Pulmonary circulation
Main pulmonary artery (MPA) originates from the right ventricle and its branches take blood to both lungs for oxygenation. Main pulmonary artery divides into left (LPA) and right pulmonary arteries (RPA), which in turn divide into segmental and subsegmental branches. Respiratory gas exchange takes place at the level of the pulmonary capillaries over the alveoli. Oxygenated blood is returned to the pulmonary venous system which drains into the left atrium by four pulmonary veins – right superior, right inferior, left superior and left inferior. Pulmonary circulation is a low resistance system with pulmonary arterial ...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: HBC Source Type: blogs

Coronary circulation
Coronary circulation is the blood supply of the heart. The left and right coronary arteries arise from the sinuses of Valsalva at the aortic root. The left main coronary artery (LMCA) divides soon after formation into left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) coronary arteries. The LAD courses down in the anterior interventricular groove gives rises to multiple septal branches to the interventricular septum and diagonal branches to the lateral wall of the left ventricle. LCx runs in the atrioventricular groove and gives off obtuse marginal branches to the left ventricle. Right coronary artery (RCA) runs in ...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: HBC Source Type: blogs

Cardiovascular system overview
Cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels. The blood vessels supplying various organ systems can be considered as regional circulation. For example, blood vessels supplying the brain constitute the cerebral circulation while those supplying the kidneys form the renal circulation. The heart has four chambers and four valves regulating flow between the chambers and the great vessels. The four chambers are the right and left atria, the upper thin walled chambers; the thick walled lower chambers being the right and left ventricles. Though both ventricles are of equal thickness before birth, the left ventri...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: HBC Source Type: blogs

de Winter syndrome
de Winter syndrome was initially described as a new ECG sign of occlusion of proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery by Robbert J de Winter, Niels J W Verouden, Hein J J Wellens and Arthur A M Wilde, Interventional Cardiology Group of the Academic Medical Center, in 2008 as a Letter to the Editor [1]. Instead of the ST segment elevation which is typical of anterior wall infarction which occurs in total occlusion of LAD, they described anterior ST segment depression, in about 2% of cases. An ECG with typical features showing upsloping ST segment depression in anterior leads with tall symmetric T waves and l...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: ECG / Electrophysiology de Winter sign LAD total occlusion Source Type: blogs

Pulmonary M-Mode a wave: Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Pulmonary M-Mode a wave: Cardiology MCQ – Answer A prominent a wave on the pulmonary valve M-Mode echocardiogram is seen in – Correct answer: b) Pulmonary stenosis Prominent a wave is seen while it flattens and becomes absent in severe pulmonary hypertension. In severe pulmonary hypertension, a mid systolic notch may appear. A prominent pulmonary valve M-Mode a dip has also been described in endomyocardial fibrosis [1]. Link to free full text with image: A prominent ‘A’ notch in the pulmonary valve M mode-one more cause of the same. Back to question Reference Prabha Nini Gupta, Praveen Velappan, La...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Modified Simpson ’ s rule for LVEF
Modified Simpson’s rule for LVEF Modified Simpson’s rule for LVEF Modified Simpson’s rule for LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction) is used not only in echocardiography, but also in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, left ventricular angiography and computed tomography (CT). Basic assumption in Simpson’s rule is that the shape of the left ventricular cavity is a composite of a cylinder (from base to the level of the mitral valve), a truncated cone from mitral valve level to the level of the papillary muscles and a cone from there to the apex [1]. Volume of the cylinder: Am x L/3 Volume o...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Angiography and Interventions Cardiac CT scan Cardiac Magnetic Resonance imaging Echocardiography Source Type: blogs

Tei index – Myocardial performance index
Tei index – Myocardial performance index Tei index – myocardial performance index (MPI) is the ratio of the time spent in isovolumetric activity divided by the time spent in ventricular ejection [1]. In other words, it is the sum of isovolumic contraction and relaxation times divided by the ejection time [2]. MPI = (ICT + IRT) / ET ICT: isovolumic contraction time; IRT: isovolumic relaxation time; ET: ejection time Myocardial performance index has an inverse relation with global ventricular function in that increasing values indicate worsening global ventricular function. There is good correlation between Doppl...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Echocardiography Source Type: blogs

