In Solidarity and Commitment to Black Lives Matter.
Authors: YJBM Editorial Board PMID: 33005111 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: What Healthcare Professionals and Parents Know About How to Prevent it in Portugal.
Conclusion: Healthcare professionals are not as well informed about SIDS as they should be and have little confidence in discussing SIDS-related issues. Therefore, this study highlights the paramount importance of ensuring that their training on this topic is up-to-date, especially due to their crucial role of (partial) gatekeepers of this information for parents, and that providing them with appropriate support could likely contribute to a substantial decrease in the number of SIDS cases. PMID: 33005112 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Amniotic Fluid May Cause Hyperemesis Gravidarum.
Authors: Aydın M, Tolunay HE, Varlı EN, Boza B, Şahin Ö, Özer S, Dülger AC Abstract Objectives: Limited data are available from recent trials involving pregnant women to guide Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis. There are no data about the presence of H. pylori in the amniotic fluid as well. Furthermore, the relation between amniotic fluid H. pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) has not been characterized yet. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted after obtaining approval from the Ethics Committee. Pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis were enrolled in the study. Th...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis in a Patient with Primary Well-differentiated Teratoma and Metastatic Poorly Differentiated Embryonal Carcinoma.
We report a 41-year-old male that presented to the emergency department with episodic alteration of consciousness and memory disturbances. Negative neurologic evaluation and imaging led to concern for a paraneoplastic process from a distant malignancy. CT imaging revealed an enlarged, necrotic para-aortic lymph node and subsequent ultrasound demonstrated a right-sided testicular mass. Right radical orchiectomy was performed. Microscopically, the mass consisted of mixed respiratory epithelium, gastrointestinal glands, and squamous epithelium with keratinization consistent with a post-pubertal testicular teratoma with associ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a Cause of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases (AITD) During Pregnancy?
Authors: Halczuk KM, Boguszewska K, Urbaniak SK, Szewczuk M, Karwowski BT Abstract The thyroid is not necessary to sustain life. However, thyroid hormones (TH) strongly affect the human body. Functioning of the thyroid gland affects the reproductive capabilities of women and men, as well as fertilization and maintaining a pregnancy. For the synthesis of TH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is necessary. From the chemical point of view, TH is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) and serves as an oxidative stress (OS) promoter. H2O2 concentration in the thyroid gland is much higher than in other tissues. Therefore, the thyroid is...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Experiences with Achieving Pregnancy and Giving Birth Among Transgender Men: A Narrative Literature Review.
This article demonstrates the importance of better understanding transgender men's reproductive health care needs in order to improve the quality of pregnancy-related health care delivery to this population. Our findings also provide insight for researchers, health care providers, and educators seeking to create and enhance gender-affirming medical education and training. PMID: 33005116 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gender Identity.
Authors: Liu M, Murthi S, Poretsky L Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy affecting 46XX individuals of reproductive age. Cardinal features of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, irregular periods, and insulin resistance. Pathogenesis is unclear but likely involves hypothalamic, pituitary, or ovarian abnormalities leading to increased androgen production. In addition, alternative insulin signaling pathways are activated to preserve ovarian sensitivity to insulin while other "classical" tissues (e.g. liver, adipose, muscle) are insulin resistant. Treatment targets specific sympto...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Estradiol Therapy in the Perioperative Period: Implications for Transgender People Undergoing Feminizing Hormone Therapy.
Authors: Nolan BJ, Cheung AS Abstract Venous thromboembolism is a documented risk of some estradiol formulations, but evidence evaluating the perioperative risk of continuation of estradiol therapy is limited. This narrative review summarizes literature related to the perioperative venous thromboembolic risk of estradiol, with a focus on feminizing genitoplasty for trans people undergoing feminizing hormone therapy. Given the dearth of evidence underlying gender-affirming hormone therapy regimens, much of the risk is based on the menopausal hormone therapy literature. However, the doses used for trans people underg...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1): Viral Latency, the Reservoir, and the Cure.
