Undiagnosed Hypertension and Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among Overweight and Obese Marshallese Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Program
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):5-12. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTHypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health issues that disproportionately affect minority communities, including Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI). Minority communities are also more likely to have undiagnosed hypertension and T2D. Marshallese Pacific Islanders have been shown to have high proportions of diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension and T2D. Using survey and biometric data collected from 378 overweight/obese Marshallese Pacific Islander adults, this study documents the prevalence of hypertension and T2D, as well ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Pearl A McElfish Aaron J Scott Harish E Chatrathi Brett Rowland Christopher R Long Nirav Nagarsheth Mikaila Calcagni Jay Patolia Lauren K Haggard-Duff James P Selig Source Type: research

The Impact of the Social Distancing Policy on COVID-19 Incidence Cases and Deaths in Iran from February 2020 to January 2021: Insights from an Interrupted Time Series Analysis
Conclusion: The growth rate of confirmed incidence cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Iran has decreased from March 27, 2020 to January 29, 2021, after the implementation of social distancing. By implementing this policy in all countries, the burden of COVID-19 may be mitigated.PMID:33795979 | PMC:PMC7995950 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mandana Saki Mahboubeh Khaton Ghanbari Meysam Behzadifar Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Masoud Behzadifar Samad Azari Ahad Bakhtiari Jianhong Wu Nicola Luigi Bragazzi Source Type: research

Variation in Non-external and External Causes of Death in Peru in Relation to the COVID-19 Lockdown
Conclusions: We found a sudden drop in external causes of death, with suicides and homicides returning to previous levels after the lifting of the lockdown. Non-external deaths showed a differential pattern by macro-region. A close monitoring of these trends could help identify early spikes among these causes of death and take action to prevent a further increase in mortality indirectly affected by the pandemic.PMID:33795980 | PMC:PMC7995934 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Renzo J C Calderon-Anyosa Usama Bilal Jay S Kaufman Source Type: research

Pre-Participation Screening of Athletes: Primary Health Care Physicians' Knowledge, Experience, and Approach in Turkey
This study aims to evaluate PCPs' knowledge, experience, and approach about PPS. We prepared an online survey for PCPs and used non-probabilistic sampling. PPS attitudes and practices were analyzed and compared according to factors such as experience, education, and being GP or FMS. Of the 214 PCPs included in the study, 39.3% were female. The mean age was 44.9 years (SD:8.88). The average work experience was 7.9 years. Most participants were aware of their authorization to perform PPS (89.7%) and had previously prepared it (90.2%). However, 6.5% of them felt confident in performing PPS. Only 13.1% were aware of the guidel...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Merve Dursun Esra Bilir Kubilay Kaymaz Sibel Sakarya Source Type: research

Firearm Injury Among Children and Adolescents in Nigerian Civilian Trauma Setting: Prevalence, Pattern, and Implications for Prevention
This study aimed to determine its prevalence and pattern in Nigerian civilian trauma setting. We undertook a retrospective study of all the patients with firearm injury aged 19 years or under who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of two tertiary hospitals in Nigeria over a period of 15 years. Of the 46,734 children and adolescents seen in the ED, firearm injury was the reason for the visit in 56 of them, giving a prevalence of 1.2 per 1000 ED attendance (95% CI: 0.9-1.6). The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 13.98 ± 5.6 years. The preponderance of firearm injury was in the rural areas, during...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Njoku Isaac Omoke Omolade Ayoola Lasebikan Source Type: research

Exophytic External Occipital Protuberance Prevalence Pre- and Post-iPhone Introduction: A Retrospective Cohort
Conclusion: We found no significant association with iPhone accessibility and an exophytic external occipital protuberance. Due to inherent limitations in the retrospective nature of the study, future research is needed to better examine the association of handheld electronic devices with exophytic external occipital protuberances.PMID:33795983 | PMC:PMC7995952 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jack Porrino Pranay Sunku Annie Wang Andrew Haims Michael L Richardson Source Type: research

