FMT Helps Without Clearing Multidrug-Resistant Organisms FMT Helps Without Clearing Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

For seriously ill patients with multidrug-resistant organisms in their gastrointestinal tract, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) might result in fewer and less severe infections, investigators report.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Gastroenterology News Source Type: news

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Patients with hematological malignancies or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are vulnerable to colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant organisms, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). Over a 10-y period, we collected and sequenced the genomes of 110 VREfm isolates from gastrointestinal and blood cultures of 24 pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy or...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Abstract: Clinical outcomes after organ transplantation have greatly improved in the past 2 decades with the discovery and development of immunosuppressive drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative agents, and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. However, individualized dosage regimens have not yet been fully established for these drugs except for therapeutic drug monitoring-based dosage modification because of extensive interindividual variations in immunosuppressive drug pharmacokinetics. The variations in immunosuppressive drug pharmacokinetics are attributed to interindividual variations in the fun...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of durable ventricular assist devices (VAD) to manage end-stage heart failure is increasing, but infection remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with VAD. In this review, we synthesize recent data pertaining to the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention of VAD infections, discuss transplant considerations in patients with VAD infections, and highlight remaining knowledge gaps. We also present a conceptual framework for treating clinicians to approach these infections that draws on the same principles that guide the treatment of analogous infections t...
Source: Current Heart Failure Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the most interesting finding is the association of iss with septic shock. Adhesins are important for UTI pathogenesis, while otherwise low-pathogenic isolates from the microbiota can cause post-prostate biopsy sepsis. PMID: 32423949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Lentivirus‑mediated CD44s expression increases human basal cell carcinoma cell resistance against vismodegib. Oncol Rep. 2020 Mar 06;: Authors: Ren J, Ma X, Tu C, Li Z Abstract High drug resistance, which is usually mediated by drug resistance‑associated genes, is a characteristic of human tumours. CD44s, an ATP‑binding cassette multidrug resistance transporter, is expressed in a variety of human cancers. In the present study, the effect of CD44s expression was investigated on BCC resistance against vismodegib. Lentiviral vectors were constructed to allow efficient CD44s expression. Cell clones e...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the urinary metagenome of the kidney transplant and healthy subjects using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Our data suggest an increased abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the kidney transplant subjects. In addition, the antibiotic resistance genes identified in the transplant subjects were predominantly composed of multidrug efflux pumps (MDEPs) which are evolutionarily ancient, commonly encoded on chromosomes rather than plasmids, and have a low rate of mutation. Since the MDEPs had a low abundance in the healthy subjects, we speculate that the...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
AbstractSince the discovery of antibiotics in the first quarter of the twentieth century, their use has been the principal approach to treat bacterial infection. Modernized medicine such as cancer therapy, organ transplantation or advanced major surgeries require effective antibiotics to manage bacterial infections. However, the irresponsible use of antibiotics along with the lack of development has led to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance which is considered a serious global threat due to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria (Wang et al. in Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis, pp. 1645 –1...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions. High levels of preexisting MDR bacteria in allografts did not increase early PTP and mortality rates in LTRs. Despite the small and highly selective study population, lung allografts with MDR bacteria may be safely transplanted with appropriate posttransplant antibiotic therapy.
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research
Abstract Comprehensive guidelines for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among persons living in the United States were last published in 2000 (American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161:S221-S247, 2000). Since then, several new regimens have been evaluated in clinical trials. To update previous guidelines, the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association (NTCA) and CDC convened a committee to conduct a systematic literature review and make new recommendations for the most effective and least toxic regimens for treatment of LTBI among persons who live in the United States. The systema...
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Transplant Source Type: research
Abstract Severe bacterial infections are a serious problem after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Colonization with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods (MRGNR) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, its impact on outcomes after CBT is unclear. We aim to explore the impact of colonization with MRGNRs in adult patients undergoing CBT. We retrospectively analyzed 145 adult patients who received single-unit CBT in our institute. As a standard practice in our institute, all patients were screened for colonization with MRGNR by oral cavity s...
Source: International Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research
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