Authors: Ventura JD Abstract An estimated 37 million people globally suffer from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection with 1.7 million newly acquired infections occurring on average each year. Although crucial advances in combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the last two decades have transformed an HIV-1 diagnosis into a tolerable and controlled condition, enabling over 20 million people living with HIV-1 to enjoy healthy and productive lives, no cure or vaccine yet exists. Developing a successful cure strategy will require a firm understanding of how viral latency is established and how a persist...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Impact of Ovarian Aging in Reproduction: From Telomeres and Mice Models to Ovarian Rejuvenation.
Authors: Polonio AM, Chico-Sordo L, Córdova-Oriz I, Medrano M, García-Velasco JA, Varela E Abstract The trend in our society to delay procreation increases the difficulty to conceive spontaneously. Thus, there is a growing need to use assisted reproduction technologies (ART) to form a family. With advanced maternal age, ovaries not only produce a lower number of oocytes after ovarian stimulation but also a lower quality-mainly aneuploidies-requiring further complex analysis to avoid complications during implantation and pregnancy. Although there are different options to have a child at advanced matern...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Endometriosis and Reproduction: What We Have Learned.
Authors: Garcia-Fernandez J, García-Velasco JA Abstract Endometriosis, despite only affecting 10-15% of women of fertile age, is still an enigmatic disease. Recent developments in assisted reproductive technology have contributed to a better understanding of where and how endometriosis could compromise fertility. In this mini-review we will show how the main point of damage in endometriosis is quantitative impairment of the ovaries, if the "less is more" mantra should be applied when considering ovarian surgery, and when fertility preservation prior to ovarian surgery could be considered. Endometri...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

A Case for Girl-child Education to Prevent and Curb the Impact of Emerging Infectious Diseases Epidemics.
Authors: Frimpong S, Paintsil E Abstract Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Ethical Implications of Donor Type for Uterus Transplantation: Why We Should Remain Wary of Using Living Donors.
Authors: Bruno B, Arora KS Abstract Over the last few years, research teams have made significant advancements in treating absolute uterine factor infertility through uterus transplantation, culminating in the birth of the first US baby born from a uterus transplant in November 2017. However, studies have differed on the choice of either deceased or living donors, with some centers even exploring both methods. As researchers continue to investigate the medical feasibility of these approaches, it is also important for the medical community to consider how deceased and living uterus donation differ ethically. We argu...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Ethical Aspects of Mental Health Care for Lesbian, Gay, Bi-, Pan-, Asexual, and Transgender People: A Case-based Approach.
Authors: Nieder TO, Güldenring A, Woellert K, Briken P, Mahler L, Mundle G Abstract The lives of lesbian, gay, bi-, pan-, asexual, and transgender (LGBTA+/LGBT) people are not considered to be standard in society, unlike those of heterosexual cisgender people. This can lead to prejudices against LGBT people and may negatively influence their access to high-quality health care. Medical and mental health care have been characterized by attitudes (psycho-)pathologizing LGBT lives and therefore supported the stigmatization of LGBT people in the service of heteronormativity. Mental health professionals (MHPs) large...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Male Contraception.
Authors: Abbe CR, Page ST, Thirumalai A Abstract Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem. Despite a variety of female contraceptive options, male contraceptive options are limited to the condom and vasectomy. Condoms have high failure rates and surgical vasectomy is not reliably reversible. There is a global need and desire for novel male contraceptive methods. Hormonal methods have progressed the furthest in clinical development and androgen plus progestin formulations hold promise as a marketable, reversible male contraceptive over the next decade. Investigators have tested androgen plus progestin ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Safeguarding the Health and Rights of Sex Workers: An Interview with Beatrice Codianni, New Haven Community Activist and Founder of Sex Workers and Allies Network.
Authors: Ng W PMID: 33005126 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Physician and Influencer "Mama Doctor Jones": An Interview with Dr. Danielle Jones, MD.
Physician and Influencer "Mama Doctor Jones": An Interview with Dr. Danielle Jones, MD. Yale J Biol Med. 2020 Sep;93(4):621-624 Authors: Willebrand K PMID: 33005127 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Where Have All the "AIDS Babies" Gone? A Historical Memoir of the Pediatric AIDS Epidemic in New Haven and its Eventual Eradication.