Prevalence, Lifestyle Correlates, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Multi-Ethnic Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Singapore: Preliminary Findings from a 10/66 Population Study
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):73-83. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAsia, which has the highest increase in dementia prevalence, is unfortunately lacking recent up-to-date research, with regions of Southeast Asia being the most inadequate. Preventive approaches, such as the understanding of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), are currently the most effective approach in reducing the risk or delaying the onset of dementia but are not adequately understood. Additionally, there is a paucity of research examining lifestyle and sociodemographic correlates of MCI that are relevant to the local population of Singapore. To address...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wen Lin Teh Edimansyah Abdin Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar Saleha Shafie Anitha Jeyagurunathan Zhang Yunjue Mythily Subramaniam Source Type: research

Postpartum Depression and Quality of Life: A Path Analysis
Conclusions: According to the path analysis model, postpartum depression is affected by many factors such as age, years of education, occupation, living arrangements, and quality of life.PMID:33795985 | PMC:PMC7995937 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fatemeh Mousavi Parisa Shojaei Source Type: research

Assessing the Social Influences, Self-Esteem, and Stress of High School Students Who Vape
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):95-106. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAdolescent vaping is rapidly rising in Canada, and e-cigarettes have become the most widely used tobacco product among high school students; 29% of students in grades 10 to 12 reported e-cigarette use in 2019. Vaping among adolescents is a problem because the long-term health consequences of e-cigarettes remain unknown, large numbers of teens are becoming addicted to the harmful drug nicotine, and vaping has been shown to increase risk of initiation of combustible tobacco product use. To address the gaps in the current understanding of adolescent e-cig...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Vedika Jha Alan Kraguljac Source Type: research

2020 Evaluation of Portable Vision Screening Instruments
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):107-114. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAmblyopia is the most common cause of preventable visual impairment in children and occurs as a result of unilateral or bilateral impairment in best-corrected visual acuity. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are crucial to prevent poor visual outcomes in adulthood. Advances in technology have provided more objective diagnostic tools, which can now be used by a wide range of healthcare providers. Here, we highlight tools that have gained popularity in the past two decades and compare clinically relevant parameters to guide primary care providers see...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Anuoluwapo Sopeyin Benjamin K Young Martha A Howard Source Type: research

Leveraging Organizational Health Literacy to Enhance Health Promotion and Risk Prevention: A Narrative and Interpretive Literature Review
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):115-128. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTOrganizational health literacy involves the health care organizations' ability to establish an empowering and co-creating relationship with patients, engaging them in the design and delivery of health services in collaboration with health professionals. Although scholars agree that organizational health literacy contributes to health promotion and risk prevention via patient empowerment, literature is not consistent in depicting the interplay between organizational health literacy and preventive medicine. The article intends to shed light into this is...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rocco Palumbo Source Type: research

The Opportunity of Social Ecological Resilience in the Promotion of Youth Health and Wellbeing: A Narrative Review
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):129-141. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTYouth experience adversity that increases their risk for immediate and long-term health consequences. Resilience has traditionally been conceptualized as an internal disposition or trait that supports youth to overcome that risk and avoid the negative impact on their health and wellbeing. However, this model of resilience overemphasizes the role of the individual and their capacity to control their environment, while minimizing the integral role of relational, social, structural, and cultural contexts in which they live. Instead, social ecological res...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lisa M Vaughn Melissa DeJonckheere Source Type: research

Medical Education Must Start Teaching About Racism
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):143-146. eCollection 2021 Mar.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33795990 | PMC:PMC7995931 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Amanda Calhoun Source Type: research

Before the Bullets Fly: The Physician's Role in Preventing Firearm Injury
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):147-152. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTFirearm injury is a disease that is disproportionately prevalent in the United States. When a bullet hits a human being, it brings together multiple structural determinants of health into one acute, life-changing event. Firearm injury can lead to long-term mental and physical challenges for individuals, families, and communities. Despite the impact of this disease, physicians often underestimate their role in not only treating but also preventing firearm injury. Physicians can intervene through screening, counseling, community engagement, and advocacy...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hatem O Abdallah Elinore J Kaufman Source Type: research

