Montmorillonite-lipid hybrid carriers for ionizable and neutral poorly water-soluble drugs: Formulation, characterization and in vitro lipolysis studies
Publication date: 30 June 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 526, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Tahnee J. Dening, Shasha Rao, Nicky Thomas, Clive A. Prestidge Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) are a popular strategy for enhancing the gastrointestinal solubilization and absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. In light of this, montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) particles, composed of medium-chain triglycerides, lecithin and montmorillonite clay platelets, have been developed as a novel solid-state LBF. Owing to the unique charge properties of montmorillonite, whereby the clay platelet surfaces carry a permanent negative charge and the platelet edges carry a pH-dependent charge, three model poorly water-soluble drugs with different charge properties; blonanserin (weak base, pKa 7.7), ibuprofen (weak acid, pKa 4.5) and fenofibrate (neutral), were formulated as MLH particles and their performance during biorelevant in vitro lipolysis at pH 7.5 was investigated. For blonanserin, drug solubilization during in vitro lipolysis was significantly reduced 3.4-fold and 3.2-fold for MLH particles in comparison to a control lipid solution and silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) particles, respectively. It was hypothesized that strong electrostatic interactions between the anionic montmorillonite platelet surfaces and cationic blonanserin molecules were responsible for the inferior performance of MLH particles. In contrast, no significant influence on drug solubilization was ob...
Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Phonetics, Volume 71Author(s): Qandeel HussainAbstractThe stop consonants of Indo-Iranian languages are categorized into two to maximum five laryngeal categories. The present study investigates whether Voice Onset Time (VOT) reliably differentiates the word-initial stop laryngeal categories and how it covaries with different places of articulation in ten languages (two Iranian: Pashto and Wakhi; seven Indo-Aryan: Dawoodi, Punjabi, Shina, Jangli, Urdu, Sindhi, and Siraiki; and one Isolate: Burushaski). The results indicated that there was a clear VOT distinction between the ...
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