New Series of Imidazoles Showed Promising Growth Inhibitory and Curative Potential Against Trypanosoma Infection
In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of these new series of imidazoles to clear the systemic parasite burden in infected rats. Furthermore, a high selectivity index of imidazoles towards T. congolense in vitro and the oral LD50 in rats support anti-parasite specific action. Together, findings support the anti-parasitic prospects of the new series of imidazole derivatives.PMID:34211341 | PMC:PMC8223535 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi Nthatisi Innocentia Molefe-Nyembe Abiodun Omokehinde Eseola Winfried Plass Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu Ibrahim Olatunji Yunusa Olubunmi Atolani Ikponmwosa Owen Evbuomwan Oluwakemi J Awakan Keisuke Suganuma Kentaro Kato Source Type: research

Eco-epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Diamantina, Jequitinhonha Valley (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)
Conclusions: Unlike what is happening in urban centers, the results of this study suggest that the VL in Diamantina is in the process of urbanization, given the high percentage of confirmed canine cases and the high density of Lu. longipalpis in the rural area of the municipality. These risk factors warn about the need for continuous surveillance and the need to control actions of VL in this area.PMID:34211342 | PMC:PMC8223551 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fernanda Batista-Santos Diogo A N D ória Yrllan R Sincur á Samuel S Ros ário Ricardo T Fujiwara Ricardo A Barata Source Type: research

Prevalence and Diversity of the < em > Streptobacillus < /em > Rat-bite Fever Agent, in Three Invasive, Commensal < em > Rattus < /em > Species from South Africa
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):217-226. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTRat-bite fever is an over-looked, global zoonotic disease that has a mortality rate of up to 13%, if untreated. Historically, this rat-borne disease has been attributed to one of two causative agents, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Given the confirmed presence of multiple invasive Rattus host species, high rat densities in urban, informal human settlements and increasing reports of rat bites in South Africa, we undertook a retrospective assessment of Streptobacillus in rats sampled from 16 urban sites, in Gauteng, the smallest but mo...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rolanda S Julius Helene Brettschneider Christian T Chimimba Armanda D S Bastos Source Type: research

Bacterial Infections in Humans and Nonhuman Primates from Africa: Expanding the Knowledge
This study enhances our knowledge of pathogenic bacteria that threaten African NHPs and humans by using a non-invasive sampling technique. Contact between humans and NHPs results in an exchange of pathogens. Ongoing surveillance, prevention, and treatment strategies alone will limit the spread of these infectious agents.PMID:34211344 | PMC:PMC8223552 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hac ène Medkour Inestin Amona Jean Akiana Younes Laidoudi Bernard Davoust Idir Bitam Ismail Lafri Anthony Levasseur Georges Diatta Cheikh Sokhna R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar Amanda Barciela Slim Gorsane Henri Banga-Mboko Didier Raoult Florence Fenollar Ol Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens in the Blood and Tissues of Camels ( < em > Camelus dromedarius < /em > ) in Central Desert of Iran
This study aimed to provide an overview on the prevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens in blood and tissues of camels in central Iran. Blood, liver, portal lymph node, and brain were collected from 100 apparently healthy camels at a slaughterhouse in Qom city to assess the presence of DNA of Brucella spp., Trypanosoma spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella spp. PCR products were sequenced bidirectionally and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Eleven percent of camels tested positive for Brucella abortus (3%) and Trypanosoma evansi (8%). Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. DNA was not detected. Our data demonstrate ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Aliasghar Bahari Sakineh Azami Ali Goudarztalejerdi Saeid Karimi Saber Esmaeili Bruno B Chomel Alireza Sazmand Source Type: research

Health System Contact and Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases: Can it Serve as One Health Entry Point in the Urban Community of Ahmedabad, India?
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):259-269. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTOne Health (OH) is emphasized globally to tackle the (re)emerging issues at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, the low awareness about zoonoses remain a challenge in global south, thus this study documented the health system contact and its effect on the awareness level of zoonoses in the urban community of Ahmedabad, India. A community-based household survey was conducted between October 2018 and July 2019. A total of 460 households (HHs) were surveyed from two zones and 23 wards of the city through cluster sampling. A structured, pilot-t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sandul Yasobant Walter Bruchhausen Deepak Saxena Farjana Zakir Memon Timo Falkenberg Source Type: research

