Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Does Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Influence Ear Nose Throat Manifestations?

AbstractTo study the change in trend of ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations in patients who were on treatment, before and after availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To find out the prevalence of ENT manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people who were on treatment, in the year of 2004 (before the availability of HAART) and in 2014 (after the availability of HAART).Design A combination of a retrospective and prospective study.Setting Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) Center at Our Hospital.Subjects Patients with HIV infection on ART.Methods Retrospective review of case records of the patients visiting the center in the year 2004 and prospective study of the patients visiting in the year 2014 was conducted. Sample size was calculated as 200 in each group based on 95% confidence and 96% power. Convenience sampling was used in our study. The prevalence of ENT manifestations in HIV patients were found to be 86% in 2004 and 93% in 2014. Among ENT manifestations oropharyngeal manifestations were most common. Lesser the CD4 count more was the prevalence of disorders in oropharynx. Our study showed a high prevalence of ENT manifestations in HIV patients who were on treatment, irrespective of the gap of 10  years and introduction of HAART therapy. Most common ENT manifestation both in 2004 and 2014 was oropharyngeal candidiasis. Lesser the CD4 count more was the prevalence of disorders in oropharynx.
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

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Authors: Agas A, Schuetz H, Mishra V, Szlachetka AM, Haorah J Abstract Although the combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) can remarkably control human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication, it fails to cure HIV/AIDS disease. It is attributed to the incapability of cART to eliminate persistent HIV-1 contained in latent reservoirs in the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissue organs. Thus, withdrawal of cART causes rebound viral replication and resurgent of HIV/AIDS. The lack of success on non-ART approaches for elimination of HIV-1 include the targeted molecules not reaching t...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research
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Source: Current Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
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Source: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Ann Clin Lab Sci Source Type: research
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Source: BMC Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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Source: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Arch Pathol Lab Med Source Type: research
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Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Malaysian Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Malays J Pathol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
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Source: AIDS Research and Treatment - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: AIDS Res Treat Source Type: research
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