Noninvasive Imaging Could Help Diagnose Rejection in Lung Recipients Noninvasive Imaging Could Help Diagnose Rejection in Lung Recipients

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) could help identify acute cellular rejection (ACR) in lung allografts, a preliminary study suggests.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Radiology Headlines - Category: Radiology Tags: Transplantation News Source Type: news

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Long-term survival after lung transplantation remains limited by the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which affects approximately 50% of lung recipients by 5 years post-transplant.1 Given the lack of a proven therapy once CLAD is diagnosed, risk factor mitigation is a key preventive strategy. The principal risk factor for CLAD is A-grade acute cellular rejection (ACR). A-grade ACR is diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy (TBB), exhibiting perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates that extend into the interstitium with higher grade rejection.
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research
Qiancheng Deng1, Yangyang Luo1,2, Christopher Chang3, Haijing Wu1, Yan Ding4* and Rong Xiao1* 1Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China 2Department of Dermatology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China 3Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States 4Department of Dermatology, Hainan Provincial Dermatology Disease Hospital, Haikou, China Autoimmune diseases are usually complex and multifactorial, characterized by aberrant produc...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Jiayu Liang, Yongquan Tang, Zhihong Liu, Xianding Wang, Liangyou Tang, Zijun Zou, Chuan Zhou, Kan Wu, Fuxun Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yiping LuAbstractAimsIncreasing evidence has shown the diagnostic value of miR-155 in organ transplantation. The dysregulation of miR-155 is reported to be associated with development of acute or chronic complications in solid organ transplant recipients. Here, we summarized related evidence to explore the correlation between the dysregulation of miR-155 and various allograft dysfunction in transplant recipients, and ver...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract The role of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) to mismatched human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in lung allograft rejection has been recognized over the past 20 years. During this time, there has been growing experience and recognition of an important role for non-HLA antibodies in lung allograft rejection. Multiple self-antigens have been identified that elicit autoimmune responses including collagen V, K-α 1 tubulin, angiotensin type 1 receptor, and endothelin type A receptor, but it is likely that other antigens elicit similar responses. The paradigm for the pathogenesis of these autoimmune responses ...
Source: Human Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Hum Immunol Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings identify ALCAM as a novel therapeutic target for preventing corneal allograft rejection in high-risk patient populations. Moreover, given the documented contribution of ALCAM to (lymph)angiogenesis, DC migration, and T cell activation, ALCAM blockade might represent a therapeutic strategy for treating other immune-mediated inflammatory conditions, such as solid organ transplant rejection, allergy or autoimmune diseases. Experimental Procedures Cloning, Expression, and Purification of I/F8-Fc and KSF-Fc For cloning of I/F8-Fc and KSF-Fc the respective scFv sequence was amplified from previousl...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions Lymphatic vessels, like blood vessels, are a highly interactive surface for cells of the immune system, and through the use of chemokines and their receptors can coordinate key interactions. These pathways can control the entry and function of particular immune subsets in a number of pathological conditions. Nonetheless LECs have distinct patterns of chemokine secretion and expression of chemokine receptors that distinguish them from the blood vessel system and mediate distinct roles and responses. The abundance and diversity of the chemokine family point to the likelihood that a plethora of novel chemokine fu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could be use as a potential treatment for PHLF. Introduction Partial hepatectomy is an important treatment for benign and malignant liver diseases. Although the liver can be completely regenerated after partial excision or injury, at least 1/3 of the liver should be retained in most of the patients, and 40–50% should be retained in patients with parenchymal liver disease (Adams et al., 2013; Cieslak et al., 2014). Postoperative complications, such as acute post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) or small liver syndrome, may occur when the scope of excision is to...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung transplantation has become an accepted therapy in infants, children, and adolescents suffering from end-stage lung diseases, an impaired quality of life and reduced life expectancy. The aim of this review is to highlight specific aspects of pediatric lung transplantation and to give an update on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, over 100 lung transplant procedures are performed in children annually worldwide. Long-term success is limited by availability of donor organs and waitlist mortality pretransplant, and an increased infection risk because of immunosuppression...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Organ Transplant Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Rare variants in the telomere-related genes TERT, RTEL1, or PARN are associated with poor post-transplant outcomes among PF lung transplant recipients. Further research is needed to understand the biological mechanisms by which telomere-related variants increase the risk for death and CLAD. PMID: 30978332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chest - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Chest Source Type: research
In conclusion, the number of donor-specific IL-21 pc is associated with an increased risk of both early and late rejection, giving it the potential to be a new biomarker in kidney transplantation. Introduction Interleukin (IL)-21 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and is produced by several T lymphocytes, including CD4+, T follicular helper (Tfh) and T-helper 17 (Th17) cells (1, 2). Natural killer T cells (NKT) cells and CD8+ T cells can also produce IL-21 (3–5). IL-21 has a diverse effect on a broad range of immune cells. IL-21 drives T and B cell dependent responses. This pleiotropic cytokine is crucial for T ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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