Kratom and Pain Tolerance: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study.
Conclusions: Kratom decoction demonstrated a substantial and statistically significant increase in pain tolerance. Further rigorous research on kratom pain-relieving properties and a safety profile is needed. PMID: 32607084 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Role of Endophytic/Epiphytic Bacterial Constituents in the Immunostimulatory Activity of the Botanical, Astragalus membranaceus.
Authors: Koehler H, Puchalski K, Ruiz G, Jacobs B, Langland J Abstract Astragalus membranaceus is a staple of Traditional Chinese Medicine being one of the oldest medicinal herbs listed in the material medica of Chinese herbal medicine. Chinese herbalists have used Astragalus to help the human body fight a variety of diseases. Modern herbalists utilize Astragalus primarily as an immunostimulant to prevent common infection and aid in the recovery following infection. Historically, the biological activities associated with Astragalus have been accounted for, at least in part, to several constituents present in the bo...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Cannabis Flower for Immediate Relief from Symptoms of Depression.
Authors: Li X, Diviant JP, Stith SS, Brockelman F, Keeling K, Hall B, Vigil JM Abstract Objective: Scientific research on how consumption of whole, natural Cannabis flower affects low mood and behavioral motivations more generally is largely nonexistent, and few studies to date have measured how common and commercially available Cannabis flower used in vivo may affect the experience of "depression" in real-time. Methods: We observed 1,819 people who completed 5,876 cannabis self-administration sessions using the ReleafApp™ between 06/07/2016 and 07/08/2019, with the goal of measuring real-time effec...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Chemical Evaluation of the Effects of Storage Conditions on the Botanical Goldenseal using Marker-based and Metabolomics Approaches.
Authors: Khin M, Cech NB, Kellogg JJ, Caesar LK Abstract Hydrastis canadensis, commonly known as goldenseal, is a botanical native to the southeastern United States that has been used for the treatment of infection. The activity of goldenseal is often attributed to the presence of alkaloids (cyclic, nitrogen-containing compounds) present within its roots. Chemical components of botanical supplements like goldenseal may face degradation if not stored properly. The purpose of the research was to analyze the stability of known and unknown metabolites of H. canadensis during exposure to different storage conditions usi...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Resolution of Recurrent Oro-facial Herpes Simplex Using a Topical Botanical Gel: A Case Report.
Authors: Nelson EO, Ruiz GG, Kozin AF, Turner TC, Langland EV, Langland JO Abstract Oral herpes labialis, more commonly known as cold sores, are a common encountered viral infection involving herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Although relatively benign, these lesions can be both unsightly and clinically difficult to manage. Prescription standards of care and over-the-counter agents, such as docosonal, have often shown only limited efficacy in both decreasing lesional pain and reducing duration of lesional symptomology and are not without potential side effects. Despite some success with acute remediation, recurrent e...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Potential for Kratom as an Antidepressant and Antipsychotic.
Authors: Johnson LE, Balyan L, Magdalany A, Saeed F, Salinas R, Wallace S, Veltri CA, Swogger MT, Walsh Z, Grundmann O Abstract Mitragyna speciosa, otherwise known as kratom, is a plant in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Southeast Asia and Thailand whose leaves have been shown to cause opioid-like and stimulant responses upon ingestion. The major pharmacologically active compounds present in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG), are both indole alkaloids and are responsible for its opioid-like activity. While kratom is most commonly known for its affinity for mu-opioid receptors, research ha...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Essential Oils and Health.
Authors: Ramsey JT, Shropshire BC, Nagy TR, Chambers KD, Li Y, Korach KS Abstract Essential oils (EOs) have risen in popularity over the past decade. These oils function in society as holistic integrative modalities to traditional medicinal treatments, where many Americans substitute EOs in place of other prescribed medications. EOs are found in a multitude of products including food flavoring, soaps, lotions, shampoos, hair styling products, cologne, laundry detergents, and even insect repellents. EOs are complex substances comprised of hundreds of components that can vary greatly in their composition depending up...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Antidiabetic Potential of Syzygium sp.: An Overview.