Pulmonary regurgitation
Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) can be divided into hypertensive and non-hypertensive. The former is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension while the latter is not. Hypertensive pulmonary regurgitation Hypertensive PR is associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. It produces a blowing, decrescendo early diastolic murmur with the eponym Graham Steell murmur [1]. The murmur is heard in the pulmonary area and left sternal border, resembling the murmur of aortic regurgitation. It may be heard in Eisenmenger syndrome, severe primary pulmonary hypertension and severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart dise...
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Graham Steell murmur hypertensive PR hypertensive pulmonary regurgitation non hypertensive PR non hypertensive pulmonary regurgitation right sided Austin Flint murmur Source Type: blogs

Pulmonary M-Mode a wave: Cardiology MCQ
A prominent a wave on the pulmonary valve M-Mode echocardiogram is seen in: a) Pulmonary hypertension b) Pulmonary stenosis c) Mitral stenosis d) Aortic stenosis Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post Pulmonary M-Mode a wave: Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - September 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Accordion sign – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Accordion sign – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Accordion sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is seen in – Correct answer: 3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy A focal crinkling of the right ventricular outflow tract and subtricuspid regions on MRI in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVD/C) has been called “accordion sign” [1]. It was observed in 60% of the mutation carriers and none of those without the mutation (p
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Genetic DCM – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Genetic DCM – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Association of genetic DCM (Dilated cardiomyopathy) – Correct answer: 4. All of the above. Truncation mutations in titin gene (TTN) was found in 13% of non familial DCM cases in one study [1]. LMNA and SCN5A mutations have been associated with DCM with cardiac conduction abnormalities [2]. Back to question References Angharad M Roberts, James S Ware, Daniel S Herman, Sebastian Schafer, John Baksi, Alexander G Bick, Rachel J Buchan, Roddy Walsh, Shibu John, Samuel Wilkinson, Francesco Mazzarotto, Leanne E Felkin, Sungsam Gong, Jacqueline A L MacArthur, Fiona Cunningha...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Accordion sign – Cardiology MCQ
Accordion sign – Cardiology MCQ Accordion sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is seen in: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Amyloid cardiomyopathy Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be published after 2 days. The post Accordion sign – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Genetic DCM – Cardiology MCQ
Genetic DCM – Cardiology MCQ Association of genetic DCM (Dilated cardiomyopathy): Lamin A/C gene (LMNA) Titin gene (TTN) Atrioventricular (AV block) All of the above Click here for the correct answer The post Genetic DCM – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Dock ’ s murmur – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Dock’s murmur – Cardiology MCQ – Answer False statement about Dock’s murmur – Correct answer: 2. Due to Pulmonary regurgitation Early diastolic murmur of hypertensive pulmonary regurgitation is called Graham Steell murmur. Dock’s murmur is an early diastolic murmur heard in coronary artery stenosis. The initial documentation was using necropsy demonstration of coronary stenosis in 1967 [1]. References Dock W, Zoneraich S. A diastolic murmur arising in a stenosed coronary artery. Am J Med. I967;42:6I7-619. Back to question The post Dock’s murmur – Cardiology M...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Radioactive tracer used for detection of active foci of inflammation/metabolism in infective endocarditis is – Correct answer: 4. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose Supplementing Dukes criteria with 18F-FDG PET CT increased the sensitivity from 52% to 91% with a slight fall in specificity from 95% to 89%. The authors further noted that reclassification from possible endocarditis to either definite or rejected category could be done in 95% which has great clinical significance [1]. This would permit early initiation of antibiotic therapy in definite cases w...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ – Cardiology MCQ
PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ – Cardiology MCQ MCQ Radioactive tracer used for detection of active foci of inflammation/metabolism in infective endocarditis is – Correct answer: 4. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose Supplementing Dukes criteria with 18F-FDG PET CT increased the sensitivity from 52% to 91% with a slight fall in specificity from 95% to 89%. The authors further noted that reclassification from possible endocarditis to either definite or rejected category could be done in 95% which has great clinical significance [1]. This would permit early initiation of antibiotic therapy in defi...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Dock ’ s murmur – Cardiology MCQ
Dock’s murmur – Cardiology MCQ False statement about Dock’s murmur: Early diastolic murmur Due to Pulmonary regurgitation Due stenosis of left anterior descending coronary artery Heard in the third left intercostal space Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post Dock’s murmur – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Transradial catheter – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Transradial catheter – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Catheter most commonly used for transradial coronary angiography is  – Correct answer: Tiger Judkins – usually for transfemoral route, but can also be used by transradial route Amplatz – used for both transfemoral and transradial route Tiger – used for transradial route. Same catheter can be used for left and right coronary arteries Sones – seldom used now. Same catheter for right and left coronaries. Commonly used in the days of brachial cut down. Was used for left ventriculography also, has the potential to produce staining as ...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ
PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ Radioactive tracer used for detection of active foci of inflammation/metabolism in infective endocarditis is:  Rubidium-82 Nitrogen-13 ammonia Oxygen-15 water Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post PET CT in endocarditis – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Transradial catheter – Cardiology MCQ
Transradial catheter – Cardiology MCQ Catheter most commonly used for transradial coronary angiography is: Judkins Amplatz Tiger Sones Click here for the correct answer The post Transradial catheter – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Ellis classification – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Ellis classification – Cardiology MCQ – Answer According to Ellis classification of coronary perforations during PCI, pericardial or myocardial blushing is – Correct answer: 2. Grade II. Ellis classification is based on angiographic appearance of the perforation [1]: Grade I: Extraluminal crater without extravasation Grade II: Pericardial or myocardial blushing Grade III: Perforations of one or more millimeter diameter with contrast streaming or spilling Reference S G Ellis, S Ajluni, A Z Arnold, J J Popma, J A Bittl, N L Eigler, M J Cowley, R E Raymond, R D Safian, P L Whitlow. Increased coronary perfor...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Crawford Coselli classification – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Crawford Coselli classification – Cardiology MCQ – Answer In Crawford Coselli classification of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, if only suprarenal portion of aorta is involved, it is – Correct answer: 1. Type I Type I: Only suprarenal portion of aorta is involved Type II: Entire thoraco-abdominal descending aorta is involved, up to the bifurcation Type III: Distal half of descending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta up to the bifurcation is involved. Type IV: Entire infra-diaphragmatic (abdominal) portion of descending aorta is involved Back to question The post Crawford Coselli classification – ...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Ellis classification – Cardiology MCQ
Ellis classification – Cardiology MCQ According to Ellis classification of coronary perforations during PCI, pericardial or myocardial blushing is: Grade I Grade II Grade III None of the above Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post Ellis classification – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Crawford Coselli classification – Cardiology MCQ
Crawford Coselli classification – Cardiology MCQ In Crawford Coselli classification of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, if only suprarenal portion of aorta is involved, it is: Type I Type II Type III Type IV Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be published after 2 days. The post Crawford Coselli classification – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

