General Overview of the Facial Trauma Evaluation
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.001.ABSTRACTThe initial evaluation of maxillofacial trauma in athletes should first focus on the management of life-threatening injuries that require emergent care. Airway, breathing, and circulation are the 3 areas to be addressed first and foremost, as set forth by Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. Following the stabilization of the patient, a thorough physical examination and systematic review of any relevant imaging studies are imperative to ensure that injuries are not missed. Ultimately, management by the facial plastic surg...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: James Eng Sunthosh Sivam Source Type: research

Mandibular Angle Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):109-116. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.009.ABSTRACTAngle fractures are the most common among the mandibular fractures. History and physical examination are crucial in guiding time course and specifics of management. Computed tomography (CT) has become the gold standard for diagnosis of mandible fractures, offering advantages for both surgical planning and assessing dental involvement. Currently the use of a single monocortical plate with the Champy technique for osteosynthesis is used preferentially for noncomminuted fractures of the mandibular angle. Other load-sharing options ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Gaelen Stanford-Moore Andrew H Murr Source Type: research

Concussion in Head Trauma
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):11-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.013.ABSTRACTConcussion in the setting of facial trauma is an entity that can be overlooked. Having a high index of suspicion is critical in initial management and prompt treatment. Clinical signs can be common manifestations of a concussion. Serial examinations are important as these clinical manifestations can occur later in the hospitalization. Cognitive assessment tools can also give a baseline of a patient and can be used to assess recovery from a concussion. Assessment of the vestibular and oculomotor system can play a critical role in t...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Vincent H Key Joseph B Noland Source Type: research

Dental Trauma and Alveolar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.010.ABSTRACTA dentoalveolar fracture requires thorough clinical and radiographic examination for an accurate diagnosis to guide appropriate treatment. Dentoalveolar fractures can be classified into the following 4 groups: (1) crown/root fractures, (2) luxation/displacement of teeth, (3) avulsion, and (4) alveolar fractures. Treatment can be divided into nonrigid fixation (splinting with wires and composite) and/or rigid fixation (Erich arch bars, Risdon cable wires) depending on the extent of dentoalveolar fractures. Special considerations ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jungsuk Cho Alex Sachs Larry L Cunningham Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Injuries Including Auricular Hematoma Management
This article can serve as a basis for surgical pearls and considerations when evaluating and repairing facial soft tissue trauma.PMID:34809883 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.011 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Zachary A Zimmerman Douglas M Sidle Source Type: research

Nasal Fractures
This article outlines current methods in the evaluation and management of nasal fractures including clinical workup, imaging, and treatment.PMID:34809884 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Kelly C Landeen Kyle Kimura Scott J Stephan Source Type: research

Approach to Orbital Fractures After Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):31-45. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.003.ABSTRACTThe bony orbit is commonly involved in athletic injuries. Evaluation should include a comprehensive history and ocular examination. Computed tomography imaging is the gold standard for diagnostic testing. Urgent surgical intervention for orbital floor fractures should occur after "white eye" trapdoor fractures or if oculocardiac response occurs. Most orbital fractures do not require urgent intervention and repair can be completed within 2 weeks of injury. There are many approaches to repair orbital fractures, and conside...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: John Flynn Source Type: research

Zygomaticomaxillary Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):47-61. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.004.ABSTRACTFractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex and zygomatic arch are common athletic injuries. Fracture displacement can lead to midfacial retrusion and widening, causing noticeable deformity. Associated signs and symptoms include hypoesthesia of the infraorbital nerve distribution, trismus, and subjective malocclusion. Operative treatment is indicated in cases of significant displacement or functional disturbance. The approach and details of osteosynthesis are catered to the specific characteristics of the fracture. Technology, su...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Christine M Jones Cecelia E Schmalbach Source Type: research

Midface Including Le Fort Level Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):63-70. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.005.ABSTRACTLe Fort fractures occur at uniform weak areas in the midface often due to blunt impact to the face. Sporting injuries are a common cause of facial trauma; however, use of protective equipment has reduced the number of sports-related injuries. All patients with traumatic injuries should be evaluated using Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. Le Fort fractures can contribute to airway obstruction, and urgent intubation may be indicated. Surgery is indicated for most displaced Le Fort fractures to restore function and facial harmon...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Katherine A Larrabee Andrew S Kao Benjamin T Barbetta Lamont R Jones Source Type: research

