Stay-at-Home Orders, Mobility Patterns, and Spread of COVID-19
Conclusions. A more robust and stricter policy response coordinated at the national level combined with a strong economic response from policymakers could have increased the effectiveness of the stay-at-home order. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306209).PMID:33856875 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306209 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tim Murray Source Type: research

A Spatiotemporal Tool to Project Hospital Critical Care Capacity and Mortality From COVID-19 in US Counties
Conclusions. Nonpharmaceutical public health interventions had greater impact in minimizing preventable deaths during the pandemic than did hospital critical care surge response. Ready-to-go spatiotemporal supply and demand data visualization and analytics tools should be advanced for future preparedness and all-hazards disaster response. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e10. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306220).PMID:33856876 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306220 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexis Zebrowski Andrew Rundle Sen Pei Tonguc Yaman Wan Yang Brendan G Carr Sarah Sims Ronan Doorley Neil Schluger James W Quinn Jeffrey Shaman Charles C Branas Source Type: research

Immigration Detention in the United States: Identifying Alternatives That Comply With Human Rights and Advance Public Health
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306253. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnder international law, the United States is obligated to uphold noncitizens' fundamental rights, including their rights to health. However, current US immigration laws-and their enforcement-not only fail to fulfill migrants' health rights but actively undermine their realization and worsen the pandemic's spread.Specifically, the US immigration system's reliance on detention, which precludes effective social distancing, increases risks of exposure and infection for detainees, staff, and their broader communities. Internatio...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alison Ly Aleta Sprague Brianna Pierce Corina Post Jody Heymann Source Type: research

COVID-19-The Case for Rethinking Health and Human Rights in Prisons
This article considers health and human rights implications for people deprived of liberty during the COVID-19 crisis. The health risks of incarceration for individual and community health, particularly in overcrowded and underresourced prisons and detention centers, are well known, but with the COVID-19 pandemic have become a public health emergency.Physical distancing in prisons is hardly manageable, and protective means are poor or lacking. Emergency releases have been shown to be feasible in terms of public safety but lack sustainability in reducing the number of people living in detention, and, globally, only a small ...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: J örg Pont Stefan Enggist Heino St över St éphanie Baggio Laurent G étaz Hans Wolff Source Type: research

The Challenges of Conducting Intrastate Policy Surveillance: A Methods Note on County and City Laws in Indiana
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306227. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPolicy surveillance is critical in examining the ways law functions as a structural and social determinant of health. To date, little policy surveillance research has focused on examining intrastate variations in the structure and health impact of laws. Intrastate policy surveillance poses unique methodological challenges because of the complex legal architecture within states and inefficient curation of local laws.We discuss our experience with these intrastate policy surveillance challenges in Indiana, a state with 92 coun...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lindsey Sanner Sean Grant Heather Walter-McCabe Ross D Silverman Source Type: research

The Societal Value of Vaccination in the Age of COVID-19
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.306114. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn recent years, academics and policymakers have increasingly recognized that the full societal value of vaccination encompasses broad health, economic, and social benefits beyond avoided morbidity and mortality due to infection by the targeted pathogen and limited health care costs. Nevertheless, standard economic evaluations of vaccines continue to focus on a relatively narrow set of health-centric benefits, with consequences for vaccination policies and public investments.The COVID-19 pandemic illustrates in stark terms t...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David E Bloom Daniel Cadarette Maddalena Ferranna Source Type: research

The COVID-19 Pandemic: Effects on Civil Registration of Births and Deaths and on Availability and Utility of Vital Events Data
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306203. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe complex and evolving picture of COVID-19-related mortality highlights the need for data to guide the response. Yet many countries are struggling to maintain their data systems, including the civil registration system, which is the foundation for detailed and continuously available mortality statistics. We conducted a search of country and development agency Web sites and partner and media reports describing disruptions to the civil registration of births and deaths associated with COVID-19 related restrictions.We found c...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carla AbouZahr Martin W Bratschi Emily Cercone Anushka Mangharam Don de Savigny Irina Dincu Anette Bayer Forsingdal Olga Joos Montasser Kamal Doris Ma Fat Gloria Mathenge Fatima Marinho Raj Gautam Mitra Jeff Montgomery William Muhwava Remy Mwamba James Mw Source Type: research