Retrospective Evaluation of Hydatid Cyst Cases During Pregnancy
This study aims to present the maternal-fetal results and clinical treatment of pregnant women diagnosed with liver hydatid cyst (CH). This zoonotic disease is discussed again in the light of current literature. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women with hydatid cyst monitored in a tertiary health center between 2018 and 2020 were evaluated. Seven cases were included in this study. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data, which did not interfere with medical treatment. Results: Albendazole was started as medical therapy in six patients, and percutaneous drainage was applied to one patient. Three of our six ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Özgür Şahin Harun Egemen Tolunay Erol Nadi Varl ı Özgür Arat Mesut Ayd ın Source Type: research

A Severe Case of Falciparum Malaria, 10 Years After Malaria Eradication: A Case Report
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):277-284. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTMalaria is a major mosquito-borne public health problem especially in tropical countries. The authors report a malaria infection in a 31-year-old man who had returned from East Africa with developed fever and rigor. Because of his thrombocytopenia, decreased hemoglobin, elevated liver enzymes, and splenomegaly, and because of failure to question about recent travel history, he was initially referred to the hematological hospital and medical staff suspected a hematological problem, so he was investigated for bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. As he progr...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Shadan Jabbar Abdullah Darya Saeed Abdulateef Heshu Sulaiman Rahman Safeen Othman Mahmood Vyan Nasih Mustafa Rezhin Omer Ahmed Rawand Aso Ahmed Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation of Bovine Brucellosis in Indigenous Cattle Herds in Kasulu District of Tanzania
Conclusions: The results showed that farmer knowledge and perception about diseases including AAS to be moderate and further confirm brucellosis to be prevalent and widely distributed locally. Heightened routine surveillance, further studies, and institution of preventive and control measures particularly among young female stock should be implemented. Creating disease awareness especially amongst livestock keepers and general public who are at high risk of contracting brucellosis is desirable.PMID:34211349 | PMC:PMC8223540 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Emanuel S Swai Adeline J Mkumbukwa Sabinus L Chaula Baltazary G Leba Source Type: research

Biology, Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Selected Fish-borne Parasitic Zoonoses
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):297-309. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTFish-borne parasites have been part of the global landscape of food-borne zoonotic diseases for many decades and are often endemic in certain regions of the world. The past 20 years or so have seen the expansion of the range of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses to new geographic regions leading to a substantial public health burden. In this article, we summarize current knowledge about the biology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and control of selected fish-borne helminthic diseases caused by parasitic roundworm (Anisakis), t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wei Cong Hany M Elsheikha Source Type: research

Rabies in Costa Rica - Next Steps Towards Controlling Bat-Borne Rabies After its Elimination in Dogs
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):311-329. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTRabies is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus, with the highest case fatality of any conventional infectious disease. More than 17 different lyssaviruses have been described, but rabies virus is the most widely distributed and important member of the genus. Globally, tens of thousands of human fatalities still occur each year. Although all mammals are susceptible, most human fatalities are caused by the bites of rabid dogs, within lesser developed countries. A global plan envisions the elimination of human rabies cases caused via...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bernal Le ón Silvia Fallas Gonz ález Lisa Miranda Sol ís Manuel Ram írez-Cardoce Andres Moreira-Soto Juan M Cordero-Sol órzano Sabine Elisabeth Hutter Roc ío González-Barrientos Charles E Rupprecht Source Type: research

Zoonotic Ocular Onchocercosis by < em > Onchocerca lupi < /em >
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):331-341. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe parasitic filarioid Onchocerca lupi causes ocular disease characterized by conjunctivitis and nodular lesions. This nematode was first described in 1967 in a wolf from Georgia, and since then cases of infection from dogs and cats with ocular onchocercosis and sporadically from humans also with subcutaneous and cervical lesions caused by O. lupi have been reported from the Middle East, Europe, and North America. Due to its zoonotic potential, this parasitic infection has gained attention in the past 20 years. Phylogenetic studies have highlighted t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Alicia Rojas Fernando Morales-Calvo Harold Salant Domenico Otranto Gad Baneth Source Type: research

