Monitoring of free-ranging and captive Psittacula populations in Western Europe for avian bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses.

Monitoring of free-ranging and captive Psittacula populations in Western Europe for avian bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses. Avian Pathol. 2019 Oct 16;:1-26 Authors: Kessler S, Heenemann K, Krause T, Twietmeyer S, Fuchs J, Lierz M, Corman VM, Vahlenkamp TM, Rubbenstroth D Abstract Avian pathogens such as bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses are widely distributed in captive collections of psittacine birds worldwide and can cause fatal diseases. In contrast, only little is known about their presence in free-ranging psittacines and their impact on these populations. Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) are non-native to Europe, but have established stable populations in parts of Western Europe. During 2012 to 2017, we surveyed free-ranging populations in Germany and France as well as captive Psittacula individuals from Germany and Spain for avian bornavirus, circovirus and polyomavirus infections. Samples from two out of 469 tested free-ranging birds (0.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI-95]: 0.1 to 1.5%) were positive for beak and feather disease virus (BeFDV), whereas avian bornaviruses and polyomaviruses were not detected in the free-ranging populations. In contrast, avian bornavirus and polyomavirus infections, but not circoviruses were detected in captive populations. Parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4) infection was detected by RT-PCR in four out of 210 captive parakeets (1.9%; CI-95: 0....
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Publication date: 25 January 2020Source: New Scientist, Volume 245, Issue 3266Author(s):
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Authors: Thomas PG, Shubina M, Balachandran S Abstract Influenza A viruses (IAV) are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family of negative-sense RNA viruses. The greatest diversity of IAV strains is found in aquatic birds, but a subset of strains infects other avian as well as mammalian species, including humans. In aquatic birds, infection is largely restricted to the gastrointestinal tract and spread is through feces, while in humans and other mammals, respiratory epithelial cells are the primary sites supporting productive replication and transmission. IAV triggers the death of most cell types in which it replicate...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research
AbstractH9N2 avian influenza viruses sporadically infect humans worldwide. These viruses have also contributed internal genes to H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and H10N8 viruses, which have been isolated from humans with infections and are a substantial public health threat. To investigate the potential pathogenic mechanism of the H9N2 virus, we performed serial lung-to-lung passage of an avirulent H9N2 avian influenza virus (A/Chicken/Shandong/416/2016 [SD/416]) in mice to increase the pathogenicity of this virus. We generated a mouse-adapted (MA) virus that exhibited increased viral titers in the lungs, caused severe lung damage in m...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, children younger than 5 years, especially boys, were vulnerable groups for pandemic influenza, presenting as a mild disease with low mortality and few complications. Most of the affected children with influenza did not have important risk factors such as asthma and obesity, highlighted by other authors as significant risk factors. PMID: 31969753 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Clinica Croatica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Clin Croat Source Type: research
AbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by virulentAvian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects variety of avian species around the globe. Several AAvV 1 viruses of different genotypes have recently emerged with varying clinical impacts on their susceptible hosts. Although experimental infection with velogenic and mesogenic strains in chickens and pigeons is well-studied, nevertheless, there exists a paucity of data for comparative variations in serum biochemistry profile of susceptible hosts upon challenge with isolates of varying pathogenicities. With this background, a comparative assessment of a range of serum biochemical param...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
PHE has updated their advice about travelling to Wuhan in China in light of the reported 217 cases of known infections with this virus. WHO state there is now evidence of limited human-to-human transmission.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Abstract The avian embryo is a key experimental model system for early development of amniotes. One key difference with invertebrates and "lower" vertebrates like fish and amphibians is that amniotes do not rely so heavily on maternal messages because the zygotic genome is activated very early. Early development also involves considerable growth in volume and mass of the embryo, with cell cycles that include G1 and G2 phases from very early cleavage. The very early maternal to zygotic transition also allows the embryo to establish its own polarity without relying heavily on maternal determinants. In many...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Diana Temple, Timothy Springer, Sean Gallagher, Gunther du Hoffmann, James R. WheelerAbstractThe European Chemical Agency and European Food Safety Authority recommend that gross pathology findings, from avian reproduction studies, be used to support assessment of potential endocrine disrupting properties of active pesticidal and biocidal substances. In open literature, little information is available on the utility of gross pathology data for informing endocrine evaluations. Here the gross pathology data from historic...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research
Tissue morphogenesis is driven by local cellular deformations that are powered by contractile actomyosin networks. How localized forces are transmitted across tissues to shape them at a mesoscopic scale is still unclear. Analyzing gastrulation in entire avian embryos, we show that it is driven by the graded contraction of a large-scale supracellular actomyosin ring at the margin between the embryonic and extraembryonic territories. The propagation of these forces is enabled by a fluid-like response of the epithelial embryonic disk, which depends on cell division. A simple model of fluid motion entrained by a tensile ring q...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biochemistry, Development reports Source Type: news
In conclusion, our findings indicated thatireA,0007,0008, and2235 indeed encode TBDRs, withireA having the most important role in iron uptake. These results should help future studies explore the mechanisms underlying the TonB-dependent iron uptake pathway.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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