Race, Racism, and the Policy of 21st Century Medicine
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):153-157. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTThis perspective describes three new policies passed at the November 2020 Special Meeting of the American Medical Association House of Delegates. These policies (1) denounce racism as a public health threat; (2) call for the elimination of race as a proxy for ancestry, genetics, and biology in medical education, research, and clinical practice; and (3) decry racial essentialism in medicine. We also explore the social and institutional context leading to the passage of these policies, which speak directly to the harmful legacy of racism in America, and...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mia Keeys Joaquin Baca Aletha Maybank Source Type: research

Who is Biking for? Urban Bikeshare Networks' Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic, Disparities in Bikeshare Access, and a Way Forward
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):159-164. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTBlack, Latinx, and Indigenous people have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus and died of COVID-19 at higher rates than White people. Individuals rated public transit, taxis, and ride-hailing as the modes of transportation putting them at greatest risk of COVID-19 infection. Cycling may thus be an attractive alternative for commuting. Amid the increase in bikeshare usage during the early months of the pandemic, bikeshare companies made changes to membership requirements to increase accessibility, targeting especially essential workers. Essential workers i...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Max Jordan Nguemeni Tiako Daniel C Stokes Source Type: research

Patient Safety Functions of State Medical Boards in the United States
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):165-173. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTThe state medical board system in the United States plays a crucial role in promoting patient safety and is a primary vessel through which policymakers are able to regulate healthcare. The system's origins, and how it has evolved in tandem with the practice of medicine generally, have heavily shaped its current structure and scope of activities. In particular, the ethos of a largely self-regulated profession has corresponded to a heavy physician influence. In light of this influence, maintaining legitimacy continues to require careful efforts by the s...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Christopher G Roy Source Type: research

Preventive Medicine Through Community Outreach: An Interview with Frederick L. Altice, MD
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):175-181. eCollection 2021 Mar.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33795995 | PMC:PMC7995943 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kubilay Kaymaz Source Type: research

Role of Environmental Genetics in Preventive Medicine: An Interview with Daniel W. Nebert, MS, MD
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):183-191. eCollection 2021 Mar.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33795996 | PMC:PMC7995936 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Brian Thompson Source Type: research

Undiagnosed Hypertension and Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among Overweight and Obese Marshallese Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Program
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):5-12. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTHypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health issues that disproportionately affect minority communities, including Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI). Minority communities are also more likely to have undiagnosed hypertension and T2D. Marshallese Pacific Islanders have been shown to have high proportions of diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension and T2D. Using survey and biometric data collected from 378 overweight/obese Marshallese Pacific Islander adults, this study documents the prevalence of hypertension and T2D, as well ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Pearl A McElfish Aaron J Scott Harish E Chatrathi Brett Rowland Christopher R Long Nirav Nagarsheth Mikaila Calcagni Jay Patolia Lauren K Haggard-Duff James P Selig Source Type: research

The Impact of the Social Distancing Policy on COVID-19 Incidence Cases and Deaths in Iran from February 2020 to January 2021: Insights from an Interrupted Time Series Analysis
Conclusion: The growth rate of confirmed incidence cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Iran has decreased from March 27, 2020 to January 29, 2021, after the implementation of social distancing. By implementing this policy in all countries, the burden of COVID-19 may be mitigated.PMID:33795979 | PMC:PMC7995950 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mandana Saki Mahboubeh Khaton Ghanbari Meysam Behzadifar Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Masoud Behzadifar Samad Azari Ahad Bakhtiari Jianhong Wu Nicola Luigi Bragazzi Source Type: research

Variation in Non-external and External Causes of Death in Peru in Relation to the COVID-19 Lockdown
Conclusions: We found a sudden drop in external causes of death, with suicides and homicides returning to previous levels after the lifting of the lockdown. Non-external deaths showed a differential pattern by macro-region. A close monitoring of these trends could help identify early spikes among these causes of death and take action to prevent a further increase in mortality indirectly affected by the pandemic.PMID:33795980 | PMC:PMC7995934 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Renzo J C Calderon-Anyosa Usama Bilal Jay S Kaufman Source Type: research