Genetic Diversity of < em > Taenia solium < /em > and its Relation to Clinical Presentation of Cysticercosis
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):343-349. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTIn this perspectives paper, we discuss fertilization strategies for Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica as well as heterogeneity in Taenia solium, the causative agent of human cysticercosis. Two different genotypes of T. solium (Asian and Afro/American) were confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis approximately two decades ago. Since then, outcrossings of the two genotypes have been identified in Madagascar where the two genotypes are distributed sympatrically. Outcrossings were confirmed by the presence of discordance between mitochondrial a...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Akira Ito Christine M Budke Source Type: research

Ending the Neglect of Treatable Bacterial Zoonoses Responsible for Non-Malaria Fevers
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):351-360. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTBacterial zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, Q fever, melioidosis, spotted fever group rickettsioses, and brucellosis are increasingly recognized causes of non-malaria acute fevers. However, though readily treatable with antibiotics, these diseases are commonly misdiagnosed resulting in poor outcomes in patients. There is a considerable deficit in the understanding of basic aspects of the epidemiology of these neglected diseases and diagnostic tests for these zoonotic bacterial pathogens are not always available in resource-poor settings. Raisin...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Cyrille Goarant Koussay Dellagi Mathieu Picardeau Source Type: research

An Ecologically Framed Comparison of The Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Non-Human and Human-Infecting Species of Malaria Parasite
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):361-373. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts. Recently observed shifts in the mode, transmission, and presentation of malaria among several species studied are evidenced by shared vectors, atypical symptoms, and novel host-seeking be...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Nicole F Clark Andrew W Taylor-Robinson Source Type: research

The Tragedy of Names
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):375-378. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe naming of pathogens and their associated syndromes is a thorny process which unfolds in a complex geopolitical environment. This brief piece offers perspective on the multitude of forces that shape the name of a pathogen and summarizes the story of Sin Nombre Virus, with some reference to the ongoing saga of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A monopoly on names and circulating monikers rarely exists, and certain communities become disproportionately impacted by misunderstandings or stigmatization. By acknowledging these...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Christopher Radcliffe Source Type: research

The Practice of Science as the Pursuit of Knowledge
This article explores both the pressures that restrict this delicate decision-making process and the processes that scientists can apply to overcome those pressures. Above all else, as it turns out, we must still love the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake - and this love directly impacts our results.PMID:34211357 | PMC:PMC8223544 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Eduardo A Groisman Source Type: research

New Series of Imidazoles Showed Promising Growth Inhibitory and Curative Potential Against Trypanosoma Infection
In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of these new series of imidazoles to clear the systemic parasite burden in infected rats. Furthermore, a high selectivity index of imidazoles towards T. congolense in vitro and the oral LD50 in rats support anti-parasite specific action. Together, findings support the anti-parasitic prospects of the new series of imidazole derivatives.PMID:34211341 | PMC:PMC8223535 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi Nthatisi Innocentia Molefe-Nyembe Abiodun Omokehinde Eseola Winfried Plass Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu Ibrahim Olatunji Yunusa Olubunmi Atolani Ikponmwosa Owen Evbuomwan Oluwakemi J Awakan Keisuke Suganuma Kentaro Kato Source Type: research

Eco-epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Diamantina, Jequitinhonha Valley (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)
Conclusions: Unlike what is happening in urban centers, the results of this study suggest that the VL in Diamantina is in the process of urbanization, given the high percentage of confirmed canine cases and the high density of Lu. longipalpis in the rural area of the municipality. These risk factors warn about the need for continuous surveillance and the need to control actions of VL in this area.PMID:34211342 | PMC:PMC8223551 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fernanda Batista-Santos Diogo A N D ória Yrllan R Sincur á Samuel S Ros ário Ricardo T Fujiwara Ricardo A Barata Source Type: research