LV Diastolic function in AF – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
LV Diastolic function in AF – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Which of the following is not useful for assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in atrial fibrillation (AF)? Correct answer: 1. Mitral Doppler E/A ratio A variety of other parameters have been reported to be useful in assessing diastolic function and left ventricular filling pressures by echocardiography in the presence of atrial fibrillation. They include mitral E wave deceleration time, ratio of mitral E wave to tissue Doppler derived mitral annular e’, color M-mode derived Vp and the ratio of mitral E wave to Vp, peak pulmonary vein diast...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Ross procedure – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Ross procedure – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Ross procedure is – Correct answer: 1. Pulmonary autograft for aortic stenosis Ross procedure (pulmonary autograft for aortic position) was used for aortic valve disease initially in children and later in adults. The pulmonary valve along with part of the main pulmonary artery is taken and made into a neo-aortic root. Either a cryopreserved homograft or xenograft is placed in the pulmonary position. Sometimes a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) conduit is used in the pulmonary position. The advantage of the autograft in children is that it would grow in size as the ch...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Endoleaks after EVAR – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Endoleaks after EVAR – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Graft porosity causing endoleak after endovascular aortic repair is classified as — type of endoleak – Correct answer: 4. Type IV. Types of endoleaks after EVAR [1] I – Proximal or distal attachment site II – Branch vessel with collateral flow into the aneurysm sac III – Modular disconnection and fabric tear IV – Graft porosity V – Endo tension Reference Sarah B White, S William Stavropoulos. Management of Endoleaks following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2009 Mar;26(1):33-8. Back to question The p...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Medina classification – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Medina classification – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Medina classification applies to – Correct answer: 3. Coronary bifurcation lesions Medina classification of coronary bifurcation lesions [1] involves assigning a binary value (1,0) to each of the three components of a bifurcation (proximal region of main branch, distal region of main branch, and the side branch) depending on whether they have more than (1) or less than (0) fifty percent lesion. Read more on: Medina classification of coronary bifurcation lesions. Reference Medina A, Suarez de Lezo J, Pan M. A new classification of coronary bifurcation l...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Low voltage potentials – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Low voltage potentials – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Low voltage potentials during electrophysiological (EP) study could be due to – Correct answer: 4. All of the above Low voltage potentials are those with an amplitude less than half a millivolt in the atrium and less than one and a half millivolts in the ventricle. Low voltage potentials could be due to myocardial infarction, fibrosis or poor contact of the electrode as well as due to far field effect. Read more on: Basics of intracardiac electrograms. Back to question The post Low voltage potentials – Cardiology MCQ – Answer appeared first on A...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

