Overview of Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):279-282. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Jun 10.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210484 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thenappan Chandrasekar William K Kelly Leonard G Gomella Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Predisposition
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):283-296. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThe identification and characterization of alterations in prostate cancer (PCa)-predisposing genes can help to inform screening strategies in undiagnosed men and treatment options in men in both the clinically localized and in the metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the genetic basis underlying hereditary predisposition to PCa, the current role of genetics and PCa risk assessment, and how genetic risk factors affect aggressiveness and lethality of PCa.PMID:34210485 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001 (Source...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yasin Bhanji William B Isaacs Jianfeng Xu Kathleen A Cooney Source Type: research

Clinical Multigene Testing for Prostate Cancer
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):297-309. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.002. Epub 2021 Jun 14.ABSTRACTGermline genetic testing for prostate cancer (PC) is increasingly important as the clinical utility of germline variants in this patient population is understood better. To better characterize the clinical landscape of germline testing in PC, published clinical cohorts of PC who underwent clinical germline genetic analysis at point of care are reviewed. Limitations and heterogeneity of these cohorts are highlighted and pathogenic results with established or potential clinical utility in PC noted. The need for additional ger...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tala Berro Elizabeth Barrett Saud H AlDubayan Source Type: research

Genetic Testing Guidelines and Education of Health Care Providers Involved in Prostate Cancer Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):311-322. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTGermline testing for prostate cancer (PCA) is revolutionizing PCA care. Two PARP inhibitors are FDA approved for men with metastatic, castration-resistant disease after progression on first-line therapies. In the screening setting, genetic test results may inform initiation and screening strategies. For men with early-stage disease, literature is emerging on the possible role of germline testing in active surveillance discussions. As such, urologists and oncologists must gain working knowledge of the principles and practice...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James Ryan Mark Carey McDougall Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Genetic Counseling for Men with Prostate Cancer
This article provides an overview of the historical aspects of genetic counseling, discusses the components needed to provide proper genetic counseling, summarizes genes related to hereditary prostate cancer risk, and reviews genetic privacy and genetic discrimination concerns related to germline genetic testing.PMID:34210488 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.004 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Colette Hyatt Carey McDougall Susan Miller-Samuel Jessica Russo Source Type: research

Basic Science and Molecular Genetics of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):339-347. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.004. Epub 2021 Jun 16.ABSTRACTAndrogen receptor function, tumor cell plasticity, loss of tumor suppressors, and defects in DNA repair genes affect aggressive features of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer development, progression, and aggressive behavior are often attributable to function of the androgen receptor. Tumor cell plasticity, neuroendocrine features, and loss of tumor suppressors lend aggressive behavior to prostate cancer cells. DNA repair defects have ramifications for prostate cancer cell behavior.PMID:34210489 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.00...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matthew J Schiewer Karen E Knudsen Source Type: research

Genetic Contribution to Metastatic Prostate Cancer
This article reviews key literature on individual genes, recognizing BRCA2 as the gene most commonly altered in the metastatic setting. This article discusses the importance of representative and diverse inclusion, and efforts to advance management for at-risk carrier populations to maximize clinical benefit.PMID:34210490 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.005 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexandra O Sokolova Elias I Obeid Heather H Cheng Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Treatment for Metastatic Disease
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):365-371. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.006. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTGermline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequenci...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aisha L Siebert Brittany M Szymaniak Yazan Numan Alicia K Morgans Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Screening
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):373-386. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTProstate cancer represents a significant health care burden in the United States due to its incidence, treatment-related morbidity, and cancer-specific mortality. The burden begins with prostate-specific antigen screening, which has been subject to controversy due to concerns of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Advancements in molecular oncology have provided evidence for the inherited predisposition to prostate cancer, which could improve individualized, risk-adapted approaches to screening and mitigate the harms of routin...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rohith Arcot Todd M Morgan Thomas J Polascik Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Scores in Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.007. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTMore than 40% of the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) is from genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of more than 140 variants associated with PCa risk. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) generated using these variants show promise in identifying individuals at much higher (and lower) lifetime risk than the average man. PCa PRS also improve the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen screening, may inform the age for starting PCa screening, and are informative for development of mo...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lindsey Byrne Amanda Ewart Toland Source Type: research