Prevalence and Diversity of the < em > Streptobacillus < /em > Rat-bite Fever Agent, in Three Invasive, Commensal < em > Rattus < /em > Species from South Africa
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):217-226. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTRat-bite fever is an over-looked, global zoonotic disease that has a mortality rate of up to 13%, if untreated. Historically, this rat-borne disease has been attributed to one of two causative agents, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Given the confirmed presence of multiple invasive Rattus host species, high rat densities in urban, informal human settlements and increasing reports of rat bites in South Africa, we undertook a retrospective assessment of Streptobacillus in rats sampled from 16 urban sites, in Gauteng, the smallest but mo...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rolanda S Julius Helene Brettschneider Christian T Chimimba Armanda D S Bastos Source Type: research

Bacterial Infections in Humans and Nonhuman Primates from Africa: Expanding the Knowledge
This study enhances our knowledge of pathogenic bacteria that threaten African NHPs and humans by using a non-invasive sampling technique. Contact between humans and NHPs results in an exchange of pathogens. Ongoing surveillance, prevention, and treatment strategies alone will limit the spread of these infectious agents.PMID:34211344 | PMC:PMC8223552 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hac ène Medkour Inestin Amona Jean Akiana Younes Laidoudi Bernard Davoust Idir Bitam Ismail Lafri Anthony Levasseur Georges Diatta Cheikh Sokhna R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar Amanda Barciela Slim Gorsane Henri Banga-Mboko Didier Raoult Florence Fenollar Ol Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens in the Blood and Tissues of Camels ( < em > Camelus dromedarius < /em > ) in Central Desert of Iran
This study aimed to provide an overview on the prevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens in blood and tissues of camels in central Iran. Blood, liver, portal lymph node, and brain were collected from 100 apparently healthy camels at a slaughterhouse in Qom city to assess the presence of DNA of Brucella spp., Trypanosoma spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella spp. PCR products were sequenced bidirectionally and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Eleven percent of camels tested positive for Brucella abortus (3%) and Trypanosoma evansi (8%). Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. DNA was not detected. Our data demonstrate ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Aliasghar Bahari Sakineh Azami Ali Goudarztalejerdi Saeid Karimi Saber Esmaeili Bruno B Chomel Alireza Sazmand Source Type: research

Health System Contact and Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases: Can it Serve as One Health Entry Point in the Urban Community of Ahmedabad, India?
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):259-269. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTOne Health (OH) is emphasized globally to tackle the (re)emerging issues at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, the low awareness about zoonoses remain a challenge in global south, thus this study documented the health system contact and its effect on the awareness level of zoonoses in the urban community of Ahmedabad, India. A community-based household survey was conducted between October 2018 and July 2019. A total of 460 households (HHs) were surveyed from two zones and 23 wards of the city through cluster sampling. A structured, pilot-t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sandul Yasobant Walter Bruchhausen Deepak Saxena Farjana Zakir Memon Timo Falkenberg Source Type: research

Retrospective Evaluation of Hydatid Cyst Cases During Pregnancy
This study aims to present the maternal-fetal results and clinical treatment of pregnant women diagnosed with liver hydatid cyst (CH). This zoonotic disease is discussed again in the light of current literature. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women with hydatid cyst monitored in a tertiary health center between 2018 and 2020 were evaluated. Seven cases were included in this study. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data, which did not interfere with medical treatment. Results: Albendazole was started as medical therapy in six patients, and percutaneous drainage was applied to one patient. Three of our six ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Özgür Şahin Harun Egemen Tolunay Erol Nadi Varl ı Özgür Arat Mesut Ayd ın Source Type: research