Pre-Participation Screening of Athletes: Primary Health Care Physicians' Knowledge, Experience, and Approach in Turkey
This study aims to evaluate PCPs' knowledge, experience, and approach about PPS. We prepared an online survey for PCPs and used non-probabilistic sampling. PPS attitudes and practices were analyzed and compared according to factors such as experience, education, and being GP or FMS. Of the 214 PCPs included in the study, 39.3% were female. The mean age was 44.9 years (SD:8.88). The average work experience was 7.9 years. Most participants were aware of their authorization to perform PPS (89.7%) and had previously prepared it (90.2%). However, 6.5% of them felt confident in performing PPS. Only 13.1% were aware of the guidel...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Merve Dursun Esra Bilir Kubilay Kaymaz Sibel Sakarya Source Type: research

Firearm Injury Among Children and Adolescents in Nigerian Civilian Trauma Setting: Prevalence, Pattern, and Implications for Prevention
This study aimed to determine its prevalence and pattern in Nigerian civilian trauma setting. We undertook a retrospective study of all the patients with firearm injury aged 19 years or under who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of two tertiary hospitals in Nigeria over a period of 15 years. Of the 46,734 children and adolescents seen in the ED, firearm injury was the reason for the visit in 56 of them, giving a prevalence of 1.2 per 1000 ED attendance (95% CI: 0.9-1.6). The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 13.98 ± 5.6 years. The preponderance of firearm injury was in the rural areas, during...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Njoku Isaac Omoke Omolade Ayoola Lasebikan Source Type: research

Exophytic External Occipital Protuberance Prevalence Pre- and Post-iPhone Introduction: A Retrospective Cohort
Conclusion: We found no significant association with iPhone accessibility and an exophytic external occipital protuberance. Due to inherent limitations in the retrospective nature of the study, future research is needed to better examine the association of handheld electronic devices with exophytic external occipital protuberances.PMID:33795983 | PMC:PMC7995952 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jack Porrino Pranay Sunku Annie Wang Andrew Haims Michael L Richardson Source Type: research

Prevalence, Lifestyle Correlates, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Multi-Ethnic Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Singapore: Preliminary Findings from a 10/66 Population Study
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):73-83. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAsia, which has the highest increase in dementia prevalence, is unfortunately lacking recent up-to-date research, with regions of Southeast Asia being the most inadequate. Preventive approaches, such as the understanding of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), are currently the most effective approach in reducing the risk or delaying the onset of dementia but are not adequately understood. Additionally, there is a paucity of research examining lifestyle and sociodemographic correlates of MCI that are relevant to the local population of Singapore. To address...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wen Lin Teh Edimansyah Abdin Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar Saleha Shafie Anitha Jeyagurunathan Zhang Yunjue Mythily Subramaniam Source Type: research

Postpartum Depression and Quality of Life: A Path Analysis
Conclusions: According to the path analysis model, postpartum depression is affected by many factors such as age, years of education, occupation, living arrangements, and quality of life.PMID:33795985 | PMC:PMC7995937 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fatemeh Mousavi Parisa Shojaei Source Type: research

Assessing the Social Influences, Self-Esteem, and Stress of High School Students Who Vape
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):95-106. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAdolescent vaping is rapidly rising in Canada, and e-cigarettes have become the most widely used tobacco product among high school students; 29% of students in grades 10 to 12 reported e-cigarette use in 2019. Vaping among adolescents is a problem because the long-term health consequences of e-cigarettes remain unknown, large numbers of teens are becoming addicted to the harmful drug nicotine, and vaping has been shown to increase risk of initiation of combustible tobacco product use. To address the gaps in the current understanding of adolescent e-cig...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Vedika Jha Alan Kraguljac Source Type: research

