Glucosinolates profiles in Maca phenotypes cultivated in Peru and China (Lepidium peruvianum syn. L. meyenii)
Publication date: June 2019Source: Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 31Author(s): Henry O. Meissner, Lijia Xu, Wenting Wan, Fan YiAbstractHPLC glucosinolate (GCSN) profiles and concentration levels were examined in hypocotyls of the four prime Maca phenotypes (Lepidium peruvianum synonym L. meyenii) labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple”, grown in Peru (Pe) and/or China (Cn). In Trial I, glucotropaeolin (GLCT) and m-methoxyglucotropaeolin (MGLCT) content, and their ratios, was determined in commercial Maca products of Pe origin and compared with similar products declared as of Cn origin. In Trial II, Maca was propagated and cultivated either in Ancash – Peru, according to a traditional single stage planting system, or in Shangri-La – Cn, applying a two-stage Maca planting procedure adopted by Maca growers in Yunnan. Irrespective of the phenotype, in the Pe cultivation system, cylindrical elongated and pointed Maca hypocotyls (H) were harvested in the mixed crop, while disfigured Maca tubers resembling “ginseng-type root” (G) were predominant in the crop harvested in Cn. Two peaks of GLCT and MGLCT were detected in all analysed hypocotyls of the four Maca phenotypes grown in Pe, but only one peak (GLCT) was detected in the Maca phenotypes grown in Shangri-La, Cn. Significantly higher GLCT values were detected in all the Maca phenotypes grown in Cn than in Pe (P
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Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Operations Research for Health CareAuthor(s): Maarten Otten, Aleida Braaksma, Richard J. BoucherieAbstractEarly or tardy surgeries are frustrating for both patients and personnel, and cause inefficient use of resources at the operating rooms. The stochastic Earliness/Tardiness (E/T) scheduling problem addresses this by minimizing the total expected deviation of the surgery completion times from the planned completion times. We introduce the concept of E/T-concavity as a property of a probability distribution if the E/T costs are concave as a function of the standard de...