe across behaviors design was employed with five children (four boys and one girl, aged 3 to 6 years) with ASD. All children had verbal communication and demonstrated functional play and generalized imitation, but no symbolic play skills prior to the study. The i...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lee GT, Feng H, Xu S, Jin SJ Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Upregulating Positive Affectivity in the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Randomized Pilot Study.
In this study, we propose to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of a transdiagnostic treatment protocol for ED that includes, as an innovative feature, a specific treatment component to directly upregulate positive affectivity based on positive psychology interventions. A total of 24 participants were randomized to either a transdiagnostic treatment protocol ( n = 12) or a transdiagnostic treatment protocol with an additional component designed to regulate positive affectivity ( n = 12). Participants completed measures of anxiety, depression, positive and negative affectivity, and quality of life, as well ...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: González-Robles A, García-Palacios A, Baños R, Quero S, Botella C Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Role of Emotion Regulation and Socialization in Behavioral Parent Training: A Proof-of-Concept Study.
Abstract Low-income families are less likely to effectively engage in Behavioral Parent Training (BPT), the standard of care for early-onset (3-8 years old) disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs); however, relatively little is known about predictors of treatment process and outcome within this vulnerable group. Given literature to suggest compromises associated with both low-income status and DBDs, this study examined the role of caregiver emotion regulation and socialization practices in 15 low-income families who participated in one evidence-based BPT program, Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC). Findings suggest...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Zachary C, Jones DJ, McKee LG, Baucom DH, Forehand RL Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Development of a Single-Session, Transdiagnostic Preventive Intervention for Young Adults at Risk for Emotional Disorders.
Abstract Cognitive-behavioral prevention programs have demonstrated efficacy in reducing subclinical symptoms of anxiety and depression, and there is some evidence to suggest that they can lower the risk of future disorder onset. However, existing interventions tend to be relatively lengthy and target specific disorders or problem areas, both of which limit their potential for widespread dissemination. To address these limitations, we aimed to develop a single-session, transdiagnostic preventive intervention based on the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders for young adults at risk...
Source: Behavior Modification - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bentley KH, Boettcher H, Bullis JR, Carl JR, Conklin LR, Sauer-Zavala S, Pierre-Louis C, Farchione TJ, Barlow DH Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Structured Feedback Training for Time-Out: Efficacy and Efficiency in Comparison to a Didactic Method.
Abstract Although time-out has been demonstrated to be effective across multiple settings, little research exists on effective methods for training others to implement time-out. The present set of studies is an exploratory analysis of a structured feedback method for training time-out using repeated role-plays. The three studies examined (a) a between-subjects comparison to more a traditional didactic/video modeling method of time-out training, (b) a within-subjects comparison to traditional didactic/video modeling training for another skill, and (c) the impact of structured feedback training on in-home time-out i...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jensen SA, Blumberg S, Browning M Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Teacher-Implemented Response Interruption and Redirection: Training, Evaluation, and Descriptive Analysis of Treatment Integrity.
Abstract Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is an effective intervention for decreasing stereotypy. During RIRD, contingent on occurrences of stereotypy, therapists interrupt the behavior and prompt the participant to complete an alternative response. Although RIRD has been implemented by teachers in classrooms, it requires continuous monitoring of participants to be implemented with fidelity and may be difficult for teachers to manage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of RIRD when implemented in classrooms. In addition, we evaluated if novice teaching assistants could be trained to implemen...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Giles A, Swain S, Quinn L, Weifenbach B Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate Schedules Reduce Severe Problem Behavior.
Abstract Differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedules are reinforcement contingencies designed to reduce response rates. A common variation of the DRL arrangement is known as full-session DRL ( f-DRL), in which a reinforcer is presented at the end of an interval if the response rate during that interval is below a predetermined criterion. Prior human operant research involving arbitrary mouse clicks has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce target responding to near zero rates. Similarly, applied research has shown that the f-DRL is likely to reduce minimally disruptive classroom behavior. There are, ...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bonner AC, Borrero JC Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Effects of Worry and Relaxation on Flexibility During Cognitive Restructuring.