A Severe Case of Falciparum Malaria, 10 Years After Malaria Eradication: A Case Report
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):277-284. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTMalaria is a major mosquito-borne public health problem especially in tropical countries. The authors report a malaria infection in a 31-year-old man who had returned from East Africa with developed fever and rigor. Because of his thrombocytopenia, decreased hemoglobin, elevated liver enzymes, and splenomegaly, and because of failure to question about recent travel history, he was initially referred to the hematological hospital and medical staff suspected a hematological problem, so he was investigated for bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. As he progr...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Shadan Jabbar Abdullah Darya Saeed Abdulateef Heshu Sulaiman Rahman Safeen Othman Mahmood Vyan Nasih Mustafa Rezhin Omer Ahmed Rawand Aso Ahmed Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation of Bovine Brucellosis in Indigenous Cattle Herds in Kasulu District of Tanzania
Conclusions: The results showed that farmer knowledge and perception about diseases including AAS to be moderate and further confirm brucellosis to be prevalent and widely distributed locally. Heightened routine surveillance, further studies, and institution of preventive and control measures particularly among young female stock should be implemented. Creating disease awareness especially amongst livestock keepers and general public who are at high risk of contracting brucellosis is desirable.PMID:34211349 | PMC:PMC8223540 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Emanuel S Swai Adeline J Mkumbukwa Sabinus L Chaula Baltazary G Leba Source Type: research

Biology, Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Selected Fish-borne Parasitic Zoonoses
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):297-309. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTFish-borne parasites have been part of the global landscape of food-borne zoonotic diseases for many decades and are often endemic in certain regions of the world. The past 20 years or so have seen the expansion of the range of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses to new geographic regions leading to a substantial public health burden. In this article, we summarize current knowledge about the biology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and control of selected fish-borne helminthic diseases caused by parasitic roundworm (Anisakis), t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wei Cong Hany M Elsheikha Source Type: research

Rabies in Costa Rica - Next Steps Towards Controlling Bat-Borne Rabies After its Elimination in Dogs
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):311-329. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTRabies is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus, with the highest case fatality of any conventional infectious disease. More than 17 different lyssaviruses have been described, but rabies virus is the most widely distributed and important member of the genus. Globally, tens of thousands of human fatalities still occur each year. Although all mammals are susceptible, most human fatalities are caused by the bites of rabid dogs, within lesser developed countries. A global plan envisions the elimination of human rabies cases caused via...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bernal Le ón Silvia Fallas Gonz ález Lisa Miranda Sol ís Manuel Ram írez-Cardoce Andres Moreira-Soto Juan M Cordero-Sol órzano Sabine Elisabeth Hutter Roc ío González-Barrientos Charles E Rupprecht Source Type: research

Zoonotic Ocular Onchocercosis by < em > Onchocerca lupi < /em >
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):331-341. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe parasitic filarioid Onchocerca lupi causes ocular disease characterized by conjunctivitis and nodular lesions. This nematode was first described in 1967 in a wolf from Georgia, and since then cases of infection from dogs and cats with ocular onchocercosis and sporadically from humans also with subcutaneous and cervical lesions caused by O. lupi have been reported from the Middle East, Europe, and North America. Due to its zoonotic potential, this parasitic infection has gained attention in the past 20 years. Phylogenetic studies have highlighted t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Alicia Rojas Fernando Morales-Calvo Harold Salant Domenico Otranto Gad Baneth Source Type: research

Genetic Diversity of < em > Taenia solium < /em > and its Relation to Clinical Presentation of Cysticercosis
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):343-349. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTIn this perspectives paper, we discuss fertilization strategies for Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica as well as heterogeneity in Taenia solium, the causative agent of human cysticercosis. Two different genotypes of T. solium (Asian and Afro/American) were confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis approximately two decades ago. Since then, outcrossings of the two genotypes have been identified in Madagascar where the two genotypes are distributed sympatrically. Outcrossings were confirmed by the presence of discordance between mitochondrial a...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Akira Ito Christine M Budke Source Type: research

Ending the Neglect of Treatable Bacterial Zoonoses Responsible for Non-Malaria Fevers
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):351-360. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTBacterial zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, Q fever, melioidosis, spotted fever group rickettsioses, and brucellosis are increasingly recognized causes of non-malaria acute fevers. However, though readily treatable with antibiotics, these diseases are commonly misdiagnosed resulting in poor outcomes in patients. There is a considerable deficit in the understanding of basic aspects of the epidemiology of these neglected diseases and diagnostic tests for these zoonotic bacterial pathogens are not always available in resource-poor settings. Raisin...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Cyrille Goarant Koussay Dellagi Mathieu Picardeau Source Type: research

