Epidemiology of cattle amphistomiasis in Gilan province, north of Iran
AbstractAmphistomiasis is a widespread disease of ruminants in many parts of the world including Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of amphistomiasis in cattle from Gilan province, north of Iran in association with sex, age, breed, and season. This investigation was carried out over a 12-month period in Gilan. Through seasonal sampling and visual examination for amphistomiasis, the rumens and reticulum of 406 cattle, slaughtered in Rasht abattoir, Gilan province, were collected and relevant data on sex, age, and breed were recorded. The total number of harvested amphistomes, which was present in each organ was collected, counted, and preserved in a 10% formaldehyde solution. After preparation and identification, our findings revealed thatCarmyerius spatiosus,Paramphistomum gotoi,Gastrothylax crumenifer, andCalicophoron calicophorum were present in this study. The overall prevalence of infection was 19.70% with a mean intensity of 764.70 (ranged from 10 to 6200). The relation between prevalence and season (P 0.05). On the other hand, the relative mean intensity had a positive relation with the breed (P = 0.050) and age (P
Conclusions: Results reveals that developed nitrendipine nanoemulsion gel overcomes the limitation of low penetration and accentuate permeation through albino Wistar rat skin. It was concluded that nanoemulsion gel could be utilized as a potential carrier for transdermal delivery of nitrendipine. PMID: 31976777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rezaie Shirmard L, Ghofrani M, Bahari Javan N, Bayrami S, Tavassoli A, Rezaie A, Amini M, Kebriaee-Zadeh A, Rouini MR, Dinarvand R, Rafiee-Tehrani M, Dorkoosh FA Abstract Uncontrolled distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) within the body can significantly decrease the efficiency of drug therapy and is considered among the main restrictions of NPs application. The aim of this study was to develop a depot combination delivery system (CDS) containing fingolimod loaded poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) NPs dispersed into a matrix of oleic acid-grafted-aminated alginate (OA-g-AAlg) to minimize ...
Authors: Yoshida T, Sako K, Kondo H Abstract High consumption of oil formulations has been reported to reduce the blood exposure of drugs like tacrolimus. Consumption of oil formulations has also been shown to inhibit T-cell production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) compared to solid dispersion formulations (SDFs). However, a large amount of oil causes gastrointestinal side effects such as diarrhea and low compliance. Here, we investigated the feasibility of reducing the amount of oil and substitution of chemically synthetized oils for natural oils in these formulations. Reducing the amount of sunflower oil increased bloo...
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the potential for supersaturation in LBDDS, and the risk of precipitation, was found to be highly drug dependent. The apparent degree of supersaturation was considered a major factor impacting the ability to maintain drug supersaturation upon storage. PMID: 31975613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Mailhot Vega RB, Hoppe BS PMID: 31976780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
With a second case of a deadly Chinese virus confirmed in the United States, and four cases under investigation in New York, Buffalo-area hospitals are on alert and preparing as best as they can. The novel coronavirus was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December. More than 850 cases have since been reported worldwide, with more than 40 deaths in China. Transportation has been shutdown with travel restricted for millions in that country as international officials work to contain the di sease. In…