We examined the extent to which relaxation enhances and/or worry inhibits cognitive flexibility during a cognitive restructuring exercise in which participants generated alternative predictions for their worries. Participants ( n = 189) were randomly assigned to engage in relaxation, worry, or neutral thinking prior to cognitive restructuring. We measured the number and perceived likelihood of alternative predictions generated by participants, and coded those alternative predictions for their degree of positive valence, negative valence, and level of construal (abstractness to concreteness). Worry and relaxation did not le...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stevens ES, Jendrusina AA, Legrand AC, Nahin ER, Kaufman MG, Borkovec TD, Behar E Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Increasing Availability of Exposure Therapy Through Intensive Group Treatment for Childhood Anxiety and OCD.
Abstract Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients. Effect sizes were moderate to large ...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Whiteside SPH, Dammann JE, Tiede MS, Biggs BK, Hillson Jensen A Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Investigation of a Video-Based Preference Assessment of Social Interactions.
We examined the use of a paired-stimulus, video-based preference assessment (VPA) to identify high- and low-preference social interactions for three children with autism spectrum disorder. We conducted two VPAs with each participant: one with access to the interaction contingent on each selection and one without access. We also conducted a concurrent-operant reinforcer assessment to evaluate the accuracy of the VPAs in identifying reinforcers. For two participants, the VPAs corresponded strongly and the results of the reinforcer assessment suggest that the high-preference interaction produced more of the target response th...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wolfe K, Kunnavatana SS, Shoemaker AM Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Contextual Behavior Science Framework for Understanding How Behavioral Flexibility Relates to Anxiety.
Abstract There is a growing literature focusing on the emerging idea that behavioral flexibility, rather than particular emotion regulation strategies per se, provides greater promise in predicting and influencing anxiety-related psychopathology. Yet this line of research and theoretical analysis appear to be plagued by its own challenges. For example, middle-level constructs, such as behavioral flexibility, are difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to interpret in relation to clinical interventions. A key point that some researchers have made is that previous studies examining flexible use of e...
Source: Behavior Modification - September 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Palm Reed KM, Cameron AY, Ameral VE Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of Pliance, Tracking, and Augmenting.
Abstract Within relational frame theory, a distinction has been made between three types of rule-governed behavior known as pliance, tracking, and augmenting. This review examined whether there is support for the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting in the experimental analysis of behavior; whether these concepts refer to distinct functional classes of behavior; and how these concepts have been operationalized in experimental (behavioral-analytic) research. Given that the concepts of pliance, tracking, and augmenting were first defined by Zettle and Hayes, we confined our review to studies published in or...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kissi A, Hughes S, Mertens G, Barnes-Holmes D, De Houwer J, Crombez G Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Effects of Conducting a Functional Analysis on Problem Behavior in Other Settings: A Descriptive Study on Potential Interaction Effects.
Abstract It has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may raise ethical questions, such as resulting in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current translational study assessed whether conducting an FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA setting for six participants using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. The rate of problem behavior was measured outside the FA setting prior to and during an FA. Idiosyncratic results suggest that problem behavior outside of the FA setting may increase, decrease, ...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Call NA, Reavis AR, Clark SB, Parks NA, Cariveau T, Muething CS Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Internet-Delivered Acceptance-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Social Anxiety Disorder With and Without Therapist Support: A Randomized Trial.
We examined the acceptability and efficacy of a novel Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for SAD that utilizes traditional behavioral interventions (e.g., exposure) within the context of a model emphasizing mindfulness and psychological acceptance. Forty-two participants were randomized to an eight-module self-help intervention with ( n = 20) or without ( n = 22) adjunctive therapist support; the therapist support was delivered through 10 to 15 min of weekly videoconferencing and daily text messages. Both groups experienced a significant reduction in SAD symptoms and improvements in functioning and quality of life, ...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gershkovich M, Herbert JD, Forman EM, Schumacher LM, Fischer LE Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Managing Student Behavior in Dual Immersion Classrooms: A Study of Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams.
