Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Stratification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 22. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-020407. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health crisis affecting approximately 25% of the world's population. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from bland steatosis to steatohepatitis with fibrosis; eventual development of cirrhosis in a subgroup of patients now represents the leading indication for liver transplant in women and in individuals older than 65. The development of noninvasive liver disease assessment tools has led to substantial progress in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD are at increased r...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 23, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yedidya Saiman Andres Duarte-Rojo Mary E Rinella Source Type: research

Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Stratification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 22. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-020407. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health crisis affecting approximately 25% of the world's population. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from bland steatosis to steatohepatitis with fibrosis; eventual development of cirrhosis in a subgroup of patients now represents the leading indication for liver transplant in women and in individuals older than 65. The development of noninvasive liver disease assessment tools has led to substantial progress in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD are at increased r...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 23, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yedidya Saiman Andres Duarte-Rojo Mary E Rinella Source Type: research

Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnosis and Stratification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 22. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-020407. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health crisis affecting approximately 25% of the world's population. The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from bland steatosis to steatohepatitis with fibrosis; eventual development of cirrhosis in a subgroup of patients now represents the leading indication for liver transplant in women and in individuals older than 65. The development of noninvasive liver disease assessment tools has led to substantial progress in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD are at increased r...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 23, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yedidya Saiman Andres Duarte-Rojo Mary E Rinella Source Type: research

Exercise in Octogenarians: How Much Is Too Little?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-070119-115343. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe global population is rapidly aging, with predictions of many more people living beyond 85 years. Age-related physiological adaptations predispose to decrements in physical function and functional capacity, the rate of which can be accelerated by chronic disease and prolonged physical inactivity. Decrements in physical function exacerbate the risk of chronic disease, disability, dependency, and frailty with advancing age. Regular exercise positively influences health status, physical function, and disease risk in adults of a...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Graeme Carrick-Ranson Erin J Howden Benjamin D Levine Source Type: research

Enteroviruses and Type 1 Diabetes: Multiple Mechanisms and Factors?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-015952. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency and resultant hyperglycemia. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors trigger the onset of autoimmune mechanisms responsible for development of autoimmunity to β cell antigens and subsequent development of T1D. A potential role of virus infections has long been hypothesized, and growing evidence continues to implicate enteroviruses as the most probable triggering viruses. Recent studies have strengthened the associati...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Richard E Lloyd Manasi Tamhankar Åke Lernmark Source Type: research

Exercise in Octogenarians: How Much Is Too Little?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-070119-115343. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe global population is rapidly aging, with predictions of many more people living beyond 85 years. Age-related physiological adaptations predispose to decrements in physical function and functional capacity, the rate of which can be accelerated by chronic disease and prolonged physical inactivity. Decrements in physical function exacerbate the risk of chronic disease, disability, dependency, and frailty with advancing age. Regular exercise positively influences health status, physical function, and disease risk in adults of a...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Graeme Carrick-Ranson Erin J Howden Benjamin D Levine Source Type: research

Enteroviruses and Type 1 Diabetes: Multiple Mechanisms and Factors?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-015952. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency and resultant hyperglycemia. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors trigger the onset of autoimmune mechanisms responsible for development of autoimmunity to β cell antigens and subsequent development of T1D. A potential role of virus infections has long been hypothesized, and growing evidence continues to implicate enteroviruses as the most probable triggering viruses. Recent studies have strengthened the associati...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Richard E Lloyd Manasi Tamhankar Åke Lernmark Source Type: research

Exercise in Octogenarians: How Much Is Too Little?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-070119-115343. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe global population is rapidly aging, with predictions of many more people living beyond 85 years. Age-related physiological adaptations predispose to decrements in physical function and functional capacity, the rate of which can be accelerated by chronic disease and prolonged physical inactivity. Decrements in physical function exacerbate the risk of chronic disease, disability, dependency, and frailty with advancing age. Regular exercise positively influences health status, physical function, and disease risk in adults of a...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Graeme Carrick-Ranson Erin J Howden Benjamin D Levine Source Type: research