Frontal Sinus Fractures: A Contemporary Approach in the Endoscopic Era
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):71-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.006.ABSTRACTAlthough frontal sinus fractures are relatively uncommon, the potential for long-term morbidity is significant. Management strategies remain controversial due to a lack of strong clinical evidence. Despite a paucity of strong literature, a logical treatment algorithm is presented based on the structural integrity of three anatomic parameters: anterior table, frontal sinus outflow tract, and the posterior table/dura. The literature supports a paradigm shift from open surgical management to a more conservative treatment algorithm em...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Steven G Hoshal Raj D Dedhia E Bradley Strong Source Type: research

Mandibular Condylar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):85-98. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.007.ABSTRACTMandibular condyle fractures can result in short-term and long-term morbidity. As a weak area of the mandible, the condyle is vulnerable to injury by a direct impact or an indirect force. Current treatment recommendations aim to better match the severity of the fracture with the choice of closed or open approach. Long-term follow-up of patients provides the best opportunity to monitor the degree of functional restoration after treatment. There is a growing consensus regarding the use of standardized fracture classification methods...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sean Mooney Rahul D Gulati Steve Yusupov Sydney C Butts Source Type: research

Mandibular Body Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.008.ABSTRACTFractures of the mandibular body most commonly occur after interpersonal violence or motorized vehicle accident but can occur in athletes. Mandibular body fractures are often associated with additional mandibular fractures. The treatment goal is to achieve preinjury occlusion and facial appearance, and this can be done via a closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation or open reduction and fixation with or without maxillomandibular fixation. The authors present 3 cases in this article.PMID:34809890 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sarah Mazher Kidwai G Nina Lu Source Type: research

Modern Approaches to Facial and Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):xi. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34809891 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: J Regan Thomas Source Type: research

Managing Craniomaxillofacial Injuries in Athletes
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34809892 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.001 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: J David Kriet Clinton D Humphrey Source Type: research

General Overview of the Facial Trauma Evaluation
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.001.ABSTRACTThe initial evaluation of maxillofacial trauma in athletes should first focus on the management of life-threatening injuries that require emergent care. Airway, breathing, and circulation are the 3 areas to be addressed first and foremost, as set forth by Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. Following the stabilization of the patient, a thorough physical examination and systematic review of any relevant imaging studies are imperative to ensure that injuries are not missed. Ultimately, management by the facial plastic surg...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: James Eng Sunthosh Sivam Source Type: research

Mandibular Angle Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):109-116. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.009.ABSTRACTAngle fractures are the most common among the mandibular fractures. History and physical examination are crucial in guiding time course and specifics of management. Computed tomography (CT) has become the gold standard for diagnosis of mandible fractures, offering advantages for both surgical planning and assessing dental involvement. Currently the use of a single monocortical plate with the Champy technique for osteosynthesis is used preferentially for noncomminuted fractures of the mandibular angle. Other load-sharing options ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Gaelen Stanford-Moore Andrew H Murr Source Type: research

Concussion in Head Trauma
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):11-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.013.ABSTRACTConcussion in the setting of facial trauma is an entity that can be overlooked. Having a high index of suspicion is critical in initial management and prompt treatment. Clinical signs can be common manifestations of a concussion. Serial examinations are important as these clinical manifestations can occur later in the hospitalization. Cognitive assessment tools can also give a baseline of a patient and can be used to assess recovery from a concussion. Assessment of the vestibular and oculomotor system can play a critical role in t...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Vincent H Key Joseph B Noland Source Type: research

Dental Trauma and Alveolar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.010.ABSTRACTA dentoalveolar fracture requires thorough clinical and radiographic examination for an accurate diagnosis to guide appropriate treatment. Dentoalveolar fractures can be classified into the following 4 groups: (1) crown/root fractures, (2) luxation/displacement of teeth, (3) avulsion, and (4) alveolar fractures. Treatment can be divided into nonrigid fixation (splinting with wires and composite) and/or rigid fixation (Erich arch bars, Risdon cable wires) depending on the extent of dentoalveolar fractures. Special considerations ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jungsuk Cho Alex Sachs Larry L Cunningham Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Injuries Including Auricular Hematoma Management
This article can serve as a basis for surgical pearls and considerations when evaluating and repairing facial soft tissue trauma.PMID:34809883 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.011 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Zachary A Zimmerman Douglas M Sidle Source Type: research

Nasal Fractures
This article outlines current methods in the evaluation and management of nasal fractures including clinical workup, imaging, and treatment.PMID:34809884 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Kelly C Landeen Kyle Kimura Scott J Stephan Source Type: research