2020 Evaluation of Portable Vision Screening Instruments
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):107-114. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAmblyopia is the most common cause of preventable visual impairment in children and occurs as a result of unilateral or bilateral impairment in best-corrected visual acuity. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are crucial to prevent poor visual outcomes in adulthood. Advances in technology have provided more objective diagnostic tools, which can now be used by a wide range of healthcare providers. Here, we highlight tools that have gained popularity in the past two decades and compare clinically relevant parameters to guide primary care providers see...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Anuoluwapo Sopeyin Benjamin K Young Martha A Howard Source Type: research

Leveraging Organizational Health Literacy to Enhance Health Promotion and Risk Prevention: A Narrative and Interpretive Literature Review
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):115-128. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTOrganizational health literacy involves the health care organizations' ability to establish an empowering and co-creating relationship with patients, engaging them in the design and delivery of health services in collaboration with health professionals. Although scholars agree that organizational health literacy contributes to health promotion and risk prevention via patient empowerment, literature is not consistent in depicting the interplay between organizational health literacy and preventive medicine. The article intends to shed light into this is...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rocco Palumbo Source Type: research

The Opportunity of Social Ecological Resilience in the Promotion of Youth Health and Wellbeing: A Narrative Review
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):129-141. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTYouth experience adversity that increases their risk for immediate and long-term health consequences. Resilience has traditionally been conceptualized as an internal disposition or trait that supports youth to overcome that risk and avoid the negative impact on their health and wellbeing. However, this model of resilience overemphasizes the role of the individual and their capacity to control their environment, while minimizing the integral role of relational, social, structural, and cultural contexts in which they live. Instead, social ecological res...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lisa M Vaughn Melissa DeJonckheere Source Type: research

Medical Education Must Start Teaching About Racism
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):143-146. eCollection 2021 Mar.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33795990 | PMC:PMC7995931 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Amanda Calhoun Source Type: research

Before the Bullets Fly: The Physician's Role in Preventing Firearm Injury
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):147-152. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTFirearm injury is a disease that is disproportionately prevalent in the United States. When a bullet hits a human being, it brings together multiple structural determinants of health into one acute, life-changing event. Firearm injury can lead to long-term mental and physical challenges for individuals, families, and communities. Despite the impact of this disease, physicians often underestimate their role in not only treating but also preventing firearm injury. Physicians can intervene through screening, counseling, community engagement, and advocacy...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hatem O Abdallah Elinore J Kaufman Source Type: research

Race, Racism, and the Policy of 21st Century Medicine
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):153-157. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTThis perspective describes three new policies passed at the November 2020 Special Meeting of the American Medical Association House of Delegates. These policies (1) denounce racism as a public health threat; (2) call for the elimination of race as a proxy for ancestry, genetics, and biology in medical education, research, and clinical practice; and (3) decry racial essentialism in medicine. We also explore the social and institutional context leading to the passage of these policies, which speak directly to the harmful legacy of racism in America, and...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mia Keeys Joaquin Baca Aletha Maybank Source Type: research

Who is Biking for? Urban Bikeshare Networks' Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic, Disparities in Bikeshare Access, and a Way Forward
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):159-164. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTBlack, Latinx, and Indigenous people have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus and died of COVID-19 at higher rates than White people. Individuals rated public transit, taxis, and ride-hailing as the modes of transportation putting them at greatest risk of COVID-19 infection. Cycling may thus be an attractive alternative for commuting. Amid the increase in bikeshare usage during the early months of the pandemic, bikeshare companies made changes to membership requirements to increase accessibility, targeting especially essential workers. Essential workers i...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Max Jordan Nguemeni Tiako Daniel C Stokes Source Type: research

Patient Safety Functions of State Medical Boards in the United States
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):165-173. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTThe state medical board system in the United States plays a crucial role in promoting patient safety and is a primary vessel through which policymakers are able to regulate healthcare. The system's origins, and how it has evolved in tandem with the practice of medicine generally, have heavily shaped its current structure and scope of activities. In particular, the ethos of a largely self-regulated profession has corresponded to a heavy physician influence. In light of this influence, maintaining legitimacy continues to require careful efforts by the s...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Christopher G Roy Source Type: research

