Presbyopia: Effectiveness of correction strategies

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): James S. Wolffsohn, Leon N. DaviesAbstractPresbyopia is a global problem affecting over a billion people worldwide. The prevalence of unmanaged presbyopia is as high as 50% of those over 50 years of age in developing world populations due to a lack of awareness and accessibility to affordable treatment, and is even as high as 34% in developed countries. Definitions of presbyopia are inconsistent and varied, so we propose a redefinition that states “presbyopia occurs when the physiologically normal age-related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point, when optimally corrected for distance vision, that the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements”. Presbyopia is inevitable if one lives long enough, but intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors including cigarette smoking, pregnancy history, hyperopic or astigmatic refractive error, ultraviolet radiation, female sex (although accommodation is similar to males), hotter climates and some medical conditions such as diabetes can accelerate the onset of presbyopic symptoms. Whilst clinicians can ameliorate the symptoms of presbyopia with near vision spectacle correction, bifocal and progressive spectacle lenses, monovision, translating or multifocal contact lenses, monovision, extended depth of focus, multifocal (refractive, diffractive and asymmetric designs) or &lsqu...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

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Pregnant women and people with chronic health conditions such as asthma, diabetes and heart disease are particularly vulnerable to flu complications yet lag the elderly in getting vaccinated.(Image credit: BSIP/Getty Images)
Source: NPR Health and Science - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
In this study, AT1-AAs were detected in the sera of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the positive rate was 44.44% vs. 17.46% in non-PAD volunteers. In addition, analysis showed that AT1-AAs level was positively correlated with PAD. To reveal the causal relationship between AT1-AAs and vascular aging, an AT1-AAs-positive rat model was established by active immunization. The carotid pulse wave velocity was higher, and the aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was attenuated significantly in the immunized rats. Morphological staining showed thickening of the aortic wall. Histological examination showe...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on CancerAuthor(s): Subash C. Gupta, Nikee Awasthee, Vipin Rai, Srinivas Chava, Venugopal Gunda, Kishore B. ChallagundlaAbstractThe regulation of the pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by miRNAs and proteins is extensively studied. More recently, the NF-κB signaling was also reported to be regulated by several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that constitute the major portion of the noncoding component of the human genome. The common NF-κB associated lncRNAs include NKILA, H...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Reviews on Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive BiologyAuthor(s): Lorraine Carroll, Louise Gallagher, Valerie SmithAbstractMaternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM) is an important clinical marker to identify women at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Preventing and reducing stillbirths can only be achieved through better detection and management of women with RFM, however the characteristics of women who present with RFM in pregnancy vary. A systematic review was conducted to explore the risk factors associated with reduced fetal...
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionsFindings from observational studies support current dietary guidelines for the prevention of T2DM. Further dietary intervention studies are needed to confirm whether or not dietary modification following a GDM pregnancy reduces women's risk of developing T2DM.
Source: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: The Lancet Diabetes &EndocrinologyAuthor(s): Eleanor P Thong, Ethel Codner, Joop S E Laven, Helena TeedeSummaryReproductive dysfunction is a common but little studied complication of diabetes. The spectrum of reproductive health problems in diabetes is broad, and encompasses delayed puberty and menarche, menstrual cycle abnormalities, subfertility, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and potentially early menopause. Depending on the age at diagnosis of diabetes, reproductive problems can manifest early on in puberty, emerge later when fertility is desired, or occur duri...
Source: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Alexandra Pouliot, Riham Elmahboubi, Catherine AdamAbstractBackgroundAt one Canadian university hospital, pregnant women have been routinely screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with a 75g OGTT. Diagnostic plasma glucose thresholds were: fasting: ≥5.3mmol/l, 1-hr: ≥10.6mmol/l or 2-hr: ≥9.0mmol/l. In 2015, diagnostic thresholds were reduced to those recommended by the International Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG): fasting ≥ 5.1mmol/l, 1-hr ≥10.0mmol/l or 2-hr ≥8.5mmol/l. However, subseque...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: D'Anna R, Santamaria A, Alibrandi A, Corrado F, DI Benedetto A, Facchinetti F Abstract Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy and is characterized by a carbohydrate intolerance which is diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of GDM in our population is about 12%, but risk factors like a previous GDM, ethnicity, a parent with diabetes mellitus type 2 and maternal overweight may increase its occurrence. Complications of GDM are a pre-term birth (before 37 wk gestation), macrosomia (birth weight ≥4 kg) and gestational hypertension....
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: GDM risk was significantly reduced only in pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations>50 nmol/L. Pregnant women taking 400-600 IU vitamin D/d with mean 25(OH)D concentrations of 50 nmol/L had a lower risk of GDM. PMID: 31625576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Nutr Source Type: research
AbstractAims/hypothesisHypertensive disorders are prevalent among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes, but the prevalence and impact of white coat hypertension are unknown. Measurement of home BP before initiation of antihypertensive treatment is necessary to identify white coat hypertension since international guidelines recommend that white coat hypertension is left untreated. The aim of this study, conducted among women with pre-existing diabetes, was therefore to examine the prevalence of white coat hypertension in early pregnancy, and pregnancy outcome in women with white coat hypertension in early pregnancy.Met...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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