Breast Cancer Vaccines: Heeding the Lessons of the Past to Guide a Path Forward

Cancer vaccines represent an active immunotherapy designed to stimulate the patient ’s immune system to recognize and kill tumor cells. Optimally, cancer vaccines stimulate type 1 CD4+ and CD8+T cell responses against tumor-associated antigens (Ags) (TAAs) and/or tumor specific Ags (TSAs) [1,2]. The main classes of TAAs and TSAs are summarized in Table 1. Known tumor Ags relevant to BC are shown in Table 2.
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research

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Abstract The great success of immunotherapy is paving the way for a new era in cancer treatment and is driving major improvements in the therapy of patients suffering from a range of solid tumors. However, the choice of the appropriate tumor antigens to be targeted with cancer vaccines and T-cell therapies is still a challenge. Most antigens targeted so far have been identified on the tumor bulk and are expressed on differentiated cancer cells. The discovery of a small population of cancer stem cells (CSC), which is refractory to most current therapies and responsible for the development of metastasis and recurren...
Source: Seminars in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Semin Immunol Source Type: research
AbstractClinical progress in the field of HER2-positive breast cancer therapy has been dramatically improved by understanding of the immune regulatory mechanisms of tumor microenvironment. Passive immunotherapy utilizing recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), particularly trastuzumab and pertuzumab has proved to be an effective strategy in HER2-positive breast cancer treatment. However, resistance to mAb therapy and relapse of disease are still considered important challenges in clinical practice. There are increasing reports on the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses in HER2-positive breast cancer patien...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Babaer D, Zheng M, Ivy MT, Zent R, Tiriveedhi V Abstract Previous phase I DNA-vaccine based clinical trials using Mammaglobin-A (Mam-A), a human breast tumor associated antigen (TAA), demonstrated that this agent was safe and efficient at treating patients with stage IV breast cancer. The long-term success of cancer vaccines is limited by the diminished expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules in the tumor microenvironment. The current study assessed the impact of various selenocompounds on the expression of HLA class I molecules in THP-1 cells, an apparent proficient antigen that pres...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Authors: Godoy-Calderón MJ, González-Marcano E, Carballo J, Convit AF Abstract Breast cancer therapies using checkpoints alone have not been highly effective. Based on previous experiences using the ConvitVax, an autologous tumor cells/bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)/formalin-based vaccine, in breast cancer and the potential success of combined therapies, we sought to ascertain whether the ConvitVax combined with anti-PD-1 enhances the antitumor effect in a 4T1 breast cancer model. Animals received four weekly injections of either PBS (G1), ConvitVax (200 μg cell homogenate, 0.0625 mg BCG, 0....
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
We describe current and emerging combination approaches which may improve patient outcomes in metastatic breast cancer.
Source: Current Breast Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Monica Benvenuto, Chiara Focaccetti, Valerio Izzi, Laura Masuelli, Andrea Modesti, Roberto BeiAbstractBreast cancer is both the most common type of cancer and the most frequent cause of cancer mortality in women, mainly because of its heterogeneity and limited immunogenicity. The aim of specific active cancer immunotherapy is to stimulate the host's immune response against cancer cells directly using a vaccine platform carrying one or more tumor antigens. In particular, the ideal tumor antigen should be able to elicit T cell and ...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis case report describes the evolution of TiME and TNBC molecular subtypes/genomics over time with sequential therapies in a TNBC patient with a CR to atezolizumab monotherapy. These data suggest the TiME is pliable and may be manipulated to maximize response to immunotherapy (NCT01375842,
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsTaxanes were the most common tx choice for 1L mTNBC. Patient characteristics were similar among patients who received pac and nab-pac monotherapy, suggesting that they are prescribed interchangeably when reimbursed by insurance.Editorial acknowledgementMedical writing assistance for this abstract was provided by Chris Lum, PhD, of Health Interactions, and funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.Legal entity responsible for the studyF. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.FundingF. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.DisclosureJ. O ’Shaughnessy: Honoraria (self): AbbVie Inc.; Honoraria (self): Agendia; Honoraria (self): Amgen Biotechnolo...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis first in human clinical trial of combination chemoradiation, cytokine fusion protein, checkpoint inhibitor, and NK cell therapy demonstrated a safe and tolerable immunotherapy protocol. Early efficacy data is encouraging with a 78% disease control rate, 56% ORR and 22% (2/9) CR in pts with metastatic TNBC, 2nd-line or greater.Clinical trial identificationNCT03387085.Legal entity responsible for the studyNantKwest, Inc.FundingNantKwest, Inc.DisclosureP. Soon-Shiong: Leadership role, Shareholder / Stockholder / Stock options, Officer / Board of Directors: NantCell; Leadership role, Shareholder / Stockholder /...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsDevelopment of PD-1 B-cell vaccine was successful, showing no evidence of toxicity or autoimmunity in mice, rabbits and beagle dogs. The combination vaccines could provide improved outcomes in early stage disease sparing patients the toxicity of chemotherapy. A phase 1 clinical trial with the PD-1 vaccine is under planning.Legal entity responsible for the studyThe authors.FundingNIH; Imugene.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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