Cumulative Rates of Child Protection Involvement and Terminations of Parental Rights in a California Birth Cohort, 1999-2017
Conclusions. Findings provide a lower-bound estimate of CPS involvement and extend previous research by documenting demographic differences, including in TPRs.Public Health Implications. Conservatively, CPS investigates more than a quarter of children born in California for abuse or neglect. These data reinforce policy questions about the current scope and reach of our modern CPS. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306214).PMID:33856882 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306214 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Emily Putnam-Hornstein Eunhye Ahn John Prindle Joseph Magruder Daniel Webster Christopher Wildeman Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Correctional Staff in the Federal Bureau of Prisons
Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 infection was more likely among staff working in institutions where physical distancing and limiting exposure to a consistent set of staff and inmates are challenging.Public Health Implications. Mitigation strategies-including augmented staff testing, entry and exit testing among inmates, limiting staff interactions across complexes, and increasing physical distancing by reducing occupancy in dorm-style housing-may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections among correctional staff. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e4. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306237).PMID:33856883...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Robin L Toblin Sylvie I Cohen Liesl M Hagan Source Type: research

Variation in Reporting of the Race and Ethnicity of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths Across US States: April 12, 2020, and November 9, 2020
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306167. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite growing evidence that COVID-19 is disproportionately affecting communities of color, state-reported racial/ethnic data are insufficient to measure the true impact.We found that between April 12, 2020, and November 9, 2020, the number of US states reporting COVID-19 confirmed cases by race and ethnicity increased from 25 to 50 and 15 to 46, respectively. However, the percentage of confirmed cases reported with missing race remained high at both time points (29% on April 12; 23% on November 9). Our analysis demonstrate...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Megan D Douglas Ebony Respress Anne H Gaglioti Chaohua Li Mitchell A Blount Jammie Hopkins Peter T Baltrus Robina Josiah Willock Lee S Caplan Daniel E Dawes Dominic Mack Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Drug Overdose Crisis: Uncovering the Deadliest Months in the United States, January ‒July 2020
Conclusions. Unprecedented increases in overdose mortality occurred during the pandemic, highlighting the value of presenting monthly values alongside smoothed aggregates for detecting shocks.Public Health Implications. Drastic exacerbations of the US overdose crisis warrant renewed investments in overdose surveillance and prevention during the pandemic response and postpandemic recovery efforts. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306256).PMID:33856885 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306256 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Joseph Friedman Samir Akre Source Type: research

Medicaid Expansions and Participation in Supplemental Security Income by Noncitizens
Conclusions. Medicaid expansion caused a substantially larger decline in the SSI participation of noncitizens, who face more restrictive SSI eligibility criteria, than of citizens. Our estimates suggest an annual savings of $619 million in the federal SSI cost because of the decline in SSI participation among noncitizens and citizens. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306235).PMID:33856886 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306235 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Felix M Muchomba Neeraj Kaushal Source Type: research

Ten Urgent Priorities Based on Lessons Learned From More Than a Half Million Known COVID-19 Cases in US Prisons
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306221. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCOVID-19 is ravaging US prisons. Prison residents and staff must be prioritized for vaccination, but a rapidly mutating virus and high rates of continued spread require an urgent, coordinated public health response.Based on knowledge accumulated from the pandemic thus far, we have identified 10 pressing public health priorities for responding to COVID-19 in prisons: (1) accelerate population reduction coupled with community reentry support, (2) improve prison ventilation systems, (3) ensure appropriate mask use, (4) limit tr...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Elizabeth Barnert Ada Kwan Brie Williams Source Type: research