Enteroviruses and Type 1 Diabetes: Multiple Mechanisms and Factors?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-015952. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency and resultant hyperglycemia. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors trigger the onset of autoimmune mechanisms responsible for development of autoimmunity to β cell antigens and subsequent development of T1D. A potential role of virus infections has long been hypothesized, and growing evidence continues to implicate enteroviruses as the most probable triggering viruses. Recent studies have strengthened the associati...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Richard E Lloyd Manasi Tamhankar Åke Lernmark Source Type: research

Exercise in Octogenarians: How Much Is Too Little?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-070119-115343. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe global population is rapidly aging, with predictions of many more people living beyond 85 years. Age-related physiological adaptations predispose to decrements in physical function and functional capacity, the rate of which can be accelerated by chronic disease and prolonged physical inactivity. Decrements in physical function exacerbate the risk of chronic disease, disability, dependency, and frailty with advancing age. Regular exercise positively influences health status, physical function, and disease risk in adults of a...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Graeme Carrick-Ranson Erin J Howden Benjamin D Levine Source Type: research

Enteroviruses and Type 1 Diabetes: Multiple Mechanisms and Factors?
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 18. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-015952. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency and resultant hyperglycemia. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors trigger the onset of autoimmune mechanisms responsible for development of autoimmunity to β cell antigens and subsequent development of T1D. A potential role of virus infections has long been hypothesized, and growing evidence continues to implicate enteroviruses as the most probable triggering viruses. Recent studies have strengthened the associati...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Richard E Lloyd Manasi Tamhankar Åke Lernmark Source Type: research

Subclinical Atrial Fibrillation: A Silent Threat with Uncertain Implications
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 17. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-105906. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAtrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias. Implantable and wearable cardiac devices have enabled the detection of asymptomatic AF episodes-termed subclinical AF (SCAF). SCAF, the prevalence of which is likely significantly underestimated, is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and a significant stroke risk. Recent advances in machine learning, namely artificial intelligence-enabled ECG (AI-ECG), have enabled identification of patients at higher likelihood of SCAF. Levera...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 17, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Anthony H Kashou Demilade A Adedinsewo Peter A Noseworthy Source Type: research

Subclinical Atrial Fibrillation: A Silent Threat with Uncertain Implications
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 17. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-105906. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAtrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias. Implantable and wearable cardiac devices have enabled the detection of asymptomatic AF episodes-termed subclinical AF (SCAF). SCAF, the prevalence of which is likely significantly underestimated, is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and a significant stroke risk. Recent advances in machine learning, namely artificial intelligence-enabled ECG (AI-ECG), have enabled identification of patients at higher likelihood of SCAF. Levera...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 17, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Anthony H Kashou Demilade A Adedinsewo Peter A Noseworthy Source Type: research

Treatment of Delirium During Critical Illness
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-013015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDelirium, an acute disturbance in mental status due to another medical condition, is common and morbid in the intensive care unit. Despite its clear association with multiple common risk factors and important outcomes, including mortality and long-term cognitive impairment, both the ultimate causes of and ideal treatments for delirium remain unclear. Studies suggest that neuroinflammation, hypoxia, alterations in energy metabolism, and imbalances in multiple neurotransmitter pathways contribute to delirium, but commonly used tre...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Niall T Prendergast Perry J Tiberio Timothy D Girard Source Type: research

Treatment of Delirium During Critical Illness
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-013015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDelirium, an acute disturbance in mental status due to another medical condition, is common and morbid in the intensive care unit. Despite its clear association with multiple common risk factors and important outcomes, including mortality and long-term cognitive impairment, both the ultimate causes of and ideal treatments for delirium remain unclear. Studies suggest that neuroinflammation, hypoxia, alterations in energy metabolism, and imbalances in multiple neurotransmitter pathways contribute to delirium, but commonly used tre...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Niall T Prendergast Perry J Tiberio Timothy D Girard Source Type: research

