An Item Response Theory Analysis of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5: Implications for DSM-5 and ICD-11

Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Journal of Anxiety DisordersAuthor(s): Madison W. Silverstein, Jessica M. Petri, Lindsay B. Kramer, Frank W. WeathersAbstractThe PTSD Checklist (PCL) is a widely used, extensively validated questionnaire for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The PCL was revised for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5; Friedman, 2013), and the updated version, the PCL-5, has continued the strong psychometric performance of the original version. To further explore the PCL-5’s psychometric properties, we used item response theory (IRT) to examine item difficulty and discrimination parameters in separate samples of trauma-exposed undergraduates (N = 1,213) and community members (N = 367). Considering item difficulty, nightmares, flashbacks, and reckless or self-destructive behavior emerged among the most difficult items across samples and internal avoidance emerged as the least difficult items across samples. In terms of item discrimination, inability to experience positive emotions, detachment from others, diminished interest, and negative emotions emerged as highly discriminating items in both samples, and traumatic amnesia and reckless or self-destructive behavior emerged as the least discriminating items in both samples. These results have implications for the divergent conceptualizations of PTSD in DSM-5 versus International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11; WHO, 2018). F...
Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: The results highlighted the heterogeneity of recovery in the initial recovery period following severe to extremely severe TBI and have the potential to inform clinical advice regarding outcome trajectories. PMID: 31020899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Clinical Neuropsychologist - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Clin Neuropsychol Source Type: research
Conclusion Currently available pharmacotherapies for PTSD are poorly effective on a substantial proportion of patients. Given this high rate of pharmacological unresponsiveness, further studies are needed to extend the knowledge of the basic mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings discussed in this review suggest that DAergic dysfunction, especially genetic-dependent DAergic alteration, plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of PTSD; as a consequence, drugs targeting the DAergic system might be therapeutically relevant. A better understanding of how and which DAergic dysfunctio...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Could a medical procedure you don ’ t even remember give you a stress disorder?
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Memory Sedatives Amnesia Anesthesia and Anesthetics Anxiety and Stress Psychology and Psychologists Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Emotions Surgery and Surgeons Mental Health and Disorders Source Type: news
Look into my eyes. The phrase calls to mind images of a psychotherapist swinging a pocket watch. Or maybe you picture Catherine Keener in the film Get Out, tapping her teacup and sending an unwilling man into a state of hypnotic limbo. “There are many myths about hypnosis, mostly coming from media presentations,” like fictional films and novels, says Irving Kirsch, a lecturer and director of the Program in Placebo Studies at Harvard Medical School. But setting aside pop culture clichés, Kirsch says hypnosis is a well-studied and legitimate form of adjunct treatment for conditions ranging from obesity and...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized healthytime Mental Health/Psychology Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Journal of Anxiety DisordersAuthor(s): Natasha Benfer, Joseph R. Bardeen, Ian Cero, Lindsay B. Kramer, Sarah E. Whiteman, Travis A. Rogers, Madison W. Silverstein, Frank W. WeathersAbstractEvidence suggests that posttraumatic stress (PTS) disorder (PTSD) symptom presentations may vary as a function of index trauma type. Network analysis was employed in the present study to examine differences in PTS symptom centrality (i.e., the relative influence of a symptom on the network), and PTS symptom associations across three trauma types: motor vehicle accident (MVA), sexual ...
Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a parasomnia that links eating disorders to partial arousal during the transition between wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by dysfunctional eating and drinking upon partial arousal from a stage of NREM sleep (also known as slow-wave sleep). As a form of sleepwalking, it entails partial or complete amnesia of the event. According to one study, the estimated prevalence of SRED was nearly 5% in the general population. The disorder is more common than generally recognized, and we can agree it requires more public awareness. This type of connection...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Diet & Nutrition Eating Disorders Neuroscience Sleep Stigma Stress Binge Eating Disorder Bingeing Disordered Eating nightmare disorder parasomnia restless leg syndrome Sleep apnea sleep disorder sleep hygiene sleep-related ea Source Type: news
Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD. Therefore, we designed a study to investigate effects of CBD on fear learning and memory wh...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research
Publication date: July 2017 Source:The Lancet Neurology, Volume 16, Issue 7 Author(s): Joukje van der Naalt, Marieke E Timmerman, Myrthe E de Koning, Harm J van der Horn, Myrthe E Scheenen, Bram Jacobs, Gerard Hageman, Tansel Yilmaz, Gerwin Roks, Jacoba M Spikman Background Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI, and many patients show incomplete long-term functional recovery. We aimed to create a prognostic model for functional outcome by combining demographics, injury severity, and psychological factors to identify patients at risk for incomplete recovery at 6 months. In particular, we investi...
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study used inescapable foot-shock to induce PTSD in juvenile rats and examined their emotional changes using open-field test and elevated plus maze, memory changes using Morris water maze, and the expression of GABAAR subunits (γ2, α2, and α5) in subregions of the brain in the adulthood using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. We aimed to observe the role of GABAAR subunits changes induced by juvenile trauma in the pathogenesis of subsequent PTSD in adulthood. In addition, we investigated the protective effects of exercise for 6 weeks and benzodiazepine (clonazepam) for 2 weeks. This study fo...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
How do I know that I’m suffering from the sequelae of a traumatic event? Trauma happens. It happens in everyday life. If not discharged properly it sleeps in our bodies and in our souls. When it sleeps, it morphs and over time the symptoms of which become far removed from the trauma of origin, so much so we might not identify the connection. Without that connection, symptoms cannot truly resolve. That is the course of the aftermath of a traumatic moment or event. If you agree that we are comprised of energy and matter, then you will understand that trauma is in our bodies and in our souls. How does trauma create symp...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: PTSD Spirituality Trauma Avoidance constriction Fight or Flight Hyperarousal Hypervigilance Isolation Nervous System Post-concussion syndrome posttraumatic stress Psychological trauma Source Type: news
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