Abstract Classroom management in dual immersion classrooms includes unique challenges. The teacher must instruct and correct in the L2 language, in which students are beginning learners, and effective classroom management strategies appropriate to the L2 context. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a positive classroom management program that teaches social skills and uses group contingencies to improve behavior. The present study examined the ability of French immersion teachers to implement CW-FIT in the L2, including the effects of CW-FIT on teacher praise and reprimand rates and as well ...
Source: Behavior Modification - August 6, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hansen BD, Caldarella P, Williams L, Wills HP Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Social Cost Bias, Probability Bias, and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Behavioral Action in Social Anxiety.
Abstract The present study investigated the role of social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy as correlates of behavioral action in a nonclinical sample of 197 individuals, using a series of vignettes and self-report measures. The findings indicated that, as hypothesized, social cost bias, probability bias, and self-efficacy were associated with social anxiety. While social anxiety was associated with behavioral action, the three cognitive factors were associated with behavioral action above and beyond the contribution of social anxiety. However, contrary to the hypothesis, self-efficacy was the only c...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lee CS, Hayes-Skelton SA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Evaluating an Adjunctive Mobile App to Enhance Psychological Flexibility in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.
Abstract The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel adjunctive mobile app designed to enhance the acquisition, strengthening, and generalization of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) skills being taught in therapy. A sample of 14 depressed/anxious clients receiving ACT used the ACT Daily app for 2 weeks in a pre-post, open trial design. Participants reported a high degree of program satisfaction. Clients significantly improved over the 2-week period on depression and anxiety symptoms as well as a range of psychological inflexibility measures. Analyses of ...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Levin ME, Haeger J, Pierce B, Cruz RA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Mindfulness Program Manual for People With Dementia.
This article describes a 10-session group-based Mindfulness Program for people with mild to moderate dementia. It aims to equip people with dementia with skills to manage psychological distress, with support from carers. The Mindfulness Program was developed through reviews of existing literature, consultation with experts, and a focus group with people with dementia. In a randomized controlled feasibility and pilot trial with people with mild to moderate dementia in care homes, it was found to significantly increase quality of life. The manual presented here is designed to be administered flexibly to promote participants'...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chan J, Churcher Clarke A, Royan L, Stott J, Spector A Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Cross-Cultural Validation of the York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention.
The objective of this study was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the YMQI in a clinical Swedish community sample of 30 boys and four girls with autism aged 2.5 to 6 years. Internal consistency was alpha = .87 for the full scale YMQI. Interrater reliability among three raters on 97 video-recorded therapy sequences was .71 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), and intrarater reliability of two raters re-scoring 15 sequences after 6 months was ICC = .87. The convergent validity of the YMQI with EIBI expert ratings was r = .49. Findings endorse the psychometric properties of the YMQI and its usability outside of...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Långh U, Cauvet E, Hammar M, Bölte S Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Role of Emotion Reactivity in Health Anxiety.
Abstract Emotion reactivity, defined as heightened sensitivity, intensity, and persistence of emotional states, has been shown to contribute to the exacerbation of anxiety. However, the association between emotion reactivity and health anxiety has yet to be examined. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the unique predictive ability of emotion reactivity in terms of health anxiety in a sample of medically healthy undergraduates ( n = 194; 59.3% female, Mage = 19.42, SD = 1.51, range = 18-26 years; 84.0% Caucasian). Findings indicated that, after controlling for the effects of gender, age, and anxiet...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: O'Bryan EM, McLeish AC, Johnson AL Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Implementing a Manualized, Classroom Transition Intervention for Students With ASD in Underresourced Schools.
Abstract Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public education settings experience difficulties with transitions during classroom routines, which can result in challenging behavior. Single-subject research supports techniques for transitions, but school-based approaches often require resources and training unavailable in low-resource districts, limiting implementation. We developed and evaluated the Schedules, Tools, and Activities for Transitions (STAT) program, a short-term, manualized intervention of behavioral supports to support daily routine transitions for students with ASD (K-5) in underresource...
