The list strength effect in cued recall
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 95 Author(s): Jack H. Wilson, Amy H. Criss Episodic memory is the process by which information about experienced events is encoded and retrieved. Successful retrieval of episodic memories is dependent on the way in which memory is tested and as a result many effects and theories of episodic memory are task dependent. One such finding is the list strength effect. In free recall, a positive list strength effect is observed; memory for a given item is harmed by the presence of other strongly encoded items and helped by the presence of other weakly encoded items. In recognition, a null list strength is observed; memory for a given item is unaffected by the strength of other items. Such differential empirical findings are crucial to understanding memory, but it is undesirable to have multiple task-specific theories rather than a unified theory of memory. Here we use cued recall, a task that shares properties of both free recall and recognition, to move toward that goal. In a series of 5 experiments, we observed a null list strength effect in cued recall. We suggest that a successful theory would entail the use of both item and context information during retrieval, consistent with the approach of the Search of Associative Memory model.
Edgardo Sepulveda, Andrei N. Lupas
Cory Schwartz, Keith Frogue, Joshua Misa, Ian Wheeldon
Carole Pfister, St éphane Bourque, Odile Chatagnier, Annick Chiltz, Jérôme Fromentin, Diederik Van Tuinen, Daniel Wipf, Nathalie Leborgne-Castel
Xue-Ying Tian, Cheng-Sheng Zhang
Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Hany S. Zinad, Inas Natasya, Andreas Werner
Majdiah Othman, Arbakariya B. Ariff, Leonardo Rios-Solis, Murni Halim
ConclusionsA MEL‐A2 with novel composition and surface activities was efficiently produced from a novel MEL producer. This is the first report on production of MEL‐A2 as the major product and from soybean oil. The biosurfactant has potential application as a wetting agent and oil‐in‐water emulsifier. Significance and Impact of the StudyDiscovery of novel structures and novel strains is valuable for further commercial development and application of MELs. Sporisorium sp. aff. sorghi SAM20 can be considered as a potential candidate for commercial production of biosurfactants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The phosphodiesterase VieA regulates gene expression by modifying the intracellular cyclic diguanylate pool. This article reveals the differential regulation of VieA in Vibrio cholerae O1 biotypes. Expression of VieA is repressed by the nucleoid‐associated protein H‐NS and the LysR‐type regulator LeuO in classical biotype V. cholerae, and by H‐NS and the quorum sensing regulator HapR in the El Tor biotype.
We describe approaches for back‐calculating model parameter estimates and their standard errors from available summary statistics with various techniques, including approximate Bayesian computation. We propose to use a quadratic approximation to the log‐likelihood for each historical trial based on 2 independent terms for the log mean rate and the log of the dispersion parameter. A Bayesian hierarchical meta‐analysis model then provides the posterior predictive distribution for these parameters. Simulations show this approach with back‐calculated parameter estimates results in very similar inference as using parame...
More News: Speech-Language Pathology