Approach to Orbital Fractures After Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):31-45. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.003.ABSTRACTThe bony orbit is commonly involved in athletic injuries. Evaluation should include a comprehensive history and ocular examination. Computed tomography imaging is the gold standard for diagnostic testing. Urgent surgical intervention for orbital floor fractures should occur after "white eye" trapdoor fractures or if oculocardiac response occurs. Most orbital fractures do not require urgent intervention and repair can be completed within 2 weeks of injury. There are many approaches to repair orbital fractures, and conside...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: John Flynn Source Type: research

Zygomaticomaxillary Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):47-61. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.004.ABSTRACTFractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex and zygomatic arch are common athletic injuries. Fracture displacement can lead to midfacial retrusion and widening, causing noticeable deformity. Associated signs and symptoms include hypoesthesia of the infraorbital nerve distribution, trismus, and subjective malocclusion. Operative treatment is indicated in cases of significant displacement or functional disturbance. The approach and details of osteosynthesis are catered to the specific characteristics of the fracture. Technology, su...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Christine M Jones Cecelia E Schmalbach Source Type: research

Midface Including Le Fort Level Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):63-70. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.005.ABSTRACTLe Fort fractures occur at uniform weak areas in the midface often due to blunt impact to the face. Sporting injuries are a common cause of facial trauma; however, use of protective equipment has reduced the number of sports-related injuries. All patients with traumatic injuries should be evaluated using Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. Le Fort fractures can contribute to airway obstruction, and urgent intubation may be indicated. Surgery is indicated for most displaced Le Fort fractures to restore function and facial harmon...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Katherine A Larrabee Andrew S Kao Benjamin T Barbetta Lamont R Jones Source Type: research

Frontal Sinus Fractures: A Contemporary Approach in the Endoscopic Era
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):71-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.006.ABSTRACTAlthough frontal sinus fractures are relatively uncommon, the potential for long-term morbidity is significant. Management strategies remain controversial due to a lack of strong clinical evidence. Despite a paucity of strong literature, a logical treatment algorithm is presented based on the structural integrity of three anatomic parameters: anterior table, frontal sinus outflow tract, and the posterior table/dura. The literature supports a paradigm shift from open surgical management to a more conservative treatment algorithm em...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Steven G Hoshal Raj D Dedhia E Bradley Strong Source Type: research

Mandibular Condylar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):85-98. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.007.ABSTRACTMandibular condyle fractures can result in short-term and long-term morbidity. As a weak area of the mandible, the condyle is vulnerable to injury by a direct impact or an indirect force. Current treatment recommendations aim to better match the severity of the fracture with the choice of closed or open approach. Long-term follow-up of patients provides the best opportunity to monitor the degree of functional restoration after treatment. There is a growing consensus regarding the use of standardized fracture classification methods...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sean Mooney Rahul D Gulati Steve Yusupov Sydney C Butts Source Type: research

Mandibular Body Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.008.ABSTRACTFractures of the mandibular body most commonly occur after interpersonal violence or motorized vehicle accident but can occur in athletes. Mandibular body fractures are often associated with additional mandibular fractures. The treatment goal is to achieve preinjury occlusion and facial appearance, and this can be done via a closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation or open reduction and fixation with or without maxillomandibular fixation. The authors present 3 cases in this article.PMID:34809890 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sarah Mazher Kidwai G Nina Lu Source Type: research

Modern Approaches to Facial and Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):xi. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34809891 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: J Regan Thomas Source Type: research

Managing Craniomaxillofacial Injuries in Athletes
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34809892 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.001 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: J David Kriet Clinton D Humphrey Source Type: research

General Overview of the Facial Trauma Evaluation
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.001.ABSTRACTThe initial evaluation of maxillofacial trauma in athletes should first focus on the management of life-threatening injuries that require emergent care. Airway, breathing, and circulation are the 3 areas to be addressed first and foremost, as set forth by Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. Following the stabilization of the patient, a thorough physical examination and systematic review of any relevant imaging studies are imperative to ensure that injuries are not missed. Ultimately, management by the facial plastic surg...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: James Eng Sunthosh Sivam Source Type: research

Mandibular Angle Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):109-116. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.009.ABSTRACTAngle fractures are the most common among the mandibular fractures. History and physical examination are crucial in guiding time course and specifics of management. Computed tomography (CT) has become the gold standard for diagnosis of mandible fractures, offering advantages for both surgical planning and assessing dental involvement. Currently the use of a single monocortical plate with the Champy technique for osteosynthesis is used preferentially for noncomminuted fractures of the mandibular angle. Other load-sharing options ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Gaelen Stanford-Moore Andrew H Murr Source Type: research