Source: Behavior Modification - July 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Iadarola S, Shih W, Dean M, Blanch E, Harwood R, Hetherington S, Mandell D, Kasari C, Smith T Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Treating Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Within an Emotional Disorders Framework: Acceptability and Feasibility of the Unified Protocol in an Inpatient Setting.
Abstract We provide a theoretical rationale for applying a transdiagnostic, shared mechanism treatment (the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders [UP]) to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. We also present results from a proof of concept study examining the feasibility and acceptability of adding a modified UP to treatment as usual (TAU) in an inpatient setting for individuals reporting a recent suicide attempt or active suicidal ideation. Participants ( N = 12) were randomly assigned to receive UP + TAU or TAU alone. Findings indicate good feasibility and acceptability of the adjunct...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bentley KH, Sauer-Zavala S, Cassiello-Robbins CF, Conklin LR, Vento S, Homer D Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

The Impact of Prior Activity History on the Influence of Restricted Repetitive Behaviors on Socialization for Children With High-Functioning Autism.
Abstract Research has demonstrated that incorporating restricted interests of an individual with autism into recess activities is effective at increasing socialization with typically developing peers. However, certain activity contexts may alter the reinforcing influence of the restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) depending on an individual's history in that activity. Using an alternating treatment design, this study examined whether an individual's history with an activity affected socialization. RRBs were embedded into activities with a reported positive history (i.e., prior history of positive experiences) an...
Source: Behavior Modification - June 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Koegel RL, Oliver K, Koegel LK Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Increasing Functional Leisure Engagement for Children With Autism Using Backward Chaining.
Abstract Research with individuals with disabilities has demonstrated the utility of intervention approaches to address toy play, also referred to as functional leisure engagement (FLE). Examples include prompting FLE, blocking stereotypy, and differentially reinforcing appropriate FLE with social or automatic (i.e., access to stereotypy) reinforcers. Backward chaining has yet to be evaluated, but may be useful for establishing more complex FLE. The current study employed a treatment package consisting of these components with three school-aged children with autism in a therapeutic classroom. Effects were evaluate...
Source: Behavior Modification - May 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Edwards CK, Landa RK, Frampton SE, Shillingsburg MA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Does Social Support Buffer the Association Between Stress Eating and Weight Gain During the Transition to College? Differences by Gender.
This study sought to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between stress eating and body mass index (BMI) change over the freshman year in males and females. This longitudinal study included 70 college students (72.9% female; M age = 18.23) who completed self-reported measures of stress eating and perceived social support, with objective height and weight measurements collected. Among males, social support moderated the relationship between stress eating and BMI change. Among males, social support may serve as a buffer against the impact of stress eating on weight gain during the freshman year of colle...
Source: Behavior Modification - April 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Darling KE, Fahrenkamp AJ, Wilson SM, Karazsia BT, Sato AF Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Isolating the Unique Effects of the Unified Protocol Treatment Modules Using Single Case Experimental Design.
Abstract The Unified Protocol (UP) for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to treat the range of anxiety, depressive, and related disorders. Thus far, the UP treatment modules have only been studied when they are delivered in their entirety and presented in a standard sequence. To personalize the presentation of the UP modules for a given patient's presentation (e.g., providing the modules in a varied order, dropping irrelevant modules), it is first necessary to establish that each module leads to change in the skill it is designed to promote, and th...
Source: Behavior Modification - February 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sauer-Zavala S, Cassiello-Robbins C, Conklin LR, Bullis JR, Thompson-Hollands J, Kennedy KA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Review of the Pyramidal Training Approach for Practitioners Working With Individuals With Disabilities.
Abstract Pyramidal training has been used for many years to expedite training for those who work with individuals with disabilities and utilizes an expert who provides training to a practitioner who then trains another practitioner to implement practices with clients. Fourteen articles were analyzed to investigate the viability of this training approach for practitioners of all types who support individuals with disabilities. Research does support the effectiveness of pyramidal training within the parameters with which it has been evaluated in this review. All Tier 1 participants made improvement; 83% of Tier 2 pa...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Andzik N, Cannella-Malone HI Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Interdependent Group Contingencies Decrease Adolescents' Disruptive Behaviors During Group Therapy.