Germline Testing for Prostate Cancer Prognosis: Implications for Active Surveillance
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):401-409. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.003. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTAvailable evidence supports routine implementation of germline genetic testing for many aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) decision making. The purpose of obtaining genetic testing for newly diagnosed men would be focused on identifying mutations that predispose to aggressive PCa. Based on an evidence-based review, the authors review germline rare pathogenic mutations in several genes that are significantly associated with aggressiveness, metastases, and mortality. Then recent studies of these germline mutations in predicting...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brian T Helfand Jianfeng Xu Source Type: research

Germline Predisposition to Prostate Cancer in Diverse Populations
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):411-423. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.008. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThere remains a paucity of data related to germline genetic alterations predisposing patients to prostate cancer. Recent data suggest that African American, Hispanic, and Asian and Pacific Islander men exhibit genetic alterations in both highly penetrant germline genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, and CHEK2, and the mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome, as well as low-penetrant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, cohort sizes remain small in many studies limiting the ability to determine clinical significa...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kelly K Bree Patrick J Henley Curtis A Pettaway Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: The Urologic Research Promissory Note Is Being Cashed
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):xi-xii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210496 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R Loughlin Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: Changing the Paradigm of Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210497 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.001 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leonard G Gomella Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Overview of Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):279-282. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Jun 10.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210484 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thenappan Chandrasekar William K Kelly Leonard G Gomella Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Predisposition
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):283-296. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThe identification and characterization of alterations in prostate cancer (PCa)-predisposing genes can help to inform screening strategies in undiagnosed men and treatment options in men in both the clinically localized and in the metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the genetic basis underlying hereditary predisposition to PCa, the current role of genetics and PCa risk assessment, and how genetic risk factors affect aggressiveness and lethality of PCa.PMID:34210485 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001 (Source...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yasin Bhanji William B Isaacs Jianfeng Xu Kathleen A Cooney Source Type: research

Clinical Multigene Testing for Prostate Cancer
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):297-309. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.002. Epub 2021 Jun 14.ABSTRACTGermline genetic testing for prostate cancer (PC) is increasingly important as the clinical utility of germline variants in this patient population is understood better. To better characterize the clinical landscape of germline testing in PC, published clinical cohorts of PC who underwent clinical germline genetic analysis at point of care are reviewed. Limitations and heterogeneity of these cohorts are highlighted and pathogenic results with established or potential clinical utility in PC noted. The need for additional ger...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tala Berro Elizabeth Barrett Saud H AlDubayan Source Type: research

Genetic Testing Guidelines and Education of Health Care Providers Involved in Prostate Cancer Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):311-322. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTGermline testing for prostate cancer (PCA) is revolutionizing PCA care. Two PARP inhibitors are FDA approved for men with metastatic, castration-resistant disease after progression on first-line therapies. In the screening setting, genetic test results may inform initiation and screening strategies. For men with early-stage disease, literature is emerging on the possible role of germline testing in active surveillance discussions. As such, urologists and oncologists must gain working knowledge of the principles and practice...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James Ryan Mark Carey McDougall Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Genetic Counseling for Men with Prostate Cancer
This article provides an overview of the historical aspects of genetic counseling, discusses the components needed to provide proper genetic counseling, summarizes genes related to hereditary prostate cancer risk, and reviews genetic privacy and genetic discrimination concerns related to germline genetic testing.PMID:34210488 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.004 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Colette Hyatt Carey McDougall Susan Miller-Samuel Jessica Russo Source Type: research

Basic Science and Molecular Genetics of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):339-347. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.004. Epub 2021 Jun 16.ABSTRACTAndrogen receptor function, tumor cell plasticity, loss of tumor suppressors, and defects in DNA repair genes affect aggressive features of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer development, progression, and aggressive behavior are often attributable to function of the androgen receptor. Tumor cell plasticity, neuroendocrine features, and loss of tumor suppressors lend aggressive behavior to prostate cancer cells. DNA repair defects have ramifications for prostate cancer cell behavior.PMID:34210489 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.00...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matthew J Schiewer Karen E Knudsen Source Type: research