Concussion in Head Trauma
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):11-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.013.ABSTRACTConcussion in the setting of facial trauma is an entity that can be overlooked. Having a high index of suspicion is critical in initial management and prompt treatment. Clinical signs can be common manifestations of a concussion. Serial examinations are important as these clinical manifestations can occur later in the hospitalization. Cognitive assessment tools can also give a baseline of a patient and can be used to assess recovery from a concussion. Assessment of the vestibular and oculomotor system can play a critical role in t...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Vincent H Key Joseph B Noland Source Type: research

Dental Trauma and Alveolar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.010.ABSTRACTA dentoalveolar fracture requires thorough clinical and radiographic examination for an accurate diagnosis to guide appropriate treatment. Dentoalveolar fractures can be classified into the following 4 groups: (1) crown/root fractures, (2) luxation/displacement of teeth, (3) avulsion, and (4) alveolar fractures. Treatment can be divided into nonrigid fixation (splinting with wires and composite) and/or rigid fixation (Erich arch bars, Risdon cable wires) depending on the extent of dentoalveolar fractures. Special considerations ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jungsuk Cho Alex Sachs Larry L Cunningham Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Injuries Including Auricular Hematoma Management
This article can serve as a basis for surgical pearls and considerations when evaluating and repairing facial soft tissue trauma.PMID:34809883 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.011 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Zachary A Zimmerman Douglas M Sidle Source Type: research

Nasal Fractures
This article outlines current methods in the evaluation and management of nasal fractures including clinical workup, imaging, and treatment.PMID:34809884 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Kelly C Landeen Kyle Kimura Scott J Stephan Source Type: research

Approach to Orbital Fractures After Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):31-45. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.003.ABSTRACTThe bony orbit is commonly involved in athletic injuries. Evaluation should include a comprehensive history and ocular examination. Computed tomography imaging is the gold standard for diagnostic testing. Urgent surgical intervention for orbital floor fractures should occur after "white eye" trapdoor fractures or if oculocardiac response occurs. Most orbital fractures do not require urgent intervention and repair can be completed within 2 weeks of injury. There are many approaches to repair orbital fractures, and conside...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: John Flynn Source Type: research

Zygomaticomaxillary Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):47-61. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.004.ABSTRACTFractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex and zygomatic arch are common athletic injuries. Fracture displacement can lead to midfacial retrusion and widening, causing noticeable deformity. Associated signs and symptoms include hypoesthesia of the infraorbital nerve distribution, trismus, and subjective malocclusion. Operative treatment is indicated in cases of significant displacement or functional disturbance. The approach and details of osteosynthesis are catered to the specific characteristics of the fracture. Technology, su...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Christine M Jones Cecelia E Schmalbach Source Type: research

Midface Including Le Fort Level Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):63-70. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.005.ABSTRACTLe Fort fractures occur at uniform weak areas in the midface often due to blunt impact to the face. Sporting injuries are a common cause of facial trauma; however, use of protective equipment has reduced the number of sports-related injuries. All patients with traumatic injuries should be evaluated using Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. Le Fort fractures can contribute to airway obstruction, and urgent intubation may be indicated. Surgery is indicated for most displaced Le Fort fractures to restore function and facial harmon...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Katherine A Larrabee Andrew S Kao Benjamin T Barbetta Lamont R Jones Source Type: research

Frontal Sinus Fractures: A Contemporary Approach in the Endoscopic Era
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):71-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.006.ABSTRACTAlthough frontal sinus fractures are relatively uncommon, the potential for long-term morbidity is significant. Management strategies remain controversial due to a lack of strong clinical evidence. Despite a paucity of strong literature, a logical treatment algorithm is presented based on the structural integrity of three anatomic parameters: anterior table, frontal sinus outflow tract, and the posterior table/dura. The literature supports a paradigm shift from open surgical management to a more conservative treatment algorithm em...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Steven G Hoshal Raj D Dedhia E Bradley Strong Source Type: research

Mandibular Condylar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):85-98. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.007.ABSTRACTMandibular condyle fractures can result in short-term and long-term morbidity. As a weak area of the mandible, the condyle is vulnerable to injury by a direct impact or an indirect force. Current treatment recommendations aim to better match the severity of the fracture with the choice of closed or open approach. Long-term follow-up of patients provides the best opportunity to monitor the degree of functional restoration after treatment. There is a growing consensus regarding the use of standardized fracture classification methods...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sean Mooney Rahul D Gulati Steve Yusupov Sydney C Butts Source Type: research