An Ecologically Framed Comparison of The Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Non-Human and Human-Infecting Species of Malaria Parasite
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):361-373. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts. Recently observed shifts in the mode, transmission, and presentation of malaria among several species studied are evidenced by shared vectors, atypical symptoms, and novel host-seeking be...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Nicole F Clark Andrew W Taylor-Robinson Source Type: research

The Tragedy of Names
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):375-378. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe naming of pathogens and their associated syndromes is a thorny process which unfolds in a complex geopolitical environment. This brief piece offers perspective on the multitude of forces that shape the name of a pathogen and summarizes the story of Sin Nombre Virus, with some reference to the ongoing saga of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A monopoly on names and circulating monikers rarely exists, and certain communities become disproportionately impacted by misunderstandings or stigmatization. By acknowledging these...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Christopher Radcliffe Source Type: research

The Practice of Science as the Pursuit of Knowledge
This article explores both the pressures that restrict this delicate decision-making process and the processes that scientists can apply to overcome those pressures. Above all else, as it turns out, we must still love the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake - and this love directly impacts our results.PMID:34211357 | PMC:PMC8223544 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Eduardo A Groisman Source Type: research

New Series of Imidazoles Showed Promising Growth Inhibitory and Curative Potential Against Trypanosoma Infection
In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of these new series of imidazoles to clear the systemic parasite burden in infected rats. Furthermore, a high selectivity index of imidazoles towards T. congolense in vitro and the oral LD50 in rats support anti-parasite specific action. Together, findings support the anti-parasitic prospects of the new series of imidazole derivatives.PMID:34211341 | PMC:PMC8223535 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi Nthatisi Innocentia Molefe-Nyembe Abiodun Omokehinde Eseola Winfried Plass Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu Ibrahim Olatunji Yunusa Olubunmi Atolani Ikponmwosa Owen Evbuomwan Oluwakemi J Awakan Keisuke Suganuma Kentaro Kato Source Type: research

Eco-epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Diamantina, Jequitinhonha Valley (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)
Conclusions: Unlike what is happening in urban centers, the results of this study suggest that the VL in Diamantina is in the process of urbanization, given the high percentage of confirmed canine cases and the high density of Lu. longipalpis in the rural area of the municipality. These risk factors warn about the need for continuous surveillance and the need to control actions of VL in this area.PMID:34211342 | PMC:PMC8223551 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Fernanda Batista-Santos Diogo A N D ória Yrllan R Sincur á Samuel S Ros ário Ricardo T Fujiwara Ricardo A Barata Source Type: research

Prevalence and Diversity of the < em > Streptobacillus < /em > Rat-bite Fever Agent, in Three Invasive, Commensal < em > Rattus < /em > Species from South Africa
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):217-226. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTRat-bite fever is an over-looked, global zoonotic disease that has a mortality rate of up to 13%, if untreated. Historically, this rat-borne disease has been attributed to one of two causative agents, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Given the confirmed presence of multiple invasive Rattus host species, high rat densities in urban, informal human settlements and increasing reports of rat bites in South Africa, we undertook a retrospective assessment of Streptobacillus in rats sampled from 16 urban sites, in Gauteng, the smallest but mo...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Rolanda S Julius Helene Brettschneider Christian T Chimimba Armanda D S Bastos Source Type: research

