Ophthalmic diagnosis using deep learning with fundus images – A critical review

We describe various retinal image datasets that can be used for deep learning purposes. Applications of deep learning for segmentation of optic disk, optic cup, blood vessels as well as detection of lesions are reviewed. Recent deep learning models for classification of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy are also discussed. Important critical insights and future research directions are given.
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: This learning target index for ophthalmology is the first approved by the DOG and represents a first step to further improve medical education in ophthalmology at German universities. The new teaching standards for studies in human medicine related to the masterplan medicine 2020 reflect the need of a consented approach to improve educational standards in ophthalmology so that all topics in ophthalmology remains sufficiently represented despite the specification to focus on high priority core items. PMID: 31844928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Ophthalmologe - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Ophthalmologe Source Type: research
Authors: Li HY, Rong SS, Hong X, Guo R, Yang FZ, Liang YY, Li A, So KF Abstract  Many ocular diseases (such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and traumatic eye injuries) can result in the degeneration of retinal cells and the subsequent loss of vision. Some kinds of treatments, such as drugs, stem cell transplantation and surgery are reported to be effective in certain patients. However, no confirmatively effective, convenient and low-price intervention has been available so far. Physical exercise has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on several neurodegenerative...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: To identify factors associated with retinal capillary density as measured with Confocal Scanning Laser Doppler Flowmetry (Heidelberg retina flowmeter (HRF)) in the Thessaloniki Eye Study (TES). METHODS: Participants of the TES (age ≥60 years, cross-sectional population-based study) were assessed for active capillary density in the superior and inferior peripapillary retina using the HRF. Pixel-by-pixel analysis was performed to quantify the percentage of zero flow pixels (ZFPs; surrogate for % retinal area with non-active capillaries). Multivariable regression analyses were perform...
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
We describe various retinal image datasets that can be used for deep learning purposes. Applications of deep learning for segmentation of optic disk,optic cup, blood vessels as well as detection of lesions are reviewed. Recent deep learning models for classification of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are also discussed. Important critical insights and future research directions have been given.
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research
This study aimed to measure alterations of chemical elements’ (67) levels in the aqueous humor of patients undergoing cataract surgery. The pilot study included 115 patients, (age 74 ± 7.27, female 64.35%, male 35.65%). The aqueous levels of elements were measured by the use of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), quality controlled with certified standards. The classification of elements based on their concentration was achieved by hierarchical cluster analysis. This is the first screening study that quantifies over 60 elements which are present in the fluid from the...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Melatonin, an indoleamine secreted mainly by the pineal gland, is known to modulate a wide range of circadian functions. However, this neurohormone is also synthesized within the eye and acts directly on ocular structures to mediate a variety of physiological processes. This review is focused on the role and therapeutic potential of melatonin in ocular diseases. We summarize data indicating that melatonin may represent a powerful tool to counteract ocular dysfunctions such as uveitis, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. A search strategy was conducted to identify studies ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study illuminates the low utilization of eye care among socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults residing in SSH, especially among those with vision impairment and eye disease. Vision-related health care is important in maintaining both physical and mental health in older adults. PMID: 31694391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Aging and Mental Health - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Aging Ment Health Source Type: research
Abstract In recent years, regenerative medicine is gaining momentum and is giving hopes for restoring function of diseased, damaged, and aged tissues and organs and nanotechnology is serving as a catalyst. In the ophthalmology field, various types of allogenic and autologous stem cells have been investigated to treat some ocular diseases due to age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal and lens traumas. Nanomaterials have been utilized directly as nanoscaffolds for these stem cells to promote their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation or indirectly a...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research
The actual numbers of people blind or with poor vision continue to increase despite so excellent progress that is being made in reducing the prevalence or percentage of people affected. More attention is required to provide quality outcomes for cataract surgery, prevent and manage myopia, detect and treat diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although more ophthalmologists are needed to provide this eye care, it is important that ophthalmologists work in effective teams with allied eye health personal to be able to meet the community needs.
Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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