E-Cigarette Use Among Youths and Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: United States, 2020
Conclusions. COVID-19 stay-at-home directives present barriers to e-cigarette access and are associated with a decline in e-cigarette use among young people.Public Health Implications. Findings support the urgent implementation of interventions that reduce underage access to e-cigarettes to accelerate a downward trajectory of youth and young adult e-cigarette use. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306210).PMID:33856888 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306210 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jennifer M Kreslake Bethany J Simard Katie M O'Connor Minal Patel Donna M Vallone Elizabeth C Hair Source Type: research

The Importance of Federal Waivers and Technology in Ensuring Access to WIC During COVID-19
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306211. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a nutrition assistance program that promotes the health of pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to aged five years who are nutritionally at risk and live in households below 185% of the federal poverty level (FPL).1 Unlike other federal nutrition assistance programs, WIC reduces structural barriers to healthy eating by providing monthly food benefits while simultaneously promoting good nutrition through regular individualiz...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shannon E Whaley Christopher E Anderson Source Type: research

Stay-at-Home Orders, Mobility Patterns, and Spread of COVID-19
Conclusions. A more robust and stricter policy response coordinated at the national level combined with a strong economic response from policymakers could have increased the effectiveness of the stay-at-home order. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306209).PMID:33856875 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306209 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tim Murray Source Type: research

A Spatiotemporal Tool to Project Hospital Critical Care Capacity and Mortality From COVID-19 in US Counties
Conclusions. Nonpharmaceutical public health interventions had greater impact in minimizing preventable deaths during the pandemic than did hospital critical care surge response. Ready-to-go spatiotemporal supply and demand data visualization and analytics tools should be advanced for future preparedness and all-hazards disaster response. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e10. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306220).PMID:33856876 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306220 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexis Zebrowski Andrew Rundle Sen Pei Tonguc Yaman Wan Yang Brendan G Carr Sarah Sims Ronan Doorley Neil Schluger James W Quinn Jeffrey Shaman Charles C Branas Source Type: research

Immigration Detention in the United States: Identifying Alternatives That Comply With Human Rights and Advance Public Health
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306253. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnder international law, the United States is obligated to uphold noncitizens' fundamental rights, including their rights to health. However, current US immigration laws-and their enforcement-not only fail to fulfill migrants' health rights but actively undermine their realization and worsen the pandemic's spread.Specifically, the US immigration system's reliance on detention, which precludes effective social distancing, increases risks of exposure and infection for detainees, staff, and their broader communities. Internatio...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alison Ly Aleta Sprague Brianna Pierce Corina Post Jody Heymann Source Type: research

COVID-19-The Case for Rethinking Health and Human Rights in Prisons
This article considers health and human rights implications for people deprived of liberty during the COVID-19 crisis. The health risks of incarceration for individual and community health, particularly in overcrowded and underresourced prisons and detention centers, are well known, but with the COVID-19 pandemic have become a public health emergency.Physical distancing in prisons is hardly manageable, and protective means are poor or lacking. Emergency releases have been shown to be feasible in terms of public safety but lack sustainability in reducing the number of people living in detention, and, globally, only a small ...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: J örg Pont Stefan Enggist Heino St över St éphanie Baggio Laurent G étaz Hans Wolff Source Type: research

The Challenges of Conducting Intrastate Policy Surveillance: A Methods Note on County and City Laws in Indiana
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306227. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPolicy surveillance is critical in examining the ways law functions as a structural and social determinant of health. To date, little policy surveillance research has focused on examining intrastate variations in the structure and health impact of laws. Intrastate policy surveillance poses unique methodological challenges because of the complex legal architecture within states and inefficient curation of local laws.We discuss our experience with these intrastate policy surveillance challenges in Indiana, a state with 92 coun...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lindsey Sanner Sean Grant Heather Walter-McCabe Ross D Silverman Source Type: research

The Societal Value of Vaccination in the Age of COVID-19
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.306114. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn recent years, academics and policymakers have increasingly recognized that the full societal value of vaccination encompasses broad health, economic, and social benefits beyond avoided morbidity and mortality due to infection by the targeted pathogen and limited health care costs. Nevertheless, standard economic evaluations of vaccines continue to focus on a relatively narrow set of health-centric benefits, with consequences for vaccination policies and public investments.The COVID-19 pandemic illustrates in stark terms t...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David E Bloom Daniel Cadarette Maddalena Ferranna Source Type: research