Bacterial Infections in Humans and Nonhuman Primates from Africa: Expanding the Knowledge
This study enhances our knowledge of pathogenic bacteria that threaten African NHPs and humans by using a non-invasive sampling technique. Contact between humans and NHPs results in an exchange of pathogens. Ongoing surveillance, prevention, and treatment strategies alone will limit the spread of these infectious agents.PMID:34211344 | PMC:PMC8223552 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hac ène Medkour Inestin Amona Jean Akiana Younes Laidoudi Bernard Davoust Idir Bitam Ismail Lafri Anthony Levasseur Georges Diatta Cheikh Sokhna R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar Amanda Barciela Slim Gorsane Henri Banga-Mboko Didier Raoult Florence Fenollar Ol Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Zoonotic Pathogens in the Blood and Tissues of Camels ( < em > Camelus dromedarius < /em > ) in Central Desert of Iran
This study aimed to provide an overview on the prevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens in blood and tissues of camels in central Iran. Blood, liver, portal lymph node, and brain were collected from 100 apparently healthy camels at a slaughterhouse in Qom city to assess the presence of DNA of Brucella spp., Trypanosoma spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella spp. PCR products were sequenced bidirectionally and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Eleven percent of camels tested positive for Brucella abortus (3%) and Trypanosoma evansi (8%). Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp. DNA was not detected. Our data demonstrate ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Aliasghar Bahari Sakineh Azami Ali Goudarztalejerdi Saeid Karimi Saber Esmaeili Bruno B Chomel Alireza Sazmand Source Type: research

Health System Contact and Awareness of Zoonotic Diseases: Can it Serve as One Health Entry Point in the Urban Community of Ahmedabad, India?
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):259-269. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTOne Health (OH) is emphasized globally to tackle the (re)emerging issues at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. However, the low awareness about zoonoses remain a challenge in global south, thus this study documented the health system contact and its effect on the awareness level of zoonoses in the urban community of Ahmedabad, India. A community-based household survey was conducted between October 2018 and July 2019. A total of 460 households (HHs) were surveyed from two zones and 23 wards of the city through cluster sampling. A structured, pilot-t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Sandul Yasobant Walter Bruchhausen Deepak Saxena Farjana Zakir Memon Timo Falkenberg Source Type: research

Retrospective Evaluation of Hydatid Cyst Cases During Pregnancy
This study aims to present the maternal-fetal results and clinical treatment of pregnant women diagnosed with liver hydatid cyst (CH). This zoonotic disease is discussed again in the light of current literature. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women with hydatid cyst monitored in a tertiary health center between 2018 and 2020 were evaluated. Seven cases were included in this study. We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data, which did not interfere with medical treatment. Results: Albendazole was started as medical therapy in six patients, and percutaneous drainage was applied to one patient. Three of our six ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Özgür Şahin Harun Egemen Tolunay Erol Nadi Varl ı Özgür Arat Mesut Ayd ın Source Type: research

A Severe Case of Falciparum Malaria, 10 Years After Malaria Eradication: A Case Report
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):277-284. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTMalaria is a major mosquito-borne public health problem especially in tropical countries. The authors report a malaria infection in a 31-year-old man who had returned from East Africa with developed fever and rigor. Because of his thrombocytopenia, decreased hemoglobin, elevated liver enzymes, and splenomegaly, and because of failure to question about recent travel history, he was initially referred to the hematological hospital and medical staff suspected a hematological problem, so he was investigated for bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. As he progr...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Shadan Jabbar Abdullah Darya Saeed Abdulateef Heshu Sulaiman Rahman Safeen Othman Mahmood Vyan Nasih Mustafa Rezhin Omer Ahmed Rawand Aso Ahmed Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation of Bovine Brucellosis in Indigenous Cattle Herds in Kasulu District of Tanzania
Conclusions: The results showed that farmer knowledge and perception about diseases including AAS to be moderate and further confirm brucellosis to be prevalent and widely distributed locally. Heightened routine surveillance, further studies, and institution of preventive and control measures particularly among young female stock should be implemented. Creating disease awareness especially amongst livestock keepers and general public who are at high risk of contracting brucellosis is desirable.PMID:34211349 | PMC:PMC8223540 (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Emanuel S Swai Adeline J Mkumbukwa Sabinus L Chaula Baltazary G Leba Source Type: research