Treatment of Delirium During Critical Illness
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-013015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDelirium, an acute disturbance in mental status due to another medical condition, is common and morbid in the intensive care unit. Despite its clear association with multiple common risk factors and important outcomes, including mortality and long-term cognitive impairment, both the ultimate causes of and ideal treatments for delirium remain unclear. Studies suggest that neuroinflammation, hypoxia, alterations in energy metabolism, and imbalances in multiple neurotransmitter pathways contribute to delirium, but commonly used tre...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Niall T Prendergast Perry J Tiberio Timothy D Girard Source Type: research

Treatment of Delirium During Critical Illness
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-013015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDelirium, an acute disturbance in mental status due to another medical condition, is common and morbid in the intensive care unit. Despite its clear association with multiple common risk factors and important outcomes, including mortality and long-term cognitive impairment, both the ultimate causes of and ideal treatments for delirium remain unclear. Studies suggest that neuroinflammation, hypoxia, alterations in energy metabolism, and imbalances in multiple neurotransmitter pathways contribute to delirium, but commonly used tre...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Niall T Prendergast Perry J Tiberio Timothy D Girard Source Type: research

Treatment of Delirium During Critical Illness
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-013015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDelirium, an acute disturbance in mental status due to another medical condition, is common and morbid in the intensive care unit. Despite its clear association with multiple common risk factors and important outcomes, including mortality and long-term cognitive impairment, both the ultimate causes of and ideal treatments for delirium remain unclear. Studies suggest that neuroinflammation, hypoxia, alterations in energy metabolism, and imbalances in multiple neurotransmitter pathways contribute to delirium, but commonly used tre...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Niall T Prendergast Perry J Tiberio Timothy D Girard Source Type: research

Treatment of Delirium During Critical Illness
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Nov 9. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-013015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDelirium, an acute disturbance in mental status due to another medical condition, is common and morbid in the intensive care unit. Despite its clear association with multiple common risk factors and important outcomes, including mortality and long-term cognitive impairment, both the ultimate causes of and ideal treatments for delirium remain unclear. Studies suggest that neuroinflammation, hypoxia, alterations in energy metabolism, and imbalances in multiple neurotransmitter pathways contribute to delirium, but commonly used tre...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - November 9, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Niall T Prendergast Perry J Tiberio Timothy D Girard Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

Hypoxia Reduction Sensitizes Refractory Cancers to Immunotherapy
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 26. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-060619-022830. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn order to fuel their relentless expansion, cancers must expand their vasculature to augment delivery of oxygen and essential nutrients. The disordered web of irregular vessels that results, however, leaves gaps in oxygen delivery that foster tumor hypoxia. At the same time, tumor cells increase their oxidative metabolism to cope with the energetic demands of proliferation, which further worsens hypoxia due to heightened oxygen consumption. In these hypoxic, nutrient-deprived environments, tumors and suppressive stroma evolve ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 26, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Priyamvada Jayaprakash Paolo Dario Angelo Vignali Greg M Delgoffe Michael A Curran Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiome: Connecting Diet, Glucose Homeostasis, and Disease
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 22. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-012821. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes rates continue to rise unabated, underscoring the need to better understand the etiology and potential therapeutic options available for this disease. The gut microbiome plays a role in glucose homeostasis, and diabetes is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome. Given that consumption of a Western diet is associated with increased metabolic disease, and that a Western diet alters the gut microbiome, it is plausible that changes in the gut microbiota mediate the dysregulation in glucose homeostasis. In...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 22, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Elizabeth J Howard Tony K T Lam Frank A Duca Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiome: Connecting Diet, Glucose Homeostasis, and Disease
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 22. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042220-012821. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes rates continue to rise unabated, underscoring the need to better understand the etiology and potential therapeutic options available for this disease. The gut microbiome plays a role in glucose homeostasis, and diabetes is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome. Given that consumption of a Western diet is associated with increased metabolic disease, and that a Western diet alters the gut microbiome, it is plausible that changes in the gut microbiota mediate the dysregulation in glucose homeostasis. In...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 22, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Elizabeth J Howard Tony K T Lam Frank A Duca Source Type: research