Authors: Zulcafli AS, Lim C, Ling AP, Chye S, Koh R Abstract Diabetes, characterized by hyperglycemia, is one of the most significant metabolic diseases, reaching alarming pandemic proportions. It can be due to the defects in insulin action, or secretion, or both. The global prevalence of diabetes is estimated at 425 million people in 2017, and expected to rise to 629 million by 2045 due to an increasing trend of unhealthy lifestyles, physical inactivity, and obesity. Several treatment options are available to diabetics, however, some of the antidiabetic drugs result in adverse side effects such as hypoglycemia. He...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

A Critical Review to Identify the Domains Used to Measure the Effect and Outcome of Adaptogenic Herbal Medicines.
Conclusions: There was a great heterogeneity in data making it difficult to draw conclusions as to the most effective measurement tools to capture the holistic activity in humans. Cognitive measures hold promise as a reliable measurement tool when used in conjunction with other relevant tools. Further investigation is necessary to determine the most appropriate and diverse tools to measure the complex multi-target action of adaptogens. PMID: 32607092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Herbal Medicines in Glaucoma Treatment.
Authors: Ige M, Liu J Abstract Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Optimizing treatment is important to protecting vision. The current standard of therapy for glaucoma involves lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) through medical, laser, and/or surgical therapy. Nevertheless, there are an increasing number of glaucoma patients that use alternative medicines to treat their glaucoma or supplement their traditional glaucoma management. Ginkgo biloba, bilberry, and medical marijuana are amongst the most commonly used medicinal plants by glaucoma patients. We reviewed the literature to ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Aristolochia Herbs and Iatrogenic Disease: The Case of Portland's Powders.
Authors: Tomlinson T, Fernandes A, Grollman AP Abstract Aristolochia herbals have a 2500-year history of medicinal use. We focused this article on Portland's Powders, an 18th-century British gout medicine containing Aristolochia herbs. The powders constitute an 18th-century iteration of an herbal remedy, which was used, with variations, since at least the fifth century BCE. The use of Portland's Powders in Great Britain may appear to be an unusual choice for investigating a public health problem currently widespread in Asia. Yet it exemplifies long-term medicinal use of Aristolochia herbs, reflecting our argument t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Using Plants as a Source of Potential Therapeutics for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.
Authors: Maher PA Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia with the numbers expected to increase dramatically as our society ages. There are no treatments to cure, prevent, or slow down the progression of the disease. Age is the single greatest risk factor for AD. However, to date, AD drug discovery efforts have generally not taken this fact into consideration. Multiple changes associated with brain aging, including neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, are important contributors to disease development and progression. Thus, due to the multifactorial nature of AD, the one target strat...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Plants Go to War: A Botanical History of World War II: An Interview with Judith Sumner, PhD.
Authors: Cassell K PMID: 32607096 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Applications of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Antiviral and Anticancer Drug Development: An Interview with Dr. Yung-Chi (Tommy) Cheng, PhD.
Authors: Li H PMID: 32607097 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - July 3, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Crystal Structure of Keratin 1/10(C401A) 2B Heterodimer Demonstrates a Proclivity for the C-Terminus of Helix 2B to Form Higher Order Molecular Contacts.
Authors: Lomakin IB, Hinbest AJ, Ho M, Eldirany SA, Bunick CG Abstract We previously determined the crystal structure of the wild-type keratin 1/10 helix 2B heterodimer at 3.3 Å resolution. We proposed that the resolution of the diffraction data was limited due to the crystal packing effect from keratin 10 (K10) residue Cys401. Cys401K10 formed a disulfide-linkage with Cys401 from another K1/10 heterodimer, creating an "X-shaped" structure and a loose crystal packing arrangement. We hypothesized that mutation of Cys401K10 to alanine would eliminate the disulfide-linkage and improve crystal packing t...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Structural Basis for How Biologic Medicines Bind their Targets in Psoriasis Therapy.
We describe and analyze the molecular surface character of known binding epitopes for medications in these classes, showing that significant differences exist in epitope location, hydrophobicity, and charge. Some of these differences can be correlated with clinical data, but our analysis ultimately points to the need for more structural information to allow for a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of biologic therapies. PMID: 32226331 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

In vitro Reducing Effect of Cloxacillin on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations to Imipenem, Meropenem, Ceftazidime, and Cefepime in Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates.