Preventive Medicine Through Community Outreach: An Interview with Frederick L. Altice, MD
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):175-181. eCollection 2021 Mar.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33795995 | PMC:PMC7995943 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kubilay Kaymaz Source Type: research

Role of Environmental Genetics in Preventive Medicine: An Interview with Daniel W. Nebert, MS, MD
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):183-191. eCollection 2021 Mar.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33795996 | PMC:PMC7995936 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Brian Thompson Source Type: research

Undiagnosed Hypertension and Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among Overweight and Obese Marshallese Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Program
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):5-12. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTHypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are major public health issues that disproportionately affect minority communities, including Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI). Minority communities are also more likely to have undiagnosed hypertension and T2D. Marshallese Pacific Islanders have been shown to have high proportions of diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension and T2D. Using survey and biometric data collected from 378 overweight/obese Marshallese Pacific Islander adults, this study documents the prevalence of hypertension and T2D, as well ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Pearl A McElfish Aaron J Scott Harish E Chatrathi Brett Rowland Christopher R Long Nirav Nagarsheth Mikaila Calcagni Jay Patolia Lauren K Haggard-Duff James P Selig Source Type: research

The Impact of the Social Distancing Policy on COVID-19 Incidence Cases and Deaths in Iran from February 2020 to January 2021: Insights from an Interrupted Time Series Analysis
Conclusion: The growth rate of confirmed incidence cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Iran has decreased from March 27, 2020 to January 29, 2021, after the implementation of social distancing. By implementing this policy in all countries, the burden of COVID-19 may be mitigated.PMID:33795979 | PMC:PMC7995950 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mandana Saki Mahboubeh Khaton Ghanbari Meysam Behzadifar Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Masoud Behzadifar Samad Azari Ahad Bakhtiari Jianhong Wu Nicola Luigi Bragazzi Source Type: research

Variation in Non-external and External Causes of Death in Peru in Relation to the COVID-19 Lockdown
Conclusions: We found a sudden drop in external causes of death, with suicides and homicides returning to previous levels after the lifting of the lockdown. Non-external deaths showed a differential pattern by macro-region. A close monitoring of these trends could help identify early spikes among these causes of death and take action to prevent a further increase in mortality indirectly affected by the pandemic.PMID:33795980 | PMC:PMC7995934 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Renzo J C Calderon-Anyosa Usama Bilal Jay S Kaufman Source Type: research

Pre-Participation Screening of Athletes: Primary Health Care Physicians' Knowledge, Experience, and Approach in Turkey
This study aims to evaluate PCPs' knowledge, experience, and approach about PPS. We prepared an online survey for PCPs and used non-probabilistic sampling. PPS attitudes and practices were analyzed and compared according to factors such as experience, education, and being GP or FMS. Of the 214 PCPs included in the study, 39.3% were female. The mean age was 44.9 years (SD:8.88). The average work experience was 7.9 years. Most participants were aware of their authorization to perform PPS (89.7%) and had previously prepared it (90.2%). However, 6.5% of them felt confident in performing PPS. Only 13.1% were aware of the guidel...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Merve Dursun Esra Bilir Kubilay Kaymaz Sibel Sakarya Source Type: research

Firearm Injury Among Children and Adolescents in Nigerian Civilian Trauma Setting: Prevalence, Pattern, and Implications for Prevention
This study aimed to determine its prevalence and pattern in Nigerian civilian trauma setting. We undertook a retrospective study of all the patients with firearm injury aged 19 years or under who visited the Emergency Department (ED) of two tertiary hospitals in Nigeria over a period of 15 years. Of the 46,734 children and adolescents seen in the ED, firearm injury was the reason for the visit in 56 of them, giving a prevalence of 1.2 per 1000 ED attendance (95% CI: 0.9-1.6). The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 13.98 ± 5.6 years. The preponderance of firearm injury was in the rural areas, during...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Njoku Isaac Omoke Omolade Ayoola Lasebikan Source Type: research