Clinical Perspectives on IgG4-Related Disease and Its Classification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-050219-034449. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTImmunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic immune-mediated fibroinflammatory disease. Since its discovery nearly two decades ago, our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical manifestations has grown substantially. Early diagnosis and treatment of this elusive disease can prevent substantial organ damage from end-stage fibrosis, emphasizing the need for prompt recognition and accurate characterization of IgG4-RD. The classification criteria endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology and the Europea...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Guy Katz John H Stone Source Type: research

The Gut-Brain Axis
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-014032. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPreclinical evidence has firmly established bidirectional interactions among the brain, the gut, and the gut microbiome. Candidate signaling molecules and at least three communication channels have been identified. Communication within this system is nonlinear, is bidirectional with multiple feedback loops, and likely involves interactions between different channels. Alterations in gut-brain-microbiome interactions have been identified in rodent models of several digestive, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. While alterat...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emeran A Mayer Karina Nance Shelley Chen Source Type: research

mRNA Vaccines in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-112725. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the globe, killing more than 3 million people and causing a severe economic crisis. This extraordinary situation prompted entities in government, industry, and academia to work together at unprecedented speed to develop safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, vaccines of multiple types have been generated in record time, and many have been evaluated in clinical ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michael J Hogan Norbert Pardi Source Type: research

Progress in the Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-011248. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous and orphan group of neoplasms that vary in their histology, clinical features, prognosis, and management. The treatment of PNETs is highly dependent on the stage at presentation, tumor grade and differentiation, presence of symptoms from hormonal overproduction or from local growth, tumor burden, and rate of progression. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved many novel treatments, which have altered decision making and positively impacted the care ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Amy Chang Scott K Sherman James R Howe Vaibhav Sahai Source Type: research

Clinical Perspectives on IgG4-Related Disease and Its Classification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-050219-034449. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTImmunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic immune-mediated fibroinflammatory disease. Since its discovery nearly two decades ago, our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical manifestations has grown substantially. Early diagnosis and treatment of this elusive disease can prevent substantial organ damage from end-stage fibrosis, emphasizing the need for prompt recognition and accurate characterization of IgG4-RD. The classification criteria endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology and the Europea...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Guy Katz John H Stone Source Type: research

The Gut-Brain Axis
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-014032. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPreclinical evidence has firmly established bidirectional interactions among the brain, the gut, and the gut microbiome. Candidate signaling molecules and at least three communication channels have been identified. Communication within this system is nonlinear, is bidirectional with multiple feedback loops, and likely involves interactions between different channels. Alterations in gut-brain-microbiome interactions have been identified in rodent models of several digestive, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. While alterat...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emeran A Mayer Karina Nance Shelley Chen Source Type: research

mRNA Vaccines in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-112725. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the globe, killing more than 3 million people and causing a severe economic crisis. This extraordinary situation prompted entities in government, industry, and academia to work together at unprecedented speed to develop safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, vaccines of multiple types have been generated in record time, and many have been evaluated in clinical ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michael J Hogan Norbert Pardi Source Type: research

Progress in the Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-011248. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous and orphan group of neoplasms that vary in their histology, clinical features, prognosis, and management. The treatment of PNETs is highly dependent on the stage at presentation, tumor grade and differentiation, presence of symptoms from hormonal overproduction or from local growth, tumor burden, and rate of progression. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved many novel treatments, which have altered decision making and positively impacted the care ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Amy Chang Scott K Sherman James R Howe Vaibhav Sahai Source Type: research

Clinical Perspectives on IgG4-Related Disease and Its Classification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-050219-034449. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTImmunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic immune-mediated fibroinflammatory disease. Since its discovery nearly two decades ago, our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical manifestations has grown substantially. Early diagnosis and treatment of this elusive disease can prevent substantial organ damage from end-stage fibrosis, emphasizing the need for prompt recognition and accurate characterization of IgG4-RD. The classification criteria endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology and the Europea...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Guy Katz John H Stone Source Type: research