Biology, Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Selected Fish-borne Parasitic Zoonoses
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):297-309. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTFish-borne parasites have been part of the global landscape of food-borne zoonotic diseases for many decades and are often endemic in certain regions of the world. The past 20 years or so have seen the expansion of the range of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses to new geographic regions leading to a substantial public health burden. In this article, we summarize current knowledge about the biology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and control of selected fish-borne helminthic diseases caused by parasitic roundworm (Anisakis), t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wei Cong Hany M Elsheikha Source Type: research

Rabies in Costa Rica - Next Steps Towards Controlling Bat-Borne Rabies After its Elimination in Dogs
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):311-329. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTRabies is an acute, progressive encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus, with the highest case fatality of any conventional infectious disease. More than 17 different lyssaviruses have been described, but rabies virus is the most widely distributed and important member of the genus. Globally, tens of thousands of human fatalities still occur each year. Although all mammals are susceptible, most human fatalities are caused by the bites of rabid dogs, within lesser developed countries. A global plan envisions the elimination of human rabies cases caused via...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Bernal Le ón Silvia Fallas Gonz ález Lisa Miranda Sol ís Manuel Ram írez-Cardoce Andres Moreira-Soto Juan M Cordero-Sol órzano Sabine Elisabeth Hutter Roc ío González-Barrientos Charles E Rupprecht Source Type: research

Zoonotic Ocular Onchocercosis by < em > Onchocerca lupi < /em >
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):331-341. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe parasitic filarioid Onchocerca lupi causes ocular disease characterized by conjunctivitis and nodular lesions. This nematode was first described in 1967 in a wolf from Georgia, and since then cases of infection from dogs and cats with ocular onchocercosis and sporadically from humans also with subcutaneous and cervical lesions caused by O. lupi have been reported from the Middle East, Europe, and North America. Due to its zoonotic potential, this parasitic infection has gained attention in the past 20 years. Phylogenetic studies have highlighted t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Alicia Rojas Fernando Morales-Calvo Harold Salant Domenico Otranto Gad Baneth Source Type: research

Genetic Diversity of < em > Taenia solium < /em > and its Relation to Clinical Presentation of Cysticercosis
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):343-349. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTIn this perspectives paper, we discuss fertilization strategies for Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica as well as heterogeneity in Taenia solium, the causative agent of human cysticercosis. Two different genotypes of T. solium (Asian and Afro/American) were confirmed by mitochondrial DNA analysis approximately two decades ago. Since then, outcrossings of the two genotypes have been identified in Madagascar where the two genotypes are distributed sympatrically. Outcrossings were confirmed by the presence of discordance between mitochondrial a...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Akira Ito Christine M Budke Source Type: research

Ending the Neglect of Treatable Bacterial Zoonoses Responsible for Non-Malaria Fevers
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):351-360. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTBacterial zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis, Q fever, melioidosis, spotted fever group rickettsioses, and brucellosis are increasingly recognized causes of non-malaria acute fevers. However, though readily treatable with antibiotics, these diseases are commonly misdiagnosed resulting in poor outcomes in patients. There is a considerable deficit in the understanding of basic aspects of the epidemiology of these neglected diseases and diagnostic tests for these zoonotic bacterial pathogens are not always available in resource-poor settings. Raisin...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Cyrille Goarant Koussay Dellagi Mathieu Picardeau Source Type: research

An Ecologically Framed Comparison of The Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Non-Human and Human-Infecting Species of Malaria Parasite
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):361-373. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts. Recently observed shifts in the mode, transmission, and presentation of malaria among several species studied are evidenced by shared vectors, atypical symptoms, and novel host-seeking be...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Nicole F Clark Andrew W Taylor-Robinson Source Type: research

The Tragedy of Names
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):375-378. eCollection 2021 Jun.ABSTRACTThe naming of pathogens and their associated syndromes is a thorny process which unfolds in a complex geopolitical environment. This brief piece offers perspective on the multitude of forces that shape the name of a pathogen and summarizes the story of Sin Nombre Virus, with some reference to the ongoing saga of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A monopoly on names and circulating monikers rarely exists, and certain communities become disproportionately impacted by misunderstandings or stigmatization. By acknowledging these...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 2, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Christopher Radcliffe Source Type: research