The COVID-19 Pandemic: Effects on Civil Registration of Births and Deaths and on Availability and Utility of Vital Events Data
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306203. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe complex and evolving picture of COVID-19-related mortality highlights the need for data to guide the response. Yet many countries are struggling to maintain their data systems, including the civil registration system, which is the foundation for detailed and continuously available mortality statistics. We conducted a search of country and development agency Web sites and partner and media reports describing disruptions to the civil registration of births and deaths associated with COVID-19 related restrictions.We found c...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carla AbouZahr Martin W Bratschi Emily Cercone Anushka Mangharam Don de Savigny Irina Dincu Anette Bayer Forsingdal Olga Joos Montasser Kamal Doris Ma Fat Gloria Mathenge Fatima Marinho Raj Gautam Mitra Jeff Montgomery William Muhwava Remy Mwamba James Mw Source Type: research

Cumulative Rates of Child Protection Involvement and Terminations of Parental Rights in a California Birth Cohort, 1999-2017
Conclusions. Findings provide a lower-bound estimate of CPS involvement and extend previous research by documenting demographic differences, including in TPRs.Public Health Implications. Conservatively, CPS investigates more than a quarter of children born in California for abuse or neglect. These data reinforce policy questions about the current scope and reach of our modern CPS. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306214).PMID:33856882 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306214 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Emily Putnam-Hornstein Eunhye Ahn John Prindle Joseph Magruder Daniel Webster Christopher Wildeman Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Correctional Staff in the Federal Bureau of Prisons
Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 infection was more likely among staff working in institutions where physical distancing and limiting exposure to a consistent set of staff and inmates are challenging.Public Health Implications. Mitigation strategies-including augmented staff testing, entry and exit testing among inmates, limiting staff interactions across complexes, and increasing physical distancing by reducing occupancy in dorm-style housing-may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections among correctional staff. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e4. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306237).PMID:33856883...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Robin L Toblin Sylvie I Cohen Liesl M Hagan Source Type: research

Variation in Reporting of the Race and Ethnicity of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths Across US States: April 12, 2020, and November 9, 2020
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306167. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite growing evidence that COVID-19 is disproportionately affecting communities of color, state-reported racial/ethnic data are insufficient to measure the true impact.We found that between April 12, 2020, and November 9, 2020, the number of US states reporting COVID-19 confirmed cases by race and ethnicity increased from 25 to 50 and 15 to 46, respectively. However, the percentage of confirmed cases reported with missing race remained high at both time points (29% on April 12; 23% on November 9). Our analysis demonstrate...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Megan D Douglas Ebony Respress Anne H Gaglioti Chaohua Li Mitchell A Blount Jammie Hopkins Peter T Baltrus Robina Josiah Willock Lee S Caplan Daniel E Dawes Dominic Mack Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Drug Overdose Crisis: Uncovering the Deadliest Months in the United States, January ‒July 2020
Conclusions. Unprecedented increases in overdose mortality occurred during the pandemic, highlighting the value of presenting monthly values alongside smoothed aggregates for detecting shocks.Public Health Implications. Drastic exacerbations of the US overdose crisis warrant renewed investments in overdose surveillance and prevention during the pandemic response and postpandemic recovery efforts. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306256).PMID:33856885 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306256 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Joseph Friedman Samir Akre Source Type: research

Medicaid Expansions and Participation in Supplemental Security Income by Noncitizens
Conclusions. Medicaid expansion caused a substantially larger decline in the SSI participation of noncitizens, who face more restrictive SSI eligibility criteria, than of citizens. Our estimates suggest an annual savings of $619 million in the federal SSI cost because of the decline in SSI participation among noncitizens and citizens. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306235).PMID:33856886 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306235 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Felix M Muchomba Neeraj Kaushal Source Type: research