In this study we determined the ability of cloxacillin to reduce Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa to imipenem (IMI), meropenem (MEM), ceftazidime (CAZ), and cefepime (FEP). From 2015 to 2017, 61 non-duplicates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were collected from clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Kerman, Iran. The MICs of the isolates to IMI, MEM, CAZ, and FEP with/without cloxacillin were determined by microbroth dilution method. The level of MIC of isolates to carbapenems (IMI and MEM) and cephalosporins (CAZ and FEP) ranged from 1-256 μg/mL and 4-1024 μg...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Clinical and Histopathologic Findings.
Authors: Charifa A, Paulson N, Levy L, Perincheri S, Lee A, McNiff JM, Ko CJ Abstract Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subset of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by neoplastic lymphocytes within the lumina of small to medium-sized blood vessels. IVLBCLs are B-cell tumors that can present in essentially any organ system, including the skin. Cutaneous manifestations vary greatly and can mimic other skin disease which may delay diagnosis; in the absence of skin lesions, blind skin biopsies can be utilized for diagnosis. Early studies suggested that IVLBCL is a very aggressive lymphom...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Low-Dose Intralesional Recombinant Interferon- α2b in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides.
Low-Dose Intralesional Recombinant Interferon-α2b in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides. Yale J Biol Med. 2020 Mar;93(1):41-44 Authors: Hu JK, Carlson K, Girardi M Abstract Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is characterized by malignant CD4+ skin-homing T-cells that drive formation of cutaneous patches, plaques, and/or tumors. MF's known immunogenicity makes it an ideal candidate for local immunotherapy. Recombinant human leukocyte interferon-α2 (rIFN-α2) has well-established immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, and antitumor effects; an...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Diltiazem-associated Photodistributed Hyperpigmentation.
Authors: Siegel JD, Ko CJ Abstract Diltiazem is a calcium-channel blocker commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. Common adverse effects include dizziness, headache, and edema. Fewer than 20 cases of diltiazem-associated photodistributed hyperpigmentation have been reported in the literature. Here, we present the case of a 71-year-old woman with new-onset facial hyperpigmentation 6 months after initiating treatment with diltiazem. PMID: 32226335 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Probable African Tick Bite Fever in the United States.
We present a case of a previously healthy 60-year-old woman who developed an illness strongly suggestive of ATBF after a missionary trip to Zimbabwe and discuss the disease's diagnostic challenges. Our paper also reviews the epidemiology of this disease and the currently available diagnostic laboratory tests and recommended treatment options. PMID: 32226336 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Cutaneous Photoprotection: A Review of the Current Status and Evolving Strategies.
Authors: Suozzi K, Turban J, Girardi M Abstract Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is well established as the major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additional risk factors including genetic mutations, other environmental agents, and immune status are important in modulating the effects of UVR. Dermatologists advocate a multi-pronged approach to minimizing UVR exposure including lifestyle modifications, UVR protective clothing, and topically applied sun-protective products, i.e. sunscreen. New Federal Drug Administ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Studies of Skin Color and Skin Cancer.
Authors: LaBerge GS, Duvall E, Grasmick Z, Haedicke K, Galan A, Leverett J, Baswan S, Yim S, Pawelek J Abstract The relationship between skin color and skin cancer is well established: the less melanin in one's skin the greater the risk for developing skin cancer. This review is in two parts. First, we summarize the current understanding of the cutaneous pigmentary system and trace melanin from its synthesis in the pigment cell melanosomes through its transfer to keratinocytes. We also present new methods for reducing melanin content in hyper-pigmented areas of skin such as solar lentigenes, melasma, and post-infla...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: Current and Future Pathogenesis-Directed Therapies.
Authors: Little AJ, Vesely MD Abstract Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is an autoimmune disease of the skin with significant morbidity. Current treatments are often inadequate to control disease and there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for this potentially debilitating disease, underscoring an unmet medical need. Recent insights into disease pathogenesis have implicated innate and adaptive immune components, including type I and type III interferons in the development of CLE. Promising clinical trials based on these insights are now underway. However, the full spectrum of immune ce...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Current Developments in the Immunology of Psoriasis.
We describe different roles of T cells, B cells, and cytokines for the immunopathology and disease course of psoriasis. PMID: 32226340 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Insights Into the Molecular and Cellular Underpinnings of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma.
Authors: Yumeen S, Girardi M Abstract Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare malignancy of skin-homing T lymphocytes. Advances in whole exome sequencing have identified a vast number of both single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and genomic copy number alterations (GCNAs) as driver mutations present in CTCL cells. These alterations cluster within several key pathways - T cell/NF-κB/JAK-STAT activation, cell cycle dysregulation/apoptosis, and DNA structural dysregulation affecting gene expression - allowing the maintenance of a population of proliferating, activated malignant T lymphocytes. While much of the c...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Cutaneous Toxicities of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: The Role of the Dermatologist.