Genetic Contribution to Metastatic Prostate Cancer
This article reviews key literature on individual genes, recognizing BRCA2 as the gene most commonly altered in the metastatic setting. This article discusses the importance of representative and diverse inclusion, and efforts to advance management for at-risk carrier populations to maximize clinical benefit.PMID:34210490 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.005 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexandra O Sokolova Elias I Obeid Heather H Cheng Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Treatment for Metastatic Disease
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):365-371. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.006. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTGermline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequenci...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aisha L Siebert Brittany M Szymaniak Yazan Numan Alicia K Morgans Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Screening
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):373-386. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTProstate cancer represents a significant health care burden in the United States due to its incidence, treatment-related morbidity, and cancer-specific mortality. The burden begins with prostate-specific antigen screening, which has been subject to controversy due to concerns of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Advancements in molecular oncology have provided evidence for the inherited predisposition to prostate cancer, which could improve individualized, risk-adapted approaches to screening and mitigate the harms of routin...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rohith Arcot Todd M Morgan Thomas J Polascik Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Scores in Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.007. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTMore than 40% of the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) is from genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of more than 140 variants associated with PCa risk. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) generated using these variants show promise in identifying individuals at much higher (and lower) lifetime risk than the average man. PCa PRS also improve the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen screening, may inform the age for starting PCa screening, and are informative for development of mo...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lindsey Byrne Amanda Ewart Toland Source Type: research

Germline Testing for Prostate Cancer Prognosis: Implications for Active Surveillance
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):401-409. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.003. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTAvailable evidence supports routine implementation of germline genetic testing for many aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) decision making. The purpose of obtaining genetic testing for newly diagnosed men would be focused on identifying mutations that predispose to aggressive PCa. Based on an evidence-based review, the authors review germline rare pathogenic mutations in several genes that are significantly associated with aggressiveness, metastases, and mortality. Then recent studies of these germline mutations in predicting...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brian T Helfand Jianfeng Xu Source Type: research

Germline Predisposition to Prostate Cancer in Diverse Populations
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):411-423. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.008. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThere remains a paucity of data related to germline genetic alterations predisposing patients to prostate cancer. Recent data suggest that African American, Hispanic, and Asian and Pacific Islander men exhibit genetic alterations in both highly penetrant germline genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, and CHEK2, and the mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome, as well as low-penetrant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, cohort sizes remain small in many studies limiting the ability to determine clinical significa...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kelly K Bree Patrick J Henley Curtis A Pettaway Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: The Urologic Research Promissory Note Is Being Cashed
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):xi-xii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210496 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R Loughlin Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: Changing the Paradigm of Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210497 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.001 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leonard G Gomella Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Overview of Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):279-282. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Jun 10.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210484 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thenappan Chandrasekar William K Kelly Leonard G Gomella Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Predisposition
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):283-296. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThe identification and characterization of alterations in prostate cancer (PCa)-predisposing genes can help to inform screening strategies in undiagnosed men and treatment options in men in both the clinically localized and in the metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the genetic basis underlying hereditary predisposition to PCa, the current role of genetics and PCa risk assessment, and how genetic risk factors affect aggressiveness and lethality of PCa.PMID:34210485 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001 (Source...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yasin Bhanji William B Isaacs Jianfeng Xu Kathleen A Cooney Source Type: research

Clinical Multigene Testing for Prostate Cancer
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):297-309. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.002. Epub 2021 Jun 14.ABSTRACTGermline genetic testing for prostate cancer (PC) is increasingly important as the clinical utility of germline variants in this patient population is understood better. To better characterize the clinical landscape of germline testing in PC, published clinical cohorts of PC who underwent clinical germline genetic analysis at point of care are reviewed. Limitations and heterogeneity of these cohorts are highlighted and pathogenic results with established or potential clinical utility in PC noted. The need for additional ger...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tala Berro Elizabeth Barrett Saud H AlDubayan Source Type: research