Ten Urgent Priorities Based on Lessons Learned From More Than a Half Million Known COVID-19 Cases in US Prisons
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306221. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCOVID-19 is ravaging US prisons. Prison residents and staff must be prioritized for vaccination, but a rapidly mutating virus and high rates of continued spread require an urgent, coordinated public health response.Based on knowledge accumulated from the pandemic thus far, we have identified 10 pressing public health priorities for responding to COVID-19 in prisons: (1) accelerate population reduction coupled with community reentry support, (2) improve prison ventilation systems, (3) ensure appropriate mask use, (4) limit tr...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Elizabeth Barnert Ada Kwan Brie Williams Source Type: research

E-Cigarette Use Among Youths and Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: United States, 2020
Conclusions. COVID-19 stay-at-home directives present barriers to e-cigarette access and are associated with a decline in e-cigarette use among young people.Public Health Implications. Findings support the urgent implementation of interventions that reduce underage access to e-cigarettes to accelerate a downward trajectory of youth and young adult e-cigarette use. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306210).PMID:33856888 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306210 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jennifer M Kreslake Bethany J Simard Katie M O'Connor Minal Patel Donna M Vallone Elizabeth C Hair Source Type: research

The Importance of Federal Waivers and Technology in Ensuring Access to WIC During COVID-19
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306211. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a nutrition assistance program that promotes the health of pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to aged five years who are nutritionally at risk and live in households below 185% of the federal poverty level (FPL).1 Unlike other federal nutrition assistance programs, WIC reduces structural barriers to healthy eating by providing monthly food benefits while simultaneously promoting good nutrition through regular individualiz...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shannon E Whaley Christopher E Anderson Source Type: research

Stay-at-Home Orders, Mobility Patterns, and Spread of COVID-19
Conclusions. A more robust and stricter policy response coordinated at the national level combined with a strong economic response from policymakers could have increased the effectiveness of the stay-at-home order. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306209).PMID:33856875 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306209 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tim Murray Source Type: research

A Spatiotemporal Tool to Project Hospital Critical Care Capacity and Mortality From COVID-19 in US Counties
Conclusions. Nonpharmaceutical public health interventions had greater impact in minimizing preventable deaths during the pandemic than did hospital critical care surge response. Ready-to-go spatiotemporal supply and demand data visualization and analytics tools should be advanced for future preparedness and all-hazards disaster response. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e10. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306220).PMID:33856876 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306220 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexis Zebrowski Andrew Rundle Sen Pei Tonguc Yaman Wan Yang Brendan G Carr Sarah Sims Ronan Doorley Neil Schluger James W Quinn Jeffrey Shaman Charles C Branas Source Type: research

Immigration Detention in the United States: Identifying Alternatives That Comply With Human Rights and Advance Public Health
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306253. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnder international law, the United States is obligated to uphold noncitizens' fundamental rights, including their rights to health. However, current US immigration laws-and their enforcement-not only fail to fulfill migrants' health rights but actively undermine their realization and worsen the pandemic's spread.Specifically, the US immigration system's reliance on detention, which precludes effective social distancing, increases risks of exposure and infection for detainees, staff, and their broader communities. Internatio...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alison Ly Aleta Sprague Brianna Pierce Corina Post Jody Heymann Source Type: research

COVID-19-The Case for Rethinking Health and Human Rights in Prisons
This article considers health and human rights implications for people deprived of liberty during the COVID-19 crisis. The health risks of incarceration for individual and community health, particularly in overcrowded and underresourced prisons and detention centers, are well known, but with the COVID-19 pandemic have become a public health emergency.Physical distancing in prisons is hardly manageable, and protective means are poor or lacking. Emergency releases have been shown to be feasible in terms of public safety but lack sustainability in reducing the number of people living in detention, and, globally, only a small ...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: J örg Pont Stefan Enggist Heino St över St éphanie Baggio Laurent G étaz Hans Wolff Source Type: research