LV Diastolic function in AF – Cardiology MCQ
LV Diastolic function in AF – Cardiology MCQ Which of the following is not useful for assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in atrial fibrillation (AF)? Mitral Doppler E/A ratio Tissue Doppler E/e’ Mitral E wave deceleration time Pulmonary vein diastolic wave deceleration time Back to question The post LV Diastolic function in AF – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Optical coherence tomography (OCT) compared to intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has – Correct answer: 1. OCT has higher resolution but lower depth penetration Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has much higher resolution compared to intravascular ultrasound. It has the resolution of the range of 10 – 20 microns, which is an order of magnitude better than that of intravascular ultrasound. But the limitation is the lower depth of tissue penetration which is only 2 to 3 millimeters, compared to the 10 millimeter tissue penetration of current i...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Ross procedure – Cardiology MCQ
Ross procedure – Cardiology MCQ Ross procedure is: Pulmonary autograft for aortic stenosis Valved conduit for infundibular pulmonary stenosis Total cavopulmonary anastomosis Double switch operation Click here for the correct answer The post Ross procedure – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

William ’ s syndrome – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
William’s syndrome – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Which of the following is not a usual component of William’s syndrome? Correct answer: 3. Valvar aortic stenosis William’s syndrome is associated with supravalvar aortic stenosis. Back to question The post William’s syndrome – Cardiology MCQ – Answer appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Ebstein ’ s anomaly – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Ebstein’s anomaly – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Leaflets displaced distally in Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve – Correct answer: 2. Septal and posterior Usually we see the distal displacement of septal leaflet from apical four chamber view. Posterior leaflet is also small and displaced. Anterior leaflet is enlarged and is sail like. The closure sound of the large anterior leaflet is called sail sound. Similar Ebstein’s type of abnormality can be seen in about 70% of cases in the systemic atrioventricular valve in corrected transposition of great arteries (cTGA). Back to question The...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

William ’ s syndrome – Cardiology MCQ
William’s syndrome – Cardiology MCQ Which of the following is not a usual component of William’s syndrome? Hypercalcemia Elfin facies Valvar aortic stenosis Learning disability Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post William’s syndrome – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Mustard procedure – Cardiology MCQ
Mustard procedure – Cardiology MCQ Mustard procedure is:  Atrial based repair of d-TGA using an intra atrial baffle Repair for tricuspid atresia Arterial switch operation for d-TGA Double switch operation for corrected TGA Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post Mustard procedure – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Pediatric exercise testing – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Pediatric exercise testing – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Indication for exercise testing in children – Correct answer: 4. All of the above Read more on pediatric exercise testing. Back to question The post Pediatric exercise testing – Cardiology MCQ – Answer appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Surgery for aortic atresia – Cardiology MCQ
Surgery for aortic atresia – Cardiology MCQ Surgery for treatment of aortic atresia is credited to:  Jatene Norwood Fontan Brock Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post Surgery for aortic atresia – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Ebstein ’ s anomaly – Cardiology MCQ
Ebstein’s anomaly – Cardiology MCQ Leaflets displaced distally in Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve: Septal and anterior Septal and posterior Anterior only Septal only Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be published after 2 days. The post Ebstein’s anomaly – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Decompensated erythrocytosis – Cardiology MCQ
Decompensated erythrocytosis – Cardiology MCQ Decompensated erythrocytosis can occur in cyanotic congenital heart disease after: Oral iron treatment Venesection Surgical correction None of the above Post your answer as a comment below. Correct answer will be posted after 2 days. The post Decompensated erythrocytosis – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