Genetic Testing Guidelines and Education of Health Care Providers Involved in Prostate Cancer Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):311-322. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTGermline testing for prostate cancer (PCA) is revolutionizing PCA care. Two PARP inhibitors are FDA approved for men with metastatic, castration-resistant disease after progression on first-line therapies. In the screening setting, genetic test results may inform initiation and screening strategies. For men with early-stage disease, literature is emerging on the possible role of germline testing in active surveillance discussions. As such, urologists and oncologists must gain working knowledge of the principles and practice...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James Ryan Mark Carey McDougall Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Genetic Counseling for Men with Prostate Cancer
This article provides an overview of the historical aspects of genetic counseling, discusses the components needed to provide proper genetic counseling, summarizes genes related to hereditary prostate cancer risk, and reviews genetic privacy and genetic discrimination concerns related to germline genetic testing.PMID:34210488 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.004 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Colette Hyatt Carey McDougall Susan Miller-Samuel Jessica Russo Source Type: research

Basic Science and Molecular Genetics of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):339-347. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.004. Epub 2021 Jun 16.ABSTRACTAndrogen receptor function, tumor cell plasticity, loss of tumor suppressors, and defects in DNA repair genes affect aggressive features of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer development, progression, and aggressive behavior are often attributable to function of the androgen receptor. Tumor cell plasticity, neuroendocrine features, and loss of tumor suppressors lend aggressive behavior to prostate cancer cells. DNA repair defects have ramifications for prostate cancer cell behavior.PMID:34210489 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.00...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matthew J Schiewer Karen E Knudsen Source Type: research

Genetic Contribution to Metastatic Prostate Cancer
This article reviews key literature on individual genes, recognizing BRCA2 as the gene most commonly altered in the metastatic setting. This article discusses the importance of representative and diverse inclusion, and efforts to advance management for at-risk carrier populations to maximize clinical benefit.PMID:34210490 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.005 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexandra O Sokolova Elias I Obeid Heather H Cheng Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Treatment for Metastatic Disease
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):365-371. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.006. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTGermline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequenci...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aisha L Siebert Brittany M Szymaniak Yazan Numan Alicia K Morgans Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Screening
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):373-386. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTProstate cancer represents a significant health care burden in the United States due to its incidence, treatment-related morbidity, and cancer-specific mortality. The burden begins with prostate-specific antigen screening, which has been subject to controversy due to concerns of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Advancements in molecular oncology have provided evidence for the inherited predisposition to prostate cancer, which could improve individualized, risk-adapted approaches to screening and mitigate the harms of routin...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rohith Arcot Todd M Morgan Thomas J Polascik Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Scores in Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment and Screening
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):387-399. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.007. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTMore than 40% of the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) is from genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of more than 140 variants associated with PCa risk. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) generated using these variants show promise in identifying individuals at much higher (and lower) lifetime risk than the average man. PCa PRS also improve the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen screening, may inform the age for starting PCa screening, and are informative for development of mo...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lindsey Byrne Amanda Ewart Toland Source Type: research

Germline Testing for Prostate Cancer Prognosis: Implications for Active Surveillance
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):401-409. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.003. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTAvailable evidence supports routine implementation of germline genetic testing for many aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) decision making. The purpose of obtaining genetic testing for newly diagnosed men would be focused on identifying mutations that predispose to aggressive PCa. Based on an evidence-based review, the authors review germline rare pathogenic mutations in several genes that are significantly associated with aggressiveness, metastases, and mortality. Then recent studies of these germline mutations in predicting...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brian T Helfand Jianfeng Xu Source Type: research