The Challenges of Conducting Intrastate Policy Surveillance: A Methods Note on County and City Laws in Indiana
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306227. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPolicy surveillance is critical in examining the ways law functions as a structural and social determinant of health. To date, little policy surveillance research has focused on examining intrastate variations in the structure and health impact of laws. Intrastate policy surveillance poses unique methodological challenges because of the complex legal architecture within states and inefficient curation of local laws.We discuss our experience with these intrastate policy surveillance challenges in Indiana, a state with 92 coun...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Lindsey Sanner Sean Grant Heather Walter-McCabe Ross D Silverman Source Type: research

The Societal Value of Vaccination in the Age of COVID-19
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e6. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.306114. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn recent years, academics and policymakers have increasingly recognized that the full societal value of vaccination encompasses broad health, economic, and social benefits beyond avoided morbidity and mortality due to infection by the targeted pathogen and limited health care costs. Nevertheless, standard economic evaluations of vaccines continue to focus on a relatively narrow set of health-centric benefits, with consequences for vaccination policies and public investments.The COVID-19 pandemic illustrates in stark terms t...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David E Bloom Daniel Cadarette Maddalena Ferranna Source Type: research

The COVID-19 Pandemic: Effects on Civil Registration of Births and Deaths and on Availability and Utility of Vital Events Data
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306203. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe complex and evolving picture of COVID-19-related mortality highlights the need for data to guide the response. Yet many countries are struggling to maintain their data systems, including the civil registration system, which is the foundation for detailed and continuously available mortality statistics. We conducted a search of country and development agency Web sites and partner and media reports describing disruptions to the civil registration of births and deaths associated with COVID-19 related restrictions.We found c...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carla AbouZahr Martin W Bratschi Emily Cercone Anushka Mangharam Don de Savigny Irina Dincu Anette Bayer Forsingdal Olga Joos Montasser Kamal Doris Ma Fat Gloria Mathenge Fatima Marinho Raj Gautam Mitra Jeff Montgomery William Muhwava Remy Mwamba James Mw Source Type: research

Cumulative Rates of Child Protection Involvement and Terminations of Parental Rights in a California Birth Cohort, 1999-2017
Conclusions. Findings provide a lower-bound estimate of CPS involvement and extend previous research by documenting demographic differences, including in TPRs.Public Health Implications. Conservatively, CPS investigates more than a quarter of children born in California for abuse or neglect. These data reinforce policy questions about the current scope and reach of our modern CPS. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306214).PMID:33856882 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306214 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Emily Putnam-Hornstein Eunhye Ahn John Prindle Joseph Magruder Daniel Webster Christopher Wildeman Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Correctional Staff in the Federal Bureau of Prisons
Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 infection was more likely among staff working in institutions where physical distancing and limiting exposure to a consistent set of staff and inmates are challenging.Public Health Implications. Mitigation strategies-including augmented staff testing, entry and exit testing among inmates, limiting staff interactions across complexes, and increasing physical distancing by reducing occupancy in dorm-style housing-may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections among correctional staff. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e4. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306237).PMID:33856883...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Robin L Toblin Sylvie I Cohen Liesl M Hagan Source Type: research

Variation in Reporting of the Race and Ethnicity of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths Across US States: April 12, 2020, and November 9, 2020
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306167. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDespite growing evidence that COVID-19 is disproportionately affecting communities of color, state-reported racial/ethnic data are insufficient to measure the true impact.We found that between April 12, 2020, and November 9, 2020, the number of US states reporting COVID-19 confirmed cases by race and ethnicity increased from 25 to 50 and 15 to 46, respectively. However, the percentage of confirmed cases reported with missing race remained high at both time points (29% on April 12; 23% on November 9). Our analysis demonstrate...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Megan D Douglas Ebony Respress Anne H Gaglioti Chaohua Li Mitchell A Blount Jammie Hopkins Peter T Baltrus Robina Josiah Willock Lee S Caplan Daniel E Dawes Dominic Mack Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the Drug Overdose Crisis: Uncovering the Deadliest Months in the United States, January ‒July 2020
Conclusions. Unprecedented increases in overdose mortality occurred during the pandemic, highlighting the value of presenting monthly values alongside smoothed aggregates for detecting shocks.Public Health Implications. Drastic exacerbations of the US overdose crisis warrant renewed investments in overdose surveillance and prevention during the pandemic response and postpandemic recovery efforts. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e8. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306256).PMID:33856885 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306256 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Joseph Friedman Samir Akre Source Type: research