NEET-SS 2020 – Online application started
NEET-SS 2020 – Online application started National board of examinations, New Delhi has announced the following schedule for NEET-SS 2020: Availability of the Information Bulletin: 3rd August 2020 Onwards Online Submission of the Application Form: 3rd August – 23rd August 2020 Examination Date: 15th September 2020 Declaration of the Result: By 25th September 2020 Application form for NEET SS 2020 can be submitted only online atwww.nbe.edu.in from 3rd August (3 PM onwards) to 23rd August 2020 (till 11:55 PM). Information courtesy National Board website The post NEET-SS 2020 – Online application start...
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Pediatric exercise testing – Cardiology MCQ
Pediatric exercise testing – Cardiology MCQ Indication for exercise testing in children: Sinus node dysfunction Long QT syndrome Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia All of the above Click here for the correct answer The post Pediatric exercise testing – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Chronaxie – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Chronaxie – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Chronaxie is – Correct answer: 2. Pulse width needed for capture at twice the rheobase voltage Read more about pacemaker terminologies here. Back to question The post Chronaxie – Cardiology MCQ – Answer appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Binary restenosis – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Binary restenosis – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Binary restenosis after percutaneous intervention (PCI) is  – Correct answer: 1. 50% or more of luminal narrowing at repeat angiogram Read about the other common terminologies in PCI here. Back to question The post Binary restenosis – Cardiology MCQ – Answer appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - August 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Complications of LV aneurysm – Cardiology MCQ
Complications of LV aneurysm – Cardiology MCQ Which of the following is the least likely complication of left ventricular aneurysm? Recurrent ventricular tachycardia Left ventricular failure Left ventricular mural thrombus Rupture and cardiac tamponade Post your answer as a comment below. The correct answer will be published after 2 days. The post Complications of LV aneurysm – Cardiology MCQ appeared first on All About Cardiovascular System and Disorders. (Source: Cardiophile MD)
Source: Cardiophile MD - July 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

NEET – SS 2020 announced by the National Board
NEET – SS 2020 announced by the National Board NEET – SS 2020 announced by the National Board. The provisional date of examination is: 15th September 2020. Direct link to the pdf mentioning the provisional date of NEET – SS 2020. The notice contains the provisional dates of three more other examinations to be conducted by the National Board. The link from the National Board homepage was posted as:  2020-07-04 Schedule of Forthcoming NBE Examinations – Regarding (New). Please follow the website for further notifications as this exam should have been conducted in June 2020 and was postponed due t...
Source: Cardiophile MD - July 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs

Robotic telestenting in simulator models
Robotic telestenting in simulator models: Some time back I had written about “Robotic PCI – Has It Come of Age?” in BMH Medical Journal [1]. The remarkable feature in the PRECISE (Percutaneous Robotically-Enhanced Coronary Intervention) Study was that radiation exposure to the primary operator was 95.2% less [2]. That was a clinical study involving 164 patients at 9 sites. Ryan D Madder, Stacie VanOosterhout, Jessica Parker, Kalyna Sconzert, Yao Li, Nicholas Kottenstette, Abigail Madsen, John-Michael Sungur and Per Bergman have successfully performed telestenting in simulator models from Boston to New Yo...
Source: Cardiophile MD - June 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Antegrade dissection and re-entry for chronic total occlusions
Antegrade dissection and re-entry for chronic total occlusions: Opening up of chronic total occlusions (generally more than 3 months old) is always challenging. While attempting to wire a chronic total occlusion (CTO), the wire can go subintimally and then renter the true lumen distally. Unless there is guidance with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT), it is almost a blind try. In the technique known as sub-intimal tracking and re-entry (STAR) technique, a knuckled wire was passed [1]. But this produced an uncontrolled re-entry, sometimes very distally near a bifurcation. Stenting then w...
Source: Cardiophile MD - June 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Angiography and Interventions Coronary Interventions Source Type: blogs

Hypokalemia with heart failure – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Hypokalemia with heart failure – Cardiology MCQ – Answer Which of the following is the last option in a patient with hypokalemia and heart failure? – Correct answer:  1. Oral potassium supplementation Adding ACE inhibitors or ARB and MRA are much more important for the long term prognosis of heart failure. If these have not been added, adding them alone may control hypokalemia. These drugs should be uptitrated before considering oral potassium supplements. Thiazides have a higher potential to cause hypokalemia (≈0.6 mmol/l) than loop diuretics (≈0.3 mmol/l) in the usual doses. Back to que...
Source: Cardiophile MD - June 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs

Arrhythmia with hypokalemia – Cardiology MCQ – Answer
Arrhythmia with hypokalemia – Cardiology MCQ – Answer All of the following can increase the risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in hypokalemia except – Correct answer: 4. Normal left ventricular ejection fraction Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction increases the risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias in the presence of hypokalemia. Back to question Reference João Pedro Ferreira, Javed Butler, Patrick Rossignol, Bertram Pitt, Stefan D Anker, Mikhail Kosiborod, Lars H Lund, George L Bakris, Matthew R Weir, Faiez Zannad. Abnormalities of Potassium in Heart Failure: JACC ...
Source: Cardiophile MD - June 12, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prof. Dr. Johnson Francis Tags: Cardiology Source Type: blogs