Neural Mechanisms of Swallowing Dysfunction and Apraxia of Speech in Acute Stroke

AbstractSpeech and swallowing utilize overlapping anatomy and are thus inherently related processes. We sought to identify common neural mechanisms between risk of swallowing dysfunction and apraxia of speech (AOS). This was a retrospective analysis using data from a prospectively collected cohort. Left hemisphere stroke patients (68 subjects) tested with the Apraxia Battery for Adults II, a swallow screen, and MRI were included in the study. Main outcome measure was the presence of AOS or aspiration risk after stroke. We identified a significant association between AOS measures and increased aspiration risk (defined by failed swallow screen;p = 0.04; OR 5.2). Lesions in pars opercularis of Broca’s area (BA 44) were associated with both AOS (p = 0.044; OR 9.7) and increased aspiration risk (p = 0.04; OR 5) but deficits rarely co-occurred in the same cases. Lesions in left premotor cortex (BA 6) were not significantly associated with increased aspiration risk (p = 0.06; OR 3.3) but were significantly associated with AOS (p = 0.008; OR 7). Impaired swallowing function was also associated with lesions in Wernicke’s area (BA 22;p = 0.05; OR 3.5) and pars triangularis (BA 45;p = 0.02; OR 6.8). AOS and risk of aspiration are associated in patients with acute left hemisphere stroke. Acute infarct in the pars opercularis of Broca’s area is associated with both deficits, though they rarely co-occur...
Source: Dysphagia - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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The objective of our study was to investigate whether NIHSS is a reliable instrument of clinical monitoring and correlates with mortality and functional outcome in ICH.MethodsOne hundred fifty-six consecutive subjects with primary ICH were included. We evaluated NIHSS at admission. The functional state after a 30-day and a 3-month-long follow-up was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Spearman ’s rank correlation coefficient analysis was used for statistics. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, global accuracy, and ROC curve were computed using the median score 7 as...
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Patients' reports of everyday executive functioning were more strongly associated with driving behaviour than were informants' reports. Future studies are warranted to explore how informant and patient reports can contribute to distinguishing safe from unsafe drivers among patient groups with impaired awareness of deficits. PMID: 30003269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Chronic stroke patients with impaired hand function were positive about the feasibility of the first prototype of the HandinMind system. How-ever, performance and ease of use of the system should be improved further in future development phases. PMID: 30003268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Although depression explains a high degree of fatigue after an acquired brain injury, mental fatigue after brain injury should be viewed as a condition partly separate from depression. Future extensive comparative studies are required, preferably including neuropsychological measures. PMID: 30003267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research
We examined differences in dementia risk between low-educated non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and African Americans, and the impact of lifetime risk factors using data from the nationally representative Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (N = 819). RESULTS: As indicated by Cox regression modeling, dementia risk of low-educated individuals was not significantly different between ethnic groups but was related to having an APOE e4 allele (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89), depression (HR 1.67), stroke (HR 1.60), and smoking (HR 1.32). Further, even in people with low education, every additional year of education de...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research
Older adults are more at risk for heat-related illnesses. ... Know the signs of, and how to prevent, heat stroke, dehydration and heat exhaustion.
Source: AARP.org News - Category: American Health Source Type: news
We presently forget 98% of everything we experience. That will go away in favor of perfect, controllable, configurable memory. Skills and knowledge will become commodities that can be purchased and installed. We will be able to feel exactly as we wish to feel at any given time. How we perceive the world will be mutable and subject to choice. How we think, the very fundamental basis of the mind, will also be mutable and subject to choice. We will merge with our machines, as Kurzweil puts it. The boundary between mind and computing device, between the individual and his or her tools, will blur. Over the course of the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): A. Deng, S. Pattanaik, A. Bhattacharya, J. Yin, L. Ross, C. Liu, J. ZhangAbstractBackgroundThere is a paucity of studies examining the beneficial effects of fish consumption on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among adults with diabetes, who experience a substantially high risk of CVDs.Methods and resultsWe analyzed the data of 1136 adults with diabetes mellitus aged 18 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, and were followed up through December ...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
The objective of this work is to propose a method for computing these scores in order to make them invariant to temporal compensations, especially to stance phase extension.
Source: Gait and Posture - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Short communication Source Type: research
Family caregivers provide the foundation for long-term home care of stroke survivors. The overwhelming stress associated with caregiving hinders the ability of family caregivers to utilise their internal and external resources to cope with this situation, thereby placing their own health at risk. We conducted a randomised controlled trial of a strength-oriented psychoeducational programme on conventional stroke rehabilitation for family caregivers.
Source: International Journal of Nursing Studies - Category: Nursing Authors: Source Type: research
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