The Gut-Brain Axis
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-014032. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPreclinical evidence has firmly established bidirectional interactions among the brain, the gut, and the gut microbiome. Candidate signaling molecules and at least three communication channels have been identified. Communication within this system is nonlinear, is bidirectional with multiple feedback loops, and likely involves interactions between different channels. Alterations in gut-brain-microbiome interactions have been identified in rodent models of several digestive, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. While alterat...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emeran A Mayer Karina Nance Shelley Chen Source Type: research

mRNA Vaccines in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-112725. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the globe, killing more than 3 million people and causing a severe economic crisis. This extraordinary situation prompted entities in government, industry, and academia to work together at unprecedented speed to develop safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, vaccines of multiple types have been generated in record time, and many have been evaluated in clinical ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michael J Hogan Norbert Pardi Source Type: research

Progress in the Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-011248. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous and orphan group of neoplasms that vary in their histology, clinical features, prognosis, and management. The treatment of PNETs is highly dependent on the stage at presentation, tumor grade and differentiation, presence of symptoms from hormonal overproduction or from local growth, tumor burden, and rate of progression. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved many novel treatments, which have altered decision making and positively impacted the care ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Amy Chang Scott K Sherman James R Howe Vaibhav Sahai Source Type: research

Clinical Perspectives on IgG4-Related Disease and Its Classification
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-050219-034449. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTImmunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic immune-mediated fibroinflammatory disease. Since its discovery nearly two decades ago, our understanding of its pathophysiology and clinical manifestations has grown substantially. Early diagnosis and treatment of this elusive disease can prevent substantial organ damage from end-stage fibrosis, emphasizing the need for prompt recognition and accurate characterization of IgG4-RD. The classification criteria endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology and the Europea...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Guy Katz John H Stone Source Type: research

The Gut-Brain Axis
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-014032. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPreclinical evidence has firmly established bidirectional interactions among the brain, the gut, and the gut microbiome. Candidate signaling molecules and at least three communication channels have been identified. Communication within this system is nonlinear, is bidirectional with multiple feedback loops, and likely involves interactions between different channels. Alterations in gut-brain-microbiome interactions have been identified in rodent models of several digestive, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. While alterat...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Emeran A Mayer Karina Nance Shelley Chen Source Type: research

mRNA Vaccines in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-112725. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the globe, killing more than 3 million people and causing a severe economic crisis. This extraordinary situation prompted entities in government, industry, and academia to work together at unprecedented speed to develop safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, vaccines of multiple types have been generated in record time, and many have been evaluated in clinical ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Michael J Hogan Norbert Pardi Source Type: research

Progress in the Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042320-011248. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous and orphan group of neoplasms that vary in their histology, clinical features, prognosis, and management. The treatment of PNETs is highly dependent on the stage at presentation, tumor grade and differentiation, presence of symptoms from hormonal overproduction or from local growth, tumor burden, and rate of progression. The US Food and Drug Administration has recently approved many novel treatments, which have altered decision making and positively impacted the care ...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 20, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Amy Chang Scott K Sherman James R Howe Vaibhav Sahai Source Type: research

New Approaches to Glioblastoma
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 19. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-102102. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFaced with unique immunobiology and marked heterogeneity, treatment strategies for glioblastoma require therapeutic approaches that diverge from conventional oncological strategies. The selection and prioritization of targeted and immunotherapeutic strategies will need to carefully consider these features and companion biomarkers developed alongside treatment strategies to identify the appropriate patient populations. Novel clinical trial strategies that interrogate the tumor microenvironment for drug penetration and target eng...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mustafa Khasraw Yoko Fujita Cataline Lee-Chang Irina V Balyasnikova Hinda Najem Amy B Heimberger Source Type: research

New Approaches to Glioblastoma
Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 19. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-102102. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFaced with unique immunobiology and marked heterogeneity, treatment strategies for glioblastoma require therapeutic approaches that diverge from conventional oncological strategies. The selection and prioritization of targeted and immunotherapeutic strategies will need to carefully consider these features and companion biomarkers developed alongside treatment strategies to identify the appropriate patient populations. Novel clinical trial strategies that interrogate the tumor microenvironment for drug penetration and target eng...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - October 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mustafa Khasraw Yoko Fujita Cataline Lee-Chang Irina V Balyasnikova Hinda Najem Amy B Heimberger Source Type: research