Reflections on Clinical and Statistical Use of the Penetration-Aspiration Scale
AbstractThe 8-point Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) was introduced to the field of dysphagia in 1996 and has become the standard method used by both clinicians and researchers to describe and measure the severity of airway invasion during swallowing. In this article, we review the properties of the scale and explore what has been learned over 20 years of use regarding the construct validity, ordinality, intervality, score distribution, and sensitivity of the PAS to change. We propose that a categorical revision of the PAS into four levels of increasing physiological severity would be appropriate. The article concludes with a discussion of common errors made in the statistical analysis of the PAS, proposing that frequency distributions and ordinal logistic regression approaches are most appropriate given the properties of the scale. A hypothetical dataset is included to illustrate both the problems and strengths of different statisti cal approaches.
We would like to thank Drs. Lapostolle, Lecomte, Arnaudet, Javaudin, Pes, and Petrovic for their thoughtful comments regarding our paper “Ultrasound use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with delays in chest compressions.” They raise several important points regarding the paper that warrant clarification.
I read with interest the article by Goto et al.  assessing whether bystander compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is equivalent to conventional CPR in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The study reports that conventional CPR was associated with improved outcomes compared to compression-only CPR in the majority of the subgroups following pediatric (1 –17 years old) OHCA. However, I have some concerns about the conclusion of this article.
Authors: Korkmaz A, Sahin D, Guray U Abstract AIM: Recently fragmented QRS (fQRS) on ECG has been introduced as a predictor of myocardial scarring and myocardial ischemia in coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fQRS and fractional flow reserve (FFR) results in patients with the intermediate degree of coronary artery stenosis. METHODS: A total of 301 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and FFR measurement for intermediate coronary artery stenosis were included in the study. The study patients were divided into two ...
CONCLUSION: The expression of Bmi-1 is associated with the progression and invasion of esophageal cancer. PMID: 29240461 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]