Authors: Tattersall IW, Leventhal JS Abstract The advent of immune checkpoint inhibition represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of an increasing number of cancers. However, the incredible therapeutic promise of immunotherapy brings with it the need to understand and manage its diverse array of potential adverse events. The skin is the most common site of immune-related adverse vents (irAEs), which can present with a wide variety of disparate morphologies and severities. These toxicities can endanger patient health and the ability to continue on therapy. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Unraveling Immune-Epithelial Interactions in Skin Homeostasis and Injury.
Authors: Mansfield K, Naik S Abstract The skin serves as a front line of defense against harmful environmental elements and thus is vital for organismal survival. This barrier is comprised of a water-tight epithelial structure reinforced by an arsenal of immune cells. The epithelial and immune components of the skin are interdependent and actively dialogue to maintain health and combat infectious, injurious, and noxious stimuli. Here, we discuss the molecular mediators of this crosstalk that establish tissue homeostasis and their dynamic adaptations to various stress conditions. In particular, we focus on immune-ep...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy: Mechanistic Insights Driving Recent Advances and Future Directions.
Authors: Wei BM, Hanlon D, Khalil D, Han P, Tatsuno K, Sobolev O, Edelson RL Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, necessary for the initiation and maintenance of antigen-specific immunity and tolerance. Decades of research have been driven by hopes to harness the immunological capabilities of DCs and achieve physiological partnership with the immune system for therapeutic ends. Potential applications for DC-based immunotherapy include treatments for cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. However, DCs have poor availability in peripheral and lymphoid tissues and h...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Understanding Transcriptional Networks Regulating Initiation of Cutaneous Wound Healing.
Authors: Boudra R, Ramsey MR Abstract The epidermis has an essential function in creating a barrier against the external environment to retain proper fluid balance and block the entry of pathogens. When damage occurs to this barrier, the wound must quickly be sealed to avoid fluid loss, cleared of invading pathogens, and then keratinocytes must re-form an intact barrier. This requires complex integration of temporally and spatially distinct signals to execute orderly closure of the wound, and failure of this process can lead to chronic ulceration. Transcription factors serve as a key integration point for the myria...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Kinin B1 Receptor Signaling in Skin Homeostasis and Wound Healing.
Authors: Matus CE, Bhoola KD, Figueroa CD Abstract Kinins are proinflammatory peptides that are formed in the skin by the enzymatic action of tissue kallikrein (KLK1) on kininogens. Tissue kallikrein is produced by eccrine sweat glands and also by cells of the stratum granulosum and other skin appendages. Kinin formation may be favored during inflammatory skin disorders when plasma constituents, including kininogens, extravasate from venules and capillaries, which have increased permeability in response to the plethora of inflammatory mediators generated in the course of acute inflammation. By activating either kin...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Promise of JAK Inhibitors for Treatment of Sarcoidosis and Other Inflammatory Disorders with Macrophage Activation: A Review of the Literature.
Authors: Wang A, Singh K, Ibrahim W, King B, Damsky W Abstract Certain inflammatory disorders are characterized by macrophage activation and accumulation in tissue; sometimes leading to the formation of granulomas, as in sarcoidosis. These disorders are often difficult to treat and more effective, molecularly targeted therapies are needed. Recent work has shown that overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ) leading to constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway may be a conserved feature of these disorders. Use of JAK inhibitors, which can block these signals, has resulted...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Getting Under the Skin: Targeting Cutaneous Autoimmune Disease.
Authors: Vesely MD Abstract Autoimmune diseases of the skin occur when the immune system attacks normal skin. The immune system can be broadly divided into an effector arm responsible for fighting infections and cancer and a regulatory arm that reduces autoreactivity and maintains immune homeostasis. Cutaneous autoimmunity develops when the equilibrium between the effector arm and regulatory arm of the immune system is disrupted. Recent insights into the inflammatory pathways that are overactive in some cutaneous autoimmune diseases have led to therapies targeting the effector arm of the immune system with greater ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Melanoma Radiological Surveillance: A Review of Current Evidence and Clinical Challenges.
