Imaging of Renal Cancer

Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRIAuthor(s): Satheesh Krishna, Ashley Leckie, Ania Kielar, Robert Hartman, Ashish KhandelwalAbstractCystic renal masses are common incidental findings on cross-sectional imaging. Accurate characterisation of cystic renal masses is essential to guide management. Renal mass protocol comprises of a good quality non-contrast, corticomedullary and nephrographic phases with each phase providing complementary information for diagnosis. Attenuation measurements in different phases are central to the ‘golden-rules’ in renal mass imaging in characterisation of cystic renal masses. Newer modalities like dual energy CT, can obviate need for repeat imaging by generation of iodine-overlay image and also help in eliminating artifactual pseudoenhancement which is problematic in small endophytic cysts. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is extremely sensitive in identification of enhancing components in cystic masses especially in the setting of renal failure as the microbubbles are not excreted via the renal route. The Bosniak classification for renal cystic masses has been revised in 2019 to standardise terminology and further improve upon the original version. The current version includes CT and MRI, although CEUS is yet to be included. Image guided biopsy of renal mass helps confirm the diagnosis and also gives information regarding the subtype and grading and is useful in avoiding over...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: A novel, evidence-based decision aid was created for patients with renal masses considering surgery. The decision aid is available at https://decisionaid.ohri.ca/AZsumm.php?ID=1913. A separate decision aid addressing the management of small renal masses is currently under development. PMID: 31540831 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Urologic Oncology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Urol Oncol Source Type: research
We report a case of a 63-year-old female admitted to the hospital due to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and elevated blood pressure. One month earlier, sunitinib therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma was initiated. During the first cycle of therapy, after three weeks of sunitinib 50 mg daily, symptoms started and she stopped taking the drug. At admission, laboratory tests revealed elevated serum and urine amylase, C-reactive protein, urea and creatinine, and lowered platelet and leukocyte counts and hemoglobin value. Urine test showed proteinuria, erythrocyturia, leukocyturia and granulated cylinder. The patient wa...
Source: Acta Clinica Croatica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Clin Croat Source Type: research
This report is about a patient with metastastic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck refractory to nivolumab monotherapy, who showed a remarkable response to combination therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab over a period of 2 years, but developed serious renal failure and a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives Collectively, previous studies showed that numerous types of TCMs protect against AKI via different mechanisms of action, including inhibiting inflammation, cell apoptosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, and restraining oxidative stress etc. These data support the potential application of these TCMs as novel therapeutic agents in treating patients with AKI. Although some TCMs have entered preclinical trials, it is essential to initiate pre-clinical pharmacologic and toxicologic trials and clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCMs usage. Moreover, considering that some TCMs are dele...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractGlycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is a rare genetic pathology characterized by glucose-6 phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency, translating in hypoglycemia during short fasts. Besides metabolic perturbations, GSDI patients develop long-term complications, especially chronic kidney disease (CKD). In GSDI patients, CKD is characterized by an accumulation of glycogen and lipids in kidneys, leading to a gradual decline in renal function. At a molecular level, the activation of the renin-angiotensin system is responsible for the development of renal fibrosis, eventually leading to renal failure. The same CKD phenotype wa...
Source: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
We describe a case of pseudoprogression that pushes the limits of immune-related response criteria and challenges the boundaries and definitions set by trial protocols. A middle-aged man with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had received multiple prior systemic treatments including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as multiple surgeries and radiotherapy treatments. He was eventually started on nivolumab —the anti-programmed death receptor-1 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of advanced RCC. Clinical deterioration was observed soon after a 10...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, As2O3 may have a significant effect on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway for renal cancer treatment. The potential key DEGs are expected to be used as therapeutic targets. PMID: 29633893 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Renal Failure - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Ren Fail Source Type: research
Though radical cytoreductive nephrectomy has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the impact this treatment has on renal function has not been adequately assessed. Radical nephrectomy in patients with localized cancer has been associated with risk of chronic kidney disease development. Using patients enrolled in ADAPT trial that received cytoreductive nephrectomy in the metastatic setting, we intend to study the effect of this procedure on overall renal function in patients without kidney disease.
Source: The Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Kidney Cancer: Localized: Surgical Therapy IV Source Type: research
Authors: Tricard T, Tsoumakidou G, Lindner V, Garnon J, Albrand G, Cathelineau X, Gangi A, Lang H Abstract BACKGROUND: Ablative therapies (AT) in kidney cancer are rising. It's important to evaluate the situation of this therapy. The aim of this study is to identify the best indications for AT treatment for kidney cancer. METHODS: Review of literature using Medline and Embase databases. Study were selected based on scientific relevance. Clinical keys centered on the best requirements to indicate ablative therapies. RESULTS: AT is indicated according to specific tumor and patients criteria. A good initial ev...
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
We describe a case of open multiple revascularization in a patient affected by antiphospholipid syndrome and diffuse atherosclerosis, with an abdominal aortic aneurism, a contracted kidney, a renal cancer affecting the contralateral kidney, and as a consequence, a chronic renal failure and hypertension. We revascularized the celiac trunk, the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, and the right renal artery using saphenous grafts; the aneurism was corrected, and the renal tumor was treated by radiofrequency ablation. Despite the invasiveness and complexity, the surgical strategy adopted allowed to save the patient's li...
Source: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Ital Chir Source Type: research
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