Medicaid Expansions and Participation in Supplemental Security Income by Noncitizens
Conclusions. Medicaid expansion caused a substantially larger decline in the SSI participation of noncitizens, who face more restrictive SSI eligibility criteria, than of citizens. Our estimates suggest an annual savings of $619 million in the federal SSI cost because of the decline in SSI participation among noncitizens and citizens. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e7. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306235).PMID:33856886 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306235 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Felix M Muchomba Neeraj Kaushal Source Type: research

Ten Urgent Priorities Based on Lessons Learned From More Than a Half Million Known COVID-19 Cases in US Prisons
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306221. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCOVID-19 is ravaging US prisons. Prison residents and staff must be prioritized for vaccination, but a rapidly mutating virus and high rates of continued spread require an urgent, coordinated public health response.Based on knowledge accumulated from the pandemic thus far, we have identified 10 pressing public health priorities for responding to COVID-19 in prisons: (1) accelerate population reduction coupled with community reentry support, (2) improve prison ventilation systems, (3) ensure appropriate mask use, (4) limit tr...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Elizabeth Barnert Ada Kwan Brie Williams Source Type: research

E-Cigarette Use Among Youths and Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: United States, 2020
Conclusions. COVID-19 stay-at-home directives present barriers to e-cigarette access and are associated with a decline in e-cigarette use among young people.Public Health Implications. Findings support the urgent implementation of interventions that reduce underage access to e-cigarettes to accelerate a downward trajectory of youth and young adult e-cigarette use. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 15, 2021: e1-e9. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306210).PMID:33856888 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306210 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jennifer M Kreslake Bethany J Simard Katie M O'Connor Minal Patel Donna M Vallone Elizabeth C Hair Source Type: research

The Importance of Federal Waivers and Technology in Ensuring Access to WIC During COVID-19
Am J Public Health. 2021 Apr 15:e1-e4. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306211. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a nutrition assistance program that promotes the health of pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children up to aged five years who are nutritionally at risk and live in households below 185% of the federal poverty level (FPL).1 Unlike other federal nutrition assistance programs, WIC reduces structural barriers to healthy eating by providing monthly food benefits while simultaneously promoting good nutrition through regular individualiz...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shannon E Whaley Christopher E Anderson Source Type: research

The Impact of COVID-19 on American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: A Call for Better Relational Models
Am J Public Health. 2021 May;111(5):801-803. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306219.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33826370 | PMC:PMC8034007 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306219 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Mary J Owen Michael A Sundberg Jackie Dionne Anna Wirta Kosobuski Source Type: research

Sterilization in US Immigration and Customs Enforcement's (ICE's) Detention: Ethical Failures and Systemic Injustice
Am J Public Health. 2021 May;111(5):832-834. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306186.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33826372 | PMC:PMC8034024 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306186 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Elizabeth C Ghandakly Rachel Fabi Source Type: research

H. Jack Geiger: A Pioneer Physician for Human Rights
Am J Public Health. 2021 May;111(5):789-791. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306240.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33826373 | PMC:PMC8034027 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306240 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Donna McKay Leonard Rubenstein Source Type: research

Systematic Reviews Should Consider Effects From Both the Population and the Individual Perspective
Am J Public Health. 2021 May;111(5):820-825. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.306147.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33826374 | PMC:PMC8034000 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2020.306147 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Jos Verbeek Jan Hoving Julitta Boschman Lee-Yee Chong Jonathan Livingstone-Banks Lisa Bero Source Type: research

Essential Strategies to Curb COVID-19 Transmission in Prisons and Jails
Am J Public Health. 2021 May;111(5):776-777. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306206.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33826375 | PMC:PMC8033996 | DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2021.306206 (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Source: American Journal of Public Health - April 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alexandria Macmadu Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein Source Type: research