Where Have All the "AIDS Babies" Gone? A Historical Memoir of the Pediatric AIDS Epidemic in New Haven and its Eventual Eradication. Yale J Biol Med. 2020 Sep;93(4):625-635 Authors: Andiman WA Abstract S.L. was one of our first HIV-positive babies. He was born at Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH) in 1982. His mother was a sex worker who also injected drugs. He died at 3½ years following multiple episodes of opportunistic infection and metastatic lymphoma. In the years between 1986 and 1990, 163 HIV-positive mothers gave birth at YNHH. The mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate was 20 pe...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - October 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Reviewing the Reviewer: Medical Student Course Feedback as a Marker of Professional Identity Formation.
Authors: Brennan-Wydra E, Encandela JA, Shenson D Abstract Professional identity formation refers to the process by which medical trainees develop and internalize their new roles. In this work, we analyze medical student evaluations of teaching (SETs) as a window into students' developing identities as physicians. Our data consisted of 389 open-ended comments written anonymously by first-year (pre-clerkship) students in mid- and end-of-semester evaluations of small group sessions (mandatory attendance) during one full academic year at Yale School of Medicine. Using a combination of existing frameworks on profession...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Making Sense of Trainee Performance: Entrustment Decision-Making in Internal Medicine Program Directors.
Conclusions: PDs serve as a central processor by which assessment data on trainees is filtered, weighted, and compared an expected trajectory, all to gain understanding of trainee performance. Assessment networks are crucial to understanding trainee competence. While expected trajectory is an important tool to determine how trainees are progressing, its continued use may inject bias into the assessment process and slow transition to true competency-based assessment. PMID: 32874145 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Feasibility of Incorporating a Flipped Classroom Model in an Anesthesia Residency Curriculum-Pilot Study.
Conclusions: Residency programs need to adopt evidence-based solutions to problems arising in medical education. We present our experiences in finding a solution to make didactic sessions more engaging. Our initial assessment shows that it is feasible to introduce the FC model into an existing curriculum in an anesthesia residency program and both residents and faculty felt that the format enhanced learning and interaction in class. PMID: 32874146 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of a Direct Teaching Observation Tool for Residents.
Authors: Dahlquist HC, Hafler JP, Hersh DC Abstract It is important to empower physicians to teach effectively so they are prepared to provide high quality education to medical trainees. The residency experience is recognized as an opportunity to help future faculty enhance their teaching skills, but there are few formalized tools available to facilitate this. We piloted a new observation tool for faculty to use when observing residents teach. The goal of our study was to determine if our observation tool is a useful and well accepted mode to facilitate feedback from faculty to residents about their teaching. A sma...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Resource Utilization in Implementation of a Point of Care Ultrasound Curriculum for Resident Training in Anesthesiology.
Conclusion: Implementing a robust, sustainable POCUS curriculum requires a significant investment of time and money. Simulators and e-learning can allow efficiency in resource allocation and control cost in orienting new students to ultrasound. Having residents go through the simulator decreased the time that faculty would otherwise have spent going over basics with the students while allowing students to master these skills at their own pace. Advances in ultrasound technology have created newer, more affordable machines which can decrease cost considerably. It would serve departments well to consider alternatives and plan...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Challenges and Lessons Learned After Hurricane Maria: Learning Points for the Medical Student Community.
The objective of this article is to portray the situations that medical students confronted and offer suggestions on how medical students and academic institutions can prepare for future natural disasters. PMID: 32874149 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Modernizing Medical Education through Leadership Development.
Authors: Bai H Abstract The Flexner Report of 1910 transformed medical education and ushered in over a century of major medical advances and improvements in the practice of medicine. The requirements set forth by the report grounded modern medicine in the biomedical sciences and equipped physicians with the competencies to become excellent clinicians, researchers, and educators. However, rapid changes in the complexity and scale of the American health care system present today's physicians with a set of unique challenges. The adoption of new health care technologies, major policy changes to curb the cost of health ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Yale System at 100 Years.
Authors: Wang DC Abstract In this review of 100 years of the Yale System of Medical Education, a portrait emerges of what it is and what it has made possible. Founded in the 1920s under the leadership of Dean Milton C. Winternitz, the Yale System abandoned most educational mainstays including: grades, class rankings, roll call, daily assignments, course exams, and class year affiliations. Instead, a thesis and two broad qualifying examinations were required. Revised over decades, the essential elements endure. The Yale System has cultivated generations of humane physicians, academics, and leaders through the rise o...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Use of Mobile Devices to Enhance Engagement and Integration with Curricular Content.