Abstract Adolescents who have been adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior may receive treatment that requires attending group therapy sessions and classes. For some adolescents, nonsexual problem behavior (e.g., verbal outbursts, noncompliance) interferes with their ability to participate in group treatment. Researchers used a multiple-baseline across groups design with an embedded changing criterion design to evaluate the effects of an interdependent group contingency for decreasing disruptive behavior in adolescents across two therapy groups. Results indicated that the procedure was effective in reducing disrup...
Source: Behavior Modification - January 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Brogan KM, Falligant JM, Rapp JT Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

A Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism.
Abstract Although many teaching techniques for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require the instructor to gain the child's eye contact prior to delivering an instructional demand, the literature contains notably few procedures that reliably produce this outcome. To address this problem, we evaluated the effects of a sequential model for increasing eye contact in children with ASD. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only (for eye contact), contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, and maint...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 31, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cook JL, Rapp JT, Mann KR, McHugh C, Burji C, Nuta R Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Restricted Interests and Autism.
This study will extend past research on preferences of children with autism by (a) examining participants' preferences for unreplenished (familiar) play or leisure items versus items that are replenished frequently, (b) assessing if participants who prefer replenished items select items with properties that are matched or unmatched to their most preferred unreplenished item, and (c) assessing if participants who show an exclusive preference for unreplenished items will select replenished items during response-restriction and enhanced-replenished pool manipulations. Participants were four adolescents with autism and a careg...
Source: Behavior Modification - December 31, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Spear MA, Karsten A, White EA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Maintained Physical Activity Induced Changes in Delay Discounting.
Abstract Those who discount the subjective value of delayed rewards less steeply are more likely to engage in physical activity. There is limited research, however, showing whether physical activity can change rates of delay discounting. In a two-experiment series, treatment and maintenance effects of a novel, effort-paced physical activity intervention on delay discounting were evaluated with multiple baseline designs. Using a lap-based method, participants were instructed to exercise at individualized high and low effort levels and to track their own perceived effort. The results suggest that treatment-induced c...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Sofis MJ, Carrillo A, Jarmolowicz DP Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women.
In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W). Using an iterative process, we piloted DT-W with two small groups ( n = 4 and n = 7) of female weight-concerned smokers. Results indicated that we successfully established the feasibility and acceptability of DT-W, which was well-attended and well-received. Biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rates at post-intervention, 1, 3, and 6 months were 64%, 36%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. We are now evaluating DT-W in a randomized controlled trial. PMID: 28027666 [P...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Bloom EL, Wing RR, Kahler CW, Thompson JK, Meltzer S, Hecht J, Minami H, Price LH, Brown RA Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

Curbing Our Enthusiasm: An Analysis of the Check-In/Check-Out Literature Using the Council for Exceptional Children's Evidence-Based Practice Standards.
Abstract Check-in/Check-out (CICO) is an intervention designed to improve behavioral outcomes for students identified as at-risk for school failure. Core principles of the intervention include clearly defined behavioral expectations and rules, precorrections for meeting behavioral expectations, high rates of feedback and reinforcement for demonstration of desired behavior, use of data to monitor outcomes, and a system for school-to- home communication. The purpose of this investigation was to use the 2014 Council for Exceptional Children's quality indicators and standards for establishing evidence-based practices ...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Mitchell BS, Adamson R, McKenna JW Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research

An Improved Rank Correlation Effect Size Statistic for Single-Case Designs: Baseline Corrected Tau.
Abstract Measuring treatment effects when an individual's pretreatment performance is improving poses a challenge for single-case experimental designs. It may be difficult to determine whether improvement is due to the treatment or due to the preexisting baseline trend. Tau-U is a popular single-case effect size statistic that purports to control for baseline trend. However, despite its strengths, Tau-U has substantial limitations: Its values are inflated and not bound between -1 and +1, it cannot be visually graphed, and its relatively weak method of trend control leads to unacceptable levels of Type I error wher...
Source: Behavior Modification - November 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tarlow KR Tags: Behav Modif Source Type: research