Exophytic External Occipital Protuberance Prevalence Pre- and Post-iPhone Introduction: A Retrospective Cohort
Conclusion: We found no significant association with iPhone accessibility and an exophytic external occipital protuberance. Due to inherent limitations in the retrospective nature of the study, future research is needed to better examine the association of handheld electronic devices with exophytic external occipital protuberances.PMID:33795983 | PMC:PMC7995952 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Jack Porrino Pranay Sunku Annie Wang Andrew Haims Michael L Richardson Source Type: research

Prevalence, Lifestyle Correlates, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Multi-Ethnic Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Singapore: Preliminary Findings from a 10/66 Population Study
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):73-83. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAsia, which has the highest increase in dementia prevalence, is unfortunately lacking recent up-to-date research, with regions of Southeast Asia being the most inadequate. Preventive approaches, such as the understanding of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), are currently the most effective approach in reducing the risk or delaying the onset of dementia but are not adequately understood. Additionally, there is a paucity of research examining lifestyle and sociodemographic correlates of MCI that are relevant to the local population of Singapore. To address...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wen Lin Teh Edimansyah Abdin Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar Saleha Shafie Anitha Jeyagurunathan Zhang Yunjue Mythily Subramaniam Source Type: research

Postpartum Depression and Quality of Life: A Path Analysis
Conclusions: According to the path analysis model, postpartum depression is affected by many factors such as age, years of education, occupation, living arrangements, and quality of life.PMID:33795985 | PMC:PMC7995937 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fatemeh Mousavi Parisa Shojaei Source Type: research

Assessing the Social Influences, Self-Esteem, and Stress of High School Students Who Vape
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):95-106. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAdolescent vaping is rapidly rising in Canada, and e-cigarettes have become the most widely used tobacco product among high school students; 29% of students in grades 10 to 12 reported e-cigarette use in 2019. Vaping among adolescents is a problem because the long-term health consequences of e-cigarettes remain unknown, large numbers of teens are becoming addicted to the harmful drug nicotine, and vaping has been shown to increase risk of initiation of combustible tobacco product use. To address the gaps in the current understanding of adolescent e-cig...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Vedika Jha Alan Kraguljac Source Type: research

2020 Evaluation of Portable Vision Screening Instruments
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):107-114. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTAmblyopia is the most common cause of preventable visual impairment in children and occurs as a result of unilateral or bilateral impairment in best-corrected visual acuity. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are crucial to prevent poor visual outcomes in adulthood. Advances in technology have provided more objective diagnostic tools, which can now be used by a wide range of healthcare providers. Here, we highlight tools that have gained popularity in the past two decades and compare clinically relevant parameters to guide primary care providers see...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Anuoluwapo Sopeyin Benjamin K Young Martha A Howard Source Type: research

Leveraging Organizational Health Literacy to Enhance Health Promotion and Risk Prevention: A Narrative and Interpretive Literature Review
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):115-128. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTOrganizational health literacy involves the health care organizations' ability to establish an empowering and co-creating relationship with patients, engaging them in the design and delivery of health services in collaboration with health professionals. Although scholars agree that organizational health literacy contributes to health promotion and risk prevention via patient empowerment, literature is not consistent in depicting the interplay between organizational health literacy and preventive medicine. The article intends to shed light into this is...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rocco Palumbo Source Type: research

The Opportunity of Social Ecological Resilience in the Promotion of Youth Health and Wellbeing: A Narrative Review
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Mar 31;94(1):129-141. eCollection 2021 Mar.ABSTRACTYouth experience adversity that increases their risk for immediate and long-term health consequences. Resilience has traditionally been conceptualized as an internal disposition or trait that supports youth to overcome that risk and avoid the negative impact on their health and wellbeing. However, this model of resilience overemphasizes the role of the individual and their capacity to control their environment, while minimizing the integral role of relational, social, structural, and cultural contexts in which they live. Instead, social ecological res...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lisa M Vaughn Melissa DeJonckheere Source Type: research