Authors: Leydon GB, Schwartz ML Abstract This perspective describes the processes, pilot designs, and deployment strategies that the Yale School of Medicine (YSM) employed when integrating iPads into the undergraduate pre-clinical medical curriculum. We also explore the multiplier effect this technology inspired in expanding the program into our clerkship curriculum with the iPad Mini and how integrating mobile technology into our existing E-systems afforded us opportunities to enter the e-book and augmented reality technology spaces. Our hope is that this perspective provides a framework that may guide other insti...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Five Medical Education Podcasts You Need to Know.
Authors: Lomayesva NL, Martin AS, Dowley PA, Davies NW, Olyha SJ, Wijesekera TP Abstract Podcasts have become increasingly popular tools for medical education in recent years. Only requiring a computer or smart phone, podcasts are readily accessible to healthcare professionals, helping to disseminate medical information quickly and creating a wide community of listeners. With numerous medical podcasts available and limited spare time, it can be challenging for a healthcare professional to identify the most high-yield podcast. This perspectives piece describes the role of podcasts in medical education before sharing...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Kratom and Pain Tolerance: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study.
Conclusions: Kratom decoction demonstrated a substantial and statistically significant increase in pain tolerance. Further rigorous research on kratom pain-relieving properties and a safety profile is needed. PMID: 32607084 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Role of Endophytic/Epiphytic Bacterial Constituents in the Immunostimulatory Activity of the Botanical, Astragalus membranaceus.
Authors: Koehler H, Puchalski K, Ruiz G, Jacobs B, Langland J Abstract Astragalus membranaceus is a staple of Traditional Chinese Medicine being one of the oldest medicinal herbs listed in the material medica of Chinese herbal medicine. Chinese herbalists have used Astragalus to help the human body fight a variety of diseases. Modern herbalists utilize Astragalus primarily as an immunostimulant to prevent common infection and aid in the recovery following infection. Historically, the biological activities associated with Astragalus have been accounted for, at least in part, to several constituents present in the bo...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Cannabis Flower for Immediate Relief from Symptoms of Depression.
Authors: Li X, Diviant JP, Stith SS, Brockelman F, Keeling K, Hall B, Vigil JM Abstract Objective: Scientific research on how consumption of whole, natural Cannabis flower affects low mood and behavioral motivations more generally is largely nonexistent, and few studies to date have measured how common and commercially available Cannabis flower used in vivo may affect the experience of "depression" in real-time. Methods: We observed 1,819 people who completed 5,876 cannabis self-administration sessions using the ReleafApp™ between 06/07/2016 and 07/08/2019, with the goal of measuring real-time effec...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Chemical Evaluation of the Effects of Storage Conditions on the Botanical Goldenseal using Marker-based and Metabolomics Approaches.
Authors: Khin M, Cech NB, Kellogg JJ, Caesar LK Abstract Hydrastis canadensis, commonly known as goldenseal, is a botanical native to the southeastern United States that has been used for the treatment of infection. The activity of goldenseal is often attributed to the presence of alkaloids (cyclic, nitrogen-containing compounds) present within its roots. Chemical components of botanical supplements like goldenseal may face degradation if not stored properly. The purpose of the research was to analyze the stability of known and unknown metabolites of H. canadensis during exposure to different storage conditions usi...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Resolution of Recurrent Oro-facial Herpes Simplex Using a Topical Botanical Gel: A Case Report.
Authors: Nelson EO, Ruiz GG, Kozin AF, Turner TC, Langland EV, Langland JO Abstract Oral herpes labialis, more commonly known as cold sores, are a common encountered viral infection involving herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Although relatively benign, these lesions can be both unsightly and clinically difficult to manage. Prescription standards of care and over-the-counter agents, such as docosonal, have often shown only limited efficacy in both decreasing lesional pain and reducing duration of lesional symptomology and are not without potential side effects. Despite some success with acute remediation, recurrent e...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Potential for Kratom as an Antidepressant and Antipsychotic.