This article aims to present an extensive review of literature surrounding radiological surveillance in melanoma patients, a discussion of controversies, and recommendations for surveillance modalities. PMID: 32226349 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Race and Genetics: Somber History, Troubled Present.
Authors: Mohsen H Abstract Following the completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2003, advances in DNA sequencing technologies further popularized the field of genomics and brought its social ramifications to the fore. Scholars across disciplines recently voiced serious concerns about the re-emergence of genomic research that might be used to justify racism. In this piece, I trace the history of attempts to biologize the concept of race and its diffused presence in today's genomic research. I then include a brief analysis inspired by concepts from the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) to suggest...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Learning from a Trailblazer in Dermatology: An Interview with Jean Bolognia, MD.
Authors: Olamiju B PMID: 32226351 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

A Report of Physicians' Beliefs about Physician-Assisted Suicide: A National Study.
Authors: Hetzler PT, Nie J, Zhou A, Dugdale LS Abstract The goal of this work is to assess the beliefs of US physicians about the national legalization of physician-assisted suicide (PAS). We sent a survey to 1000 randomly chosen physicians from around the US. Our survey indicates that 60% of physicians thought PAS should be legal, and of that 60%, 13% answered "yes" when asked if they would perform the practice if it were legal. Next, 49% of physicians agreed that most patients who seek PAS do so because of pain, and 58% agreed that the current safeguards in place for PAS, in general, are adequate to pro...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Stroke Center Certification and Performance: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Northeast Cerebrovascular Consortium Region.
This study evaluates the increase in stroke quality over time in NECC and Non-NECC regions, defined as the change in proportion of hospitals over time who received State or National Primary/Comprehensive Stroke Center (PSC/CSC) certification, participated in a national quality program (Get-With-The-Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-S)), or received GWTG-S Performance Achievement Awards (PAA) from 2005-2013. Analysis of trends was performed (Cochran-Armitage/Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests; Generalized-Estimating Equations). As an exploratory analysis eight NECC region Departments of Health (DOH) were surveyed regarding perceptions of ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Respecting Autonomy and Promoting the Patient's Good in the Setting of Serious Terminal and Concurrent Mental Illness.
Conclusion: Palliative Care offers a holistic clinical approach to complex suffering. Palliative care specialists develop advanced skill sets in prognosis estimation, nuanced communication issues, and patient-centered goal setting. As this case highlights, prognosis can shift dramatically in the perimortem period, even with small changes in care plans. This case presented several biomedical, social-cultural, and ethical challenges to the team. Lessons from the case are presented regarding: the role a specialist palliative team might play throughout all stages of serious illness; approaching prognostication as an iterative ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Gasdermins in Apoptosis: New players in an Old Game.
Authors: Rogers C, Alnemri ES Abstract Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death (PCD) that plays critical physiological roles in removing superfluous or dangerous cell populations that are unneeded or threatening to the health of the host organism. Although the molecular pathways leading to activation of the apoptotic program have been extensively studied and characterized starting in the 1970s, new evidence suggests that members of the gasdermin superfamily are novel pore-forming proteins that augment apoptosis by permeabilizing the mitochondria and participate in the final stages of the apoptotic program by i...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Defying Death - How Coxiella burnetii Copes with Intentional Host Cell Suicide.
Authors: Cordsmeier A, Wagner N, Lührmann A, Berens C Abstract The obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the worldwide zoonotic disease Q fever. This Gram-negative bacterium infects macrophages where it establishes a replicative niche in an acidic and phagolysosome-like vacuole. Establishing and maintaining the niche requires a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocates multiple effector proteins into the host cell. These effector proteins act by manipulating diverse cellular processes allowing the bacterium to establish an infection and complete its com...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Organ Dysfunction in Sepsis: An Ominous Trajectory From Infection To Death.
Authors: Caraballo C, Jaimes F Abstract Sepsis is a highly complex and lethal syndrome with highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations that makes it difficult to detect and treat. It is also one of the major and most urgent global public health challenges. More than 30 million people are diagnosed with sepsis each year, with 5 million attributable deaths and long-term sequalae among survivors. The current international consensus defines sepsis as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection. Over the past decades substantial research has increased the understanding o...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Cell Cycle Proteins as Key Regulators of Postmitotic Cell Death.