Germline Predisposition to Prostate Cancer in Diverse Populations
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):411-423. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.008. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThere remains a paucity of data related to germline genetic alterations predisposing patients to prostate cancer. Recent data suggest that African American, Hispanic, and Asian and Pacific Islander men exhibit genetic alterations in both highly penetrant germline genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, and CHEK2, and the mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome, as well as low-penetrant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. However, cohort sizes remain small in many studies limiting the ability to determine clinical significa...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kelly K Bree Patrick J Henley Curtis A Pettaway Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: The Urologic Research Promissory Note Is Being Cashed
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):xi-xii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210496 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R Loughlin Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: Changing the Paradigm of Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210497 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.06.001 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leonard G Gomella Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Overview of Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):279-282. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Jun 10.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34210484 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.002 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Thenappan Chandrasekar William K Kelly Leonard G Gomella Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Predisposition
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):283-296. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTThe identification and characterization of alterations in prostate cancer (PCa)-predisposing genes can help to inform screening strategies in undiagnosed men and treatment options in men in both the clinically localized and in the metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the genetic basis underlying hereditary predisposition to PCa, the current role of genetics and PCa risk assessment, and how genetic risk factors affect aggressiveness and lethality of PCa.PMID:34210485 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.001 (Source...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yasin Bhanji William B Isaacs Jianfeng Xu Kathleen A Cooney Source Type: research

Clinical Multigene Testing for Prostate Cancer
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):297-309. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.002. Epub 2021 Jun 14.ABSTRACTGermline genetic testing for prostate cancer (PC) is increasingly important as the clinical utility of germline variants in this patient population is understood better. To better characterize the clinical landscape of germline testing in PC, published clinical cohorts of PC who underwent clinical germline genetic analysis at point of care are reviewed. Limitations and heterogeneity of these cohorts are highlighted and pathogenic results with established or potential clinical utility in PC noted. The need for additional ger...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tala Berro Elizabeth Barrett Saud H AlDubayan Source Type: research

Genetic Testing Guidelines and Education of Health Care Providers Involved in Prostate Cancer Care
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):311-322. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Jun 12.ABSTRACTGermline testing for prostate cancer (PCA) is revolutionizing PCA care. Two PARP inhibitors are FDA approved for men with metastatic, castration-resistant disease after progression on first-line therapies. In the screening setting, genetic test results may inform initiation and screening strategies. For men with early-stage disease, literature is emerging on the possible role of germline testing in active surveillance discussions. As such, urologists and oncologists must gain working knowledge of the principles and practice...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James Ryan Mark Carey McDougall Veda N Giri Source Type: research

Genetic Counseling for Men with Prostate Cancer
This article provides an overview of the historical aspects of genetic counseling, discusses the components needed to provide proper genetic counseling, summarizes genes related to hereditary prostate cancer risk, and reviews genetic privacy and genetic discrimination concerns related to germline genetic testing.PMID:34210488 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.004 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Colette Hyatt Carey McDougall Susan Miller-Samuel Jessica Russo Source Type: research

Basic Science and Molecular Genetics of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):339-347. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.004. Epub 2021 Jun 16.ABSTRACTAndrogen receptor function, tumor cell plasticity, loss of tumor suppressors, and defects in DNA repair genes affect aggressive features of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer development, progression, and aggressive behavior are often attributable to function of the androgen receptor. Tumor cell plasticity, neuroendocrine features, and loss of tumor suppressors lend aggressive behavior to prostate cancer cells. DNA repair defects have ramifications for prostate cancer cell behavior.PMID:34210489 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.04.00...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matthew J Schiewer Karen E Knudsen Source Type: research

Genetic Contribution to Metastatic Prostate Cancer
This article reviews key literature on individual genes, recognizing BRCA2 as the gene most commonly altered in the metastatic setting. This article discusses the importance of representative and diverse inclusion, and efforts to advance management for at-risk carrier populations to maximize clinical benefit.PMID:34210490 | DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.005 (Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexandra O Sokolova Elias I Obeid Heather H Cheng Source Type: research

Genetically Informed Prostate Cancer Treatment for Metastatic Disease
Urol Clin North Am. 2021 Aug;48(3):365-371. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.03.006. Epub 2021 Jun 10.ABSTRACTGermline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequenci...
Source: The Urologic Clinics of North America - July 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Aisha L Siebert Brittany M Szymaniak Yazan Numan Alicia K Morgans Source Type: research