Authors: Johnson LE, Balyan L, Magdalany A, Saeed F, Salinas R, Wallace S, Veltri CA, Swogger MT, Walsh Z, Grundmann O Abstract Mitragyna speciosa, otherwise known as kratom, is a plant in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Southeast Asia and Thailand whose leaves have been shown to cause opioid-like and stimulant responses upon ingestion. The major pharmacologically active compounds present in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG), are both indole alkaloids and are responsible for its opioid-like activity. While kratom is most commonly known for its affinity for mu-opioid receptors, research ha...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Essential Oils and Health.
Authors: Ramsey JT, Shropshire BC, Nagy TR, Chambers KD, Li Y, Korach KS Abstract Essential oils (EOs) have risen in popularity over the past decade. These oils function in society as holistic integrative modalities to traditional medicinal treatments, where many Americans substitute EOs in place of other prescribed medications. EOs are found in a multitude of products including food flavoring, soaps, lotions, shampoos, hair styling products, cologne, laundry detergents, and even insect repellents. EOs are complex substances comprised of hundreds of components that can vary greatly in their composition depending up...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Antidiabetic Potential of Syzygium sp.: An Overview.
Authors: Zulcafli AS, Lim C, Ling AP, Chye S, Koh R Abstract Diabetes, characterized by hyperglycemia, is one of the most significant metabolic diseases, reaching alarming pandemic proportions. It can be due to the defects in insulin action, or secretion, or both. The global prevalence of diabetes is estimated at 425 million people in 2017, and expected to rise to 629 million by 2045 due to an increasing trend of unhealthy lifestyles, physical inactivity, and obesity. Several treatment options are available to diabetics, however, some of the antidiabetic drugs result in adverse side effects such as hypoglycemia. He...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

A Critical Review to Identify the Domains Used to Measure the Effect and Outcome of Adaptogenic Herbal Medicines.
Conclusions: There was a great heterogeneity in data making it difficult to draw conclusions as to the most effective measurement tools to capture the holistic activity in humans. Cognitive measures hold promise as a reliable measurement tool when used in conjunction with other relevant tools. Further investigation is necessary to determine the most appropriate and diverse tools to measure the complex multi-target action of adaptogens. PMID: 32607092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Herbal Medicines in Glaucoma Treatment.
Authors: Ige M, Liu J Abstract Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Optimizing treatment is important to protecting vision. The current standard of therapy for glaucoma involves lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) through medical, laser, and/or surgical therapy. Nevertheless, there are an increasing number of glaucoma patients that use alternative medicines to treat their glaucoma or supplement their traditional glaucoma management. Ginkgo biloba, bilberry, and medical marijuana are amongst the most commonly used medicinal plants by glaucoma patients. We reviewed the literature to ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Aristolochia Herbs and Iatrogenic Disease: The Case of Portland's Powders.
Authors: Tomlinson T, Fernandes A, Grollman AP Abstract Aristolochia herbals have a 2500-year history of medicinal use. We focused this article on Portland's Powders, an 18th-century British gout medicine containing Aristolochia herbs. The powders constitute an 18th-century iteration of an herbal remedy, which was used, with variations, since at least the fifth century BCE. The use of Portland's Powders in Great Britain may appear to be an unusual choice for investigating a public health problem currently widespread in Asia. Yet it exemplifies long-term medicinal use of Aristolochia herbs, reflecting our argument t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Using Plants as a Source of Potential Therapeutics for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.
Authors: Maher PA Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia with the numbers expected to increase dramatically as our society ages. There are no treatments to cure, prevent, or slow down the progression of the disease. Age is the single greatest risk factor for AD. However, to date, AD drug discovery efforts have generally not taken this fact into consideration. Multiple changes associated with brain aging, including neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, are important contributors to disease development and progression. Thus, due to the multifactorial nature of AD, the one target strat...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Plants Go to War: A Botanical History of World War II: An Interview with Judith Sumner, PhD.
Authors: Cassell K PMID: 32607096 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Applications of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Antiviral and Anticancer Drug Development: An Interview with Dr. Yung-Chi (Tommy) Cheng, PhD.
Authors: Li H PMID: 32607097 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Crystal Structure of Keratin 1/10(C401A) 2B Heterodimer Demonstrates a Proclivity for the C-Terminus of Helix 2B to Form Higher Order Molecular Contacts.