Authors: Xia P, Liu Y, Chen J, Cheng Z Abstract Cell cycle progression in dividing cells, characterized by faithful replication of the genomic materials and duplication of the original cell, is fundamental for growth and reproduction of all mammalian organisms. Functional maturation of postmitotic cells, however, requires cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. In mature postmitotic cells, many cell cycle proteins remain to be expressed, or can be induced and reactivated in pathological conditions such as traumatic injury and degenerative diseases. Interestingly, elevated levels of cell cycle proteins in post...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Cell Death in Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality.
Authors: Durand PM, Barreto Filho MM, Michod RE Abstract Programmed cell death (PCD) in cell groups and microbial communities affects population structures, nutrient recycling, and sociobiological interactions. A less explored area is the role played by PCD in the emergence of higher-level individuals. Here, we examine how cell death impacted evolutionary transitions in individuality (ETIs). The focus is on three specific ETIs - the emergence of the eukaryote cell, multicellularity, and social insects - and we review the theoretical and empirical evidence for the role of PCD in these three transitions. We find that...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Funerals and Feasts: The Immunological Rites of Cell Death.
Authors: Galimberti VE, Rothlin CV, Ghosh S Abstract The immune system functions as a vanguard against pathogens and toxins. While it is mostly considered to be activated on the basis of self versus non-self recognition, injury/infection and damage are unavoidably associated with cell death. Does cell death play a role in the regulation of the immune response? Cell death, for better or for worse, is an omnipresent process in all stages of life that are observed throughout most tissues in multicellular organisms. From development to homeostasis in adult organisms, cells commit to scheduled death, while cases of inju...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response Pathway in Cytotoxic T Cells: A Comparison Between in vitro Stimulation, Infection, and the Tumor Microenvironment.
Authors: Kerr SR, Katz SG Abstract IRE1α is an extremely conserved intracellular receptor that regulates one branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Homologs of IRE1α are found virtually throughout all eukaryotes. This receptor plays a pivotal role in a cell's reaction to stress, determining whether to take compensatory measures and survive or undergo apoptosis and die. While the role of the unfolded protein response in lower organisms and secretory cells has been comprehensively studied, the precise role of IRE1α in the context of cytotoxic T cells has only begun to be elucidated within th...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

After-Death Functions of Cell Death.
Authors: Lee Y, Overholtzer M Abstract Cell death can occur through numerous regulated mechanisms, from apoptosis to necrosis, entosis, and others. Each has a distinct mode of regulation and effect on tissue homeostasis. While the elimination of individual cells is typically considered the relevant physiologic endpoint of cell death, in some cases the remnants left behind by death can also function to support tissue homeostasis. Here we discuss specific functions of the end products of cell death, and how "after-death" functions may contribute to the roles of programmed cell death in physiology. PMID:...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Selective Neuronal Death in Neurodegenerative Diseases: The Ongoing Mystery.
Authors: Subramaniam S Abstract A major unresolved problem in neurodegenerative disease is why and how a specific set of neurons in the brain are highly vulnerable to neuronal death. Multiple pathways and mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD), yet how they contribute to neuronal vulnerability remains far from clear. In this review, various mechanisms ascribed in AD, PD, ALS, and HD will be briefly summarized. Particular focus will be placed on Rhes-mediated intercellular transport of the HD pro...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Regulation of Apoptosis by Autophagy to Enhance Cancer Therapy.
Authors: Tompkins KD, Thorburn A Abstract In cancer therapy, a principle goal is to kill cancer cells while minimizing death of normal cells. Traditional cytotoxic therapies and the newer agents that target specific signaling proteins that are critical for cancer cell growth do this by activating a specific type of programmed cell death - apoptosis. However, it has been well established that cancer cells have varying levels of responses to apoptotic stimuli, with some being close to an "apoptotic threshold" and others being further away and that this ultimately determines whether cancer therapy is success...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Practice Variability in Determination of Death by Neurologic Criteria for Adult Patients.
Authors: Junn A, Hwang DY Abstract In 2010, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) published updated official guidelines for specific practices involved in the determination of death by neurologic criteria for adult patients, otherwise known as brain death. Most states, however, do not have laws mandating the standard adoption of the AAN guidelines. The responsibilities for creating and implementing brain death determination policies thus falls on individual hospitals. As a result, significant variability in practice exists between hospitals and even between providers. This review highlights the ways in which and ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - December 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research