An Item Response Theory Analysis of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5: Implications for DSM-5 and ICD-11

Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Journal of Anxiety DisordersAuthor(s): Madison W. Silverstein, Jessica M. Petri, Lindsay B. Kramer, Frank W. WeathersAbstractThe PTSD Checklist (PCL) is a widely used, extensively validated questionnaire for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The PCL was revised for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5; Friedman, 2013), and the updated version, the PCL-5, has continued the strong psychometric performance of the original version. To further explore the PCL-5’s psychometric properties, we used item response theory (IRT) to examine item difficulty and discrimination parameters in separate samples of trauma-exposed undergraduates (N = 1,213) and community members (N = 367). Considering item difficulty, nightmares, flashbacks, and reckless or self-destructive behavior emerged among the most difficult items across samples and internal avoidance emerged as the least difficult items across samples. In terms of item discrimination, inability to experience positive emotions, detachment from others, diminished interest, and negative emotions emerged as highly discriminating items in both samples, and traumatic amnesia and reckless or self-destructive behavior emerged as the least discriminating items in both samples. These results have implications for the divergent conceptualizations of PTSD in DSM-5 versus International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11; WHO, 2018). F...
Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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r Brite Numerous studies report elevated levels of chronic mental health conditions in those exposed to the World Trade Center attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but few studies have examined the incidence of confusion or memory loss (CML) or its association with mental health in 9/11 attack survivors. We investigated the incidence of CML and its association with the number of post-9/11 mental health conditions (PTSD, depression, and anxiety) in 10,766 World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees aged 35–64 at the time of the wave 4 survey (2015–2016) that completed all four-wave survey...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionWe present this case report to suggest that patients surviving coronavirus disease 2019 with subsequent development of acute respiratory distress syndrome will require more intense intensive care unit recovery follow-up. Patients with a higher degree of acute illness who also have pre-existing comorbidities and those of older age who survive mechanical ventilation for coronavirus disease 2019 will require substantial post –intensive care unit care to mitigate and treat post–intensive care syndrome, promote reintegration into the community, and improve quality of life.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although questioning patients is a natural part of medical care, targeted staff training can result in positive changes in communication practice and should be considered for facilities treating patients in PTA. PMID: 32835514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
Ela was happily married — or so people thought — until the day her husband came home with a DVD he had bought. Not a common practice for him. The name of the movie was Sleeping with the Enemy with Julia Roberts. Ela loved movies and made some popcorn to watch it with her husband. “Who recommended it?” she asked. “Myself,” he responded. “I think it’s time for you to wake up.” That day marked the beginning of Ela’s understanding of her dissociation, her depression, her submissiveness, her lack of enjoyment, and many other symptoms that she had developed through sev...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Abuse Psychology PTSD Trauma Treatment C-PTSD complex posttraumatic stress disorder complex trauma Depersonalization Dissociation Emotional Dysregulation Traumatic Experience traumatization Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: The results highlighted the heterogeneity of recovery in the initial recovery period following severe to extremely severe TBI and have the potential to inform clinical advice regarding outcome trajectories. PMID: 31020899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Clinical Neuropsychologist - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Clin Neuropsychol Source Type: research
Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunctio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Could a medical procedure you don ’ t even remember give you a stress disorder?
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Memory Sedatives Amnesia Anesthesia and Anesthetics Anxiety and Stress Psychology and Psychologists Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Emotions Surgery and Surgeons Mental Health and Disorders Source Type: news
Look into my eyes. The phrase calls to mind images of a psychotherapist swinging a pocket watch. Or maybe you picture Catherine Keener in the film Get Out, tapping her teacup and sending an unwilling man into a state of hypnotic limbo. “There are many myths about hypnosis, mostly coming from media presentations,” like fictional films and novels, says Irving Kirsch, a lecturer and director of the Program in Placebo Studies at Harvard Medical School. But setting aside pop culture clichés, Kirsch says hypnosis is a well-studied and legitimate form of adjunct treatment for conditions ranging from obesity and...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime Mental Health/Psychology Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Journal of Anxiety DisordersAuthor(s): Natasha Benfer, Joseph R. Bardeen, Ian Cero, Lindsay B. Kramer, Sarah E. Whiteman, Travis A. Rogers, Madison W. Silverstein, Frank W. WeathersAbstractEvidence suggests that posttraumatic stress (PTS) disorder (PTSD) symptom presentations may vary as a function of index trauma type. Network analysis was employed in the present study to examine differences in PTS symptom centrality (i.e., the relative influence of a symptom on the network), and PTS symptom associations across three trauma types: motor vehicle accident (MVA), sexual ...
Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a parasomnia that links eating disorders to partial arousal during the transition between wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by dysfunctional eating and drinking upon partial arousal from a stage of NREM sleep (also known as slow-wave sleep). As a form of sleepwalking, it entails partial or complete amnesia of the event. According to one study, the estimated prevalence of SRED was nearly 5% in the general population. The disorder is more common than generally recognized, and we can agree it requires more public awareness. This type of connection...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Diet & Nutrition Eating Disorders Neuroscience Sleep Stigma Stress Binge Eating Disorder Bingeing Disordered Eating nightmare disorder parasomnia restless leg syndrome Sleep apnea sleep disorder sleep hygiene sleep-related ea Source Type: news
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