Authors: Lomakin IB, Hinbest AJ, Ho M, Eldirany SA, Bunick CG Abstract We previously determined the crystal structure of the wild-type keratin 1/10 helix 2B heterodimer at 3.3 Å resolution. We proposed that the resolution of the diffraction data was limited due to the crystal packing effect from keratin 10 (K10) residue Cys401. Cys401K10 formed a disulfide-linkage with Cys401 from another K1/10 heterodimer, creating an "X-shaped" structure and a loose crystal packing arrangement. We hypothesized that mutation of Cys401K10 to alanine would eliminate the disulfide-linkage and improve crystal packing t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Structural Basis for How Biologic Medicines Bind their Targets in Psoriasis Therapy.
We describe and analyze the molecular surface character of known binding epitopes for medications in these classes, showing that significant differences exist in epitope location, hydrophobicity, and charge. Some of these differences can be correlated with clinical data, but our analysis ultimately points to the need for more structural information to allow for a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of biologic therapies. PMID: 32226331 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

In vitro Reducing Effect of Cloxacillin on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations to Imipenem, Meropenem, Ceftazidime, and Cefepime in Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates.
In this study we determined the ability of cloxacillin to reduce Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to imipenem (IMI), meropenem (MEM), ceftazidime (CAZ), and cefepime (FEP). From 2015 to 2017, 61 non-duplicates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were collected from clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Kerman, Iran. The MICs of the isolates to IMI, MEM, CAZ, and FEP with/without cloxacillin were determined by microbroth dilution method. The level of MIC of isolates to carbapenems (IMI and MEM) and cephalosporins (CAZ and FEP) ranged from 1-256 μg/mL and 4-1024 μg...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Clinical and Histopathologic Findings.
Authors: Charifa A, Paulson N, Levy L, Perincheri S, Lee A, McNiff JM, Ko CJ Abstract Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subset of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by neoplastic lymphocytes within the lumina of small to medium-sized blood vessels. IVLBCLs are B-cell tumors that can present in essentially any organ system, including the skin. Cutaneous manifestations vary greatly and can mimic other skin disease which may delay diagnosis; in the absence of skin lesions, blind skin biopsies can be utilized for diagnosis. Early studies suggested that IVLBCL is a very aggressive lymphom...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Low-Dose Intralesional Recombinant Interferon- α2b in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides.
Low-Dose Intralesional Recombinant Interferon-α2b in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides. Yale J Biol Med. 2020 Mar;93(1):41-44 Authors: Hu JK, Carlson K, Girardi M Abstract Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is characterized by malignant CD4+ skin-homing T-cells that drive formation of cutaneous patches, plaques, and/or tumors. MF's known immunogenicity makes it an ideal candidate for local immunotherapy. Recombinant human leukocyte interferon-α2 (rIFN-α2) has well-established immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antitumor effects; an...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Diltiazem-associated Photodistributed Hyperpigmentation.
Authors: Siegel JD, Ko CJ Abstract Diltiazem is a calcium-channel blocker commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. Common adverse effects include dizziness, headache, and edema. Fewer than 20 cases of diltiazem-associated photodistributed hyperpigmentation have been reported in the literature. Here, we present the case of a 71-year-old woman with new-onset facial hyperpigmentation 6 months after initiating treatment with diltiazem. PMID: 32226335 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Probable African Tick Bite Fever in the United States.
We present a case of a previously healthy 60-year-old woman who developed an illness strongly suggestive of ATBF after a missionary trip to Zimbabwe and discuss the disease's diagnostic challenges. Our paper also reviews the epidemiology of this disease and the currently available diagnostic laboratory tests and recommended treatment options. PMID: 32226336 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Cutaneous Photoprotection: A Review of the Current Status and Evolving Strategies.
Authors: Suozzi K, Turban J, Girardi M Abstract Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is well established as the major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additional risk factors including genetic mutations, other environmental agents, and immune status are important in modulating the effects of UVR. Dermatologists advocate a multi-pronged approach to minimizing UVR exposure including lifestyle modifications, UVR protective clothing, and topically applied sun-protective products, i.e. sunscreen. New Federal Drug Administ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research