TLR Function in Murine CD4+ T Lymphocytes and Their Role in Inflammation
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling represents an evolutionary-conserved mechanism allowing for the rapid detection of broad molecular patterns that are common to different groups of pathogens. TLRs are traditionally associated with cells of the innate immune response where ligation of a TLR alone can lead to cellular activation and the initialization of an immune response. Cells of adaptive immunity, namely different classes of T and B lymphocytes, are also known to express a variety of TLRs. Conversely, the functional and signaling outcomes of TLRs are decidedly different in cells of the adaptive immune response. T lymphocytes generally have substantially lower TLR expression compared to innate cells, suggesting that TLRs function in a highly specialized capacity in this cell type. Certain TLRs act in a co-stimulatory capacity on T cells, amplifying activation only in the presence of simultaneous T-cell receptor engagement. However, the full array of TLR signaling events and outcomes in T lymphocytes remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a few methods for investigating the general function of TLRs on T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo with an emphasis on the study of CD4+ T cells. Most of these procedures can be adapted for the study of TLR signaling on other classes of lymphocytes as well.
Source: Springer protocols feed by Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: news
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