Noninvasive Imaging Could Help Diagnose Rejection in Lung Recipients Noninvasive Imaging Could Help Diagnose Rejection in Lung Recipients

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) could help identify acute cellular rejection (ACR) in lung allografts, a preliminary study suggests.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Radiology Headlines - Category: Radiology Tags: Transplantation News Source Type: news

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Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is the single most important factor limiting long-term survival after lung transplantation (LTx). Azithromycin has been shown to improve CLAD-free and long-term survival, yet the possible impact on early lung allograft function is unclear.
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Original Clinical Science Source Type: research
Abstract Transplant recipients become immunocompromised through the use of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent allograft rejection. These recipients readily experience human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or reactivation. Therefore, CMV represents a life-threatening pathogen in transplant recipients. To demonstrate the serostatus and course of IgG maturation against CMV in transplant patients, we measured the transition of anti-CMV IgG and its affinity (avidity index; AI) as criteria for antibody maturation. Among 31 lung transplant recipients, 26 were infected with CMV before transplantation and maintained anti...
Source: Transplant Immunology - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Transpl Immunol Source Type: research
Abstract Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), which begins with lymphocytic bronchiolitis (LB), is the most serious manifestations of chronic rejection following lung transplantation. We have evaluated the effects of intraperitoneal administration of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist, on LB in mice tracheal transplant model. Tracheal grafts from BALB/c or C57BL/6 were transplanted to C57BL/6 recipients. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8), isograft (IG) and allograft with (AGP) or without (AGN) pioglitazone. Occlusion rate (OR) of transplanted trachea, CD3, Fo...
Source: Transplant Immunology - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Transpl Immunol Source Type: research
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) affects over 50% of lung transplant recipients (LTR) by five years and remains the primary reason for graft failure 1. It has been increasingly recognized that CLAD is a heterogeneous diagnosis with variable prognosis and different phenotypes: bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). Precise diagnosis of CLAD remains difficult: There are no clinically-validated biomarkers, and diagnosis can be subjective, hinging on the correct interpretation of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) coupled with exclusion of clinical confounders.
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: RESEARCH CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is a major cause of post-lung transplant mortality with limited medical treatment options. We assessed the association of montelukast treatment with pulmonary function and outcome in lung transplant recipients with progressive CLAD.
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is great variability in how different organ allografts respond to the same tolerance induction protocol. Well known examples of this phenomenon include the protolerogenic nature of kidney and liver allografts as opposed to the tolerance-resistance of heart and lung allografts. This suggests there are organ-specific factors which differentially drive the immune response following transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The specific cells or cell products that make one organ allograft more likely to be accepted off immunosuppression than another are largely unknown. However, new insi...
Source: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Organ Transplant Source Type: research
ConclusionsCMV seronegative recipients undergoing either BLT or SLT from CMV seropositive donors have the highest risk of long-term mortality which extends beyond the first year. Further studies are needed to determine the causes of higher mortality observed in the CMV seronegative recipients and risks benefits of extension of CMV prophylaxis, particularly in the high-risk group.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions Our data reveal the critical role of IL-17A in mediating CD8+ T effector response that causes airway epithelial injury and lung allograft rejection, and indicate that inhibition of STAT3 signals could drive CD8+ T cells from Tc17 toward Tc1 development.
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Basic Science—General Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In heterotopic tracheal transplantation models, TJ-M2010-5 combined with MR-1 could ameliorate the development of OB. PMID: 30472390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transplant Immunology - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Transpl Immunol Source Type: research
Introduction: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is increasingly utilized in the treatment of hematologic malignant and non-malignant diseases. Therapy-related toxicity and graft versus host disease (GVHD) remain major challenges as they significantly contribute to treatment related morbidity and mortality. Prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHI) interfere with signaling cascades of inflammation and cell death. Their beneficial use in experimental models of ulcerative colitis and lung allograft rejection resulted in the hypothesis, that use of the PHI dimethyl oxalyl glycine (DMOG) reduces GVHD after murine al...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 701. Experimental Transplantation: Basic Biology, Pre-Clinical Models: Poster II Source Type: research
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