Mandibular Body Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):99-108. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.008.ABSTRACTFractures of the mandibular body most commonly occur after interpersonal violence or motorized vehicle accident but can occur in athletes. Mandibular body fractures are often associated with additional mandibular fractures. The treatment goal is to achieve preinjury occlusion and facial appearance, and this can be done via a closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation or open reduction and fixation with or without maxillomandibular fixation. The authors present 3 cases in this article.PMID:34809890 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Sarah Mazher Kidwai G Nina Lu Source Type: research

Modern Approaches to Facial and Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):xi. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.002.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34809891 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: J Regan Thomas Source Type: research

Managing Craniomaxillofacial Injuries in Athletes
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):xiii-xiv. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.001.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34809892 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.09.001 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: J David Kriet Clinton D Humphrey Source Type: research

General Overview of the Facial Trauma Evaluation
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.001.ABSTRACTThe initial evaluation of maxillofacial trauma in athletes should first focus on the management of life-threatening injuries that require emergent care. Airway, breathing, and circulation are the 3 areas to be addressed first and foremost, as set forth by Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. Following the stabilization of the patient, a thorough physical examination and systematic review of any relevant imaging studies are imperative to ensure that injuries are not missed. Ultimately, management by the facial plastic surg...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: James Eng Sunthosh Sivam Source Type: research

Mandibular Angle Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):109-116. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.009.ABSTRACTAngle fractures are the most common among the mandibular fractures. History and physical examination are crucial in guiding time course and specifics of management. Computed tomography (CT) has become the gold standard for diagnosis of mandible fractures, offering advantages for both surgical planning and assessing dental involvement. Currently the use of a single monocortical plate with the Champy technique for osteosynthesis is used preferentially for noncomminuted fractures of the mandibular angle. Other load-sharing options ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Gaelen Stanford-Moore Andrew H Murr Source Type: research

Concussion in Head Trauma
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):11-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.013.ABSTRACTConcussion in the setting of facial trauma is an entity that can be overlooked. Having a high index of suspicion is critical in initial management and prompt treatment. Clinical signs can be common manifestations of a concussion. Serial examinations are important as these clinical manifestations can occur later in the hospitalization. Cognitive assessment tools can also give a baseline of a patient and can be used to assess recovery from a concussion. Assessment of the vestibular and oculomotor system can play a critical role in t...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Vincent H Key Joseph B Noland Source Type: research

Dental Trauma and Alveolar Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.010.ABSTRACTA dentoalveolar fracture requires thorough clinical and radiographic examination for an accurate diagnosis to guide appropriate treatment. Dentoalveolar fractures can be classified into the following 4 groups: (1) crown/root fractures, (2) luxation/displacement of teeth, (3) avulsion, and (4) alveolar fractures. Treatment can be divided into nonrigid fixation (splinting with wires and composite) and/or rigid fixation (Erich arch bars, Risdon cable wires) depending on the extent of dentoalveolar fractures. Special considerations ...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Jungsuk Cho Alex Sachs Larry L Cunningham Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Injuries Including Auricular Hematoma Management
This article can serve as a basis for surgical pearls and considerations when evaluating and repairing facial soft tissue trauma.PMID:34809883 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.011 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Zachary A Zimmerman Douglas M Sidle Source Type: research

Nasal Fractures
This article outlines current methods in the evaluation and management of nasal fractures including clinical workup, imaging, and treatment.PMID:34809884 | DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.002 (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Kelly C Landeen Kyle Kimura Scott J Stephan Source Type: research

Approach to Orbital Fractures After Athletic Injuries
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):31-45. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.003.ABSTRACTThe bony orbit is commonly involved in athletic injuries. Evaluation should include a comprehensive history and ocular examination. Computed tomography imaging is the gold standard for diagnostic testing. Urgent surgical intervention for orbital floor fractures should occur after "white eye" trapdoor fractures or if oculocardiac response occurs. Most orbital fractures do not require urgent intervention and repair can be completed within 2 weeks of injury. There are many approaches to repair orbital fractures, and conside...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: John Flynn Source Type: research

Zygomaticomaxillary Fractures
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;30(1):47-61. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2021.08.004.ABSTRACTFractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex and zygomatic arch are common athletic injuries. Fracture displacement can lead to midfacial retrusion and widening, causing noticeable deformity. Associated signs and symptoms include hypoesthesia of the infraorbital nerve distribution, trismus, and subjective malocclusion. Operative treatment is indicated in cases of significant displacement or functional disturbance. The approach and details of osteosynthesis are catered to the specific characteristics of the fracture. Technology, su...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - November 23, 2021 Category: Surgery Authors: Christine M Jones Cecelia E Schmalbach Source Type: research