Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Does Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Influence Ear Nose Throat Manifestations?

AbstractTo study the change in trend of ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations in patients who were on treatment, before and after availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To find out the prevalence of ENT manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people who were on treatment, in the year of 2004 (before the availability of HAART) and in 2014 (after the availability of HAART).Design A combination of a retrospective and prospective study.Setting Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) Center at Our Hospital.Subjects Patients with HIV infection on ART.Methods Retrospective review of case records of the patients visiting the center in the year 2004 and prospective study of the patients visiting in the year 2014 was conducted. Sample size was calculated as 200 in each group based on 95% confidence and 96% power. Convenience sampling was used in our study. The prevalence of ENT manifestations in HIV patients were found to be 86% in 2004 and 93% in 2014. Among ENT manifestations oropharyngeal manifestations were most common. Lesser the CD4 count more was the prevalence of disorders in oropharynx. Our study showed a high prevalence of ENT manifestations in HIV patients who were on treatment, irrespective of the gap of 10  years and introduction of HAART therapy. Most common ENT manifestation both in 2004 and 2014 was oropharyngeal candidiasis. Lesser the CD4 count more was the prevalence of disorders in oropharynx.
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Agas A, Schuetz H, Mishra V, Szlachetka AM, Haorah J Abstract Although the combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) can remarkably control human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication, it fails to cure HIV/AIDS disease. It is attributed to the incapability of cART to eliminate persistent HIV-1 contained in latent reservoirs in the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissue organs. Thus, withdrawal of cART causes rebound viral replication and resurgent of HIV/AIDS. The lack of success on non-ART approaches for elimination of HIV-1 include the targeted molecules not reaching t...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There may be possible association among use of HAART, oxidative stress and mitochondrial functions in HIV patients. We evaluated the mitochondrial and oxidative impacts of short and long-term administration of HAART on HIV patients attending the Enugu State University Teaching (ESUT) Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, Nigeria following short and long-term therapy. METHODS: 96 patients categorized into four groups of 24 individuals were recruited for the study. Group 1 comprised age-matched, apparently healthy, sero-negative individuals (the No HIV group); group 2 consisted of HIV se...
Source: Current Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are typical in non-responders, exhausted T-cells may be associated with HIV-1 progression. PMID: 31471343 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Ann Clin Lab Sci Source Type: research
The immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-infected individuals substantially affects patients ’ prognosis. However, the dynamic characteristics and pre...
Source: BMC Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract CONTEXT.—: With increasing use and efficacy of antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, deaths from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining conditions have decreased. OBJECTIVE.—: To examine trends in the cause of death of HIV-infected patients who underwent autopsy at a major New York City hospital from 1984 to 2016, a period including the major epochs of the AIDS epidemic. DESIGN.—: Retrospective review of autopsy records and charts with modeling of trends by logistic regression using polynomial models. RESULTS.—: We ident...
Source: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Arch Pathol Lab Med Source Type: research
The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistanc...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
We describe a case of a 33 years old gentleman who was clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis at initial presentation in view of a one-week history of fever, right lower quadrant abdominal pain- and guarding at right iliac fossa. He had thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia on presentation. Mesenteric lymphadenitis and small bowel lesion were found intraoperatively, which was respectively biopsied and resected. Histopathological result confirms disseminated histoplasmosis. Retroviral screen was positive. He was treated with amphotericin B for one week, subsequently switched to oral itraconazole, followed by initiation of hi...
Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
We present a case of a 48-year-old male who developed patchy hair loss on the scalp and limbs clinically consistent with alopecia areata, two months following re-commencement of HAART.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The prevalence of psychological distress was low as compared to other studies conducted in Ethiopia. This may affect the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Being female, illiteracy, alcohol use, and having lower CD4 count and perceived stigma increased the odds of psychological distress. Thus, concerned stakeholders should collaborate on the integration of HIV/AIDs treatment and mental health services. PMID: 31428472 [PubMed]
Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research
More News: ENT & OMF | Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Hospitals | India Health | Study