"Insul-in" -- The Discovery Files

An MIT-led research team has developed a drug capsule -- about the size of a blueberry -- that could be used to deliver oral doses of insulin, potentially replacing the injections that people with Type 1 diabetes have to give themselves every day. In tests in animals, the researchers showed that they could deliver enough insulin to lower blood sugar to levels comparable to those produced by injections given through skin.
Source: The Discovery Files - Category: Science Authors: Source Type: podcasts

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The human genome has been proposed to contribute to interpersonal variability in the way we respond to nutritional intake. However, personalized diets solely based on gene-nutrient interactions have not lived up to their expectations to date. Advances in microbiome research have indicated that a science-based generation of a personalized diet based on a combination of clinical and microbial features may constitute a promising new approach enabling accurate prediction of dietary responses. In addition, scientific advances in our understanding of defined dietary components and their effects on human physiology led to the inc...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research
Absence of type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies and A1c less than 7.5%, along with parental diabetes history, should trigger testing for maturity-onset diabetes of the young.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology News Source Type: news
Condition:   Type1diabetes Intervention:   Sponsor:   The Hospital for Sick Children Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Increased odds of inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, VTE seen before RA diagnosis versus controls
Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Cardiology, Endocrinology, Family Medicine, Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine, Neurology, Pulmonology, Rheumatology, Journal, Source Type: news
AbstractAimsAdults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) have decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Our study aimed at determining BMD and the association to metabolic control in children and adolescents with T1D.Methods244 patients (113 girls) with a median age of 14.3  years and T1D duration of 1–16 years were included. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan assessed BMDZ-scores excluding the head (total body less head, TBLH). TBLH-BMD were then investigated for associations to diabetes relevant variables such as HbA1c, insulin treatment, anthropometry and physical activity.ResultsIn all participants the T...
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this study, severe hypoglycemic episodes increased the mortality risk for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The risk was higher among people with type 2 diabetes. Whether severe hypoglycemia is a symptom of other underlying illnesses increasing mortality risk or a risk factor itself needs further investigation.
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsHigh Gal3BP levels were associated with female sex, increasing sCD163 and total cholesterol levels, and decreasing HDL-cholesterol levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of high Gal3BP was more than twice as high in the women as in the men.
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe protection against CVD observed in women compared to men in the general population is essentially erased in type 1 diabetes. This review will discuss evidence regarding the role of glucose management on CVD risk by sex, with a particular focus on studies of long-duration type 1 diabetes of>  20 years.Recent FindingsAcross studies, women with type 1 diabetes have similar or worse glycemic control compared to men, despite higher rates of intensive insulin therapy. The association between HbA1c and CVD risk does not seem to differ by sex, but few studies have reported on sex-specifi...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe aim of this review is to discuss recent data pointing at an involvement of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) onset and progression.Recent FindingsThe envelope protein of HERV-W family, named HERV-W-Env, was detected in pancreata from T1D patients and was shown to display pro-inflammatory properties and direct toxicity toward pancreatic beta cells.SummaryThe etiopathogenesis of T1D remains elusive, even if conventional environmental viral infections have been recurrently involved. Nonetheless, a new category of pathogens may provide the missing link between genet...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we describe a novel, unexplored phenomenon of a potential causal contribution of PZMs in autoreactive T cells in T1D pathogenesis. We expect that exploration of point mutations and studies in human T cells will enable the further delineation of driver genes to target for functional studies. Our findings challenge the classical notions of autoimmunity and open conceptual avenues toward individualized prevention and therapeutics.
Source: Genome Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research
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