Attentional refreshing of information in working memory: Increased immediate accessibility of just-refreshed representations
We report five experiments in which we examined the local effects of refreshing. Participants were either instructed to refresh (to think of) the different memory items at an imposed pace after list presentation, so that we had experimental control over which item was being reactivated in the focus of attention at different points in time during retention, or were free to spontaneously use refreshing (or not). We present evidence for (1) the presumed local effect of refreshing that is heightened accessibility of the just-refreshed item, (2) the use of speeded responses to WM probes as a direct, independent index of the occurrence of refreshing, and (3) spontaneous occurrence of refreshing of to-be-remembered information during slow list presentation and during an empty delay following list presentation.
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