A Focused Review on the Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Cardiac Amyloidosis.
Authors: Lo Presti S, Mihos CG, Yucel E, Horvath SA, Santana O Abstract Amyloidosis is a systemic disorder that results from abnormal protein metabolism, producing amyloid fibrils that are subsequently deposited within vital organs. Cardiac involvement is typically associated with the specific subtypes of immunoglobulin lightchain, transthyretin, secondary amyloidosis, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. The hallmark of cardiac amyloidosis is the development of restrictive cardiomyopathy and heart failure, usually with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The diagnosis is based on the integration of clinic...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Hyperuricemia and Cardiovascular Disease.
Authors: Palazzuoli A, Hashemi H, Jameson LC, McCullough PA Abstract Uric acid (UA), the metabolic mediator of gout and urate renal stones, is associated with increased cardiovascular risk burden. Hyperuricemia is a common metabolic disorder, and interaction among UA and cardiovascular diseases has been clearly described. Several illnesses, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome, and heart failure, are related to increases in UA levels. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of hyperuricemia and describe the biologic plausibility of this metabolite's participation in the pathogen...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Utility of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Cardiac Risk Stratification of Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.
Authors: Agrawal A, Jain D, Feyssa EL, Amanullah AM Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This review includes major original articles published in the English-language literature of patients who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) before OLT for cardiac risk stratification. Of a total of 10 original articles (total 1699 patients undergoing DSE), 6 studies used DSE to predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients undergoing OLT and 4 reported the role of DSE in coronary artery disease (CAD) pre...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Identifying Patients for Nonstatin Therapy.
Authors: Robinson JG, Watson KE Abstract Statins are first-line therapy for reducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Some patients remain at high ASCVD risk despite maximizing statin therapy. Ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to reduce ASCVD events in randomized trials and may be of benefit in selected high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to prevent one ASCVD event can help identify groups of patients who may gain a net benefit from a...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Statin Intolerance.
Authors: Brown AS, Watson KE Abstract Statins are critical medications to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease2 and they are generally very well tolerated. In some instances, however, statin intolerance may limit use of these lifesaving medications. Statin intolerance has many definitions but is commonly diagnosed when a patient is unable to continue statin therapy due to perceived, or objectively documented, adverse effects. A very high rate of discontinuation of statin therapy warrants a closer look at the implications from the standpoint of cardiovascular risk in statin-intolerant patients, as well as an eva...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Can We Cure Atherosclerosis?
Authors: Robinson JG, Davidson MH Abstract Cardiovascular disease mortality rates have begun to rise in the United States. Based on the large body of supportive evidence, we propose a proof-of-concept, first-in-human trial to cure atherosclerosis: CURing Early ATHEROsclerosis (CURE ATHERO). This trial is based on a model of intensive induction therapy for extensive, if not complete, plaque regression, followed by intermittent maintenance therapy. An extensive body of evidence has demonstrated the causal role of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins in atherosclerosis progression and data suggest intensive low-density lipop...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Although Identification Advances, Appreciation and Treatment Lag.
Authors: Baum SJ, Brown AS Abstract Familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited genetic disorders, yet it is frequently undiagnosed, leading to a markedly increased risk for cardiovascular events. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disease as well as the importance of cascade screening is critical to appropriate treatment of patients. Though the mainstay of therapy for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia remains statins, many patients require additional therapy including ezetimibe and/or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies to achieve...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

PCSK9 Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action, Efficacy, and Safety.
Authors: Roth EM, Davidson MH Abstract Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on the surface of liver hepatocytes are the primary way that humans regulate serum LDL cholesterol levels. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a proteolytic enzyme that indirectly regulates serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) by causing the destruction of LDL receptors. Less LDL receptors result in increased LDL-C in the bloodstream but inhibiting or binding the circulating PCSK9 results in increased LDL receptors with the resultant decrease in serum LDL-C. Two PCSK9 inhibitors are currently approved for use: alirocumab an...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Access to PCSK9 Inhibitors.
Authors: Baum SJ, Lepor NE, Robinson JG PMID: 30207557 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A Call to Action to Develop Integrated Curricula in Cardiorenal Medicine.
Authors: Ronco C, Ronco F, McCullough PA Abstract With the adoption of the new definition and classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and its relevant subtypes, much attention has been placed on elucidating the mechanisms of heart and kidney interactions. The pathophysiologic pathways are of great interest by which acute heart failure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI; type 1), chronic heart failure accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; type 2), AKI provokes cardiac events (type 3), and CKD increases the risk and severity of cardiovascular disease (type 4). A remarkable interest has ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Syncope in Young Women: Broadening the Differential Diagnosis.
We report a series of three young, otherwise healthy women, initially diagnosed with NMS, whose clinical course evolved over time into more sinister diagnoses that were overlooked and associated with devastating clinical outcomes. These cases highlight the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when considering the diagnosis of NMS. Each case synopsis provides key clinical features that must be considered to avoid overlooking more serious clinical conditions. PMID: 29111543 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Atrioesophageal Fistula Following Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.
We report two cases and review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of AEF after AF ablation. The principal clinical features of AEF include fever, hematemesis, and neurologic deficits within 2 months after ablation. The close proximity of the esophagus to the posterior left atrial wall is considered responsible for esophageal injury during ablation and the eventual development of AEF. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors, esophageal temperature monitoring, visualization of the esophagus during catheter ablation, esophageal protection devices, esophageal cooling, and avoidance of energy delivery...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - November 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Coronary Bifurcation Lesions.
Authors: Finch W, Lee MS Abstract Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of lesions at coronary bifurcations poses a technical challenge. Short-term complications, including periprocedural myocardial infarction, and long-term complications such as in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis, are higher in patients with bifurcation lesions. Techniques for PCI of bifurcation lesions include stenting of the main branch alone, and the use of two or more stents to cover the main and side branches. Two- or three-stent techniques include T-stenting, crush, culotte, simultaneous kissing stents, V-stenting, and Y-stenting. T...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Timing of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Therapeutic Hypothermia in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest.
This article focuses on how best to manage comatose OHCA survivors who have an initial shockable rhythm and STEMI. PMID: 29038414 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Two Perspectives of the Appropriate Use Criteria in Cardiology Practice: Advantageous and Useful or Limiting and Harmful?
Authors: Krishnan SK, Bahia A, Brindis RG, Lepor NE, Itchhaporia D, Patel PM Abstract The appropriate use criteria (AUC) has become an integral part of the cardiologist's daily practice and have evolved greatly since their inception over a decade ago. However, as health care costs continue to rise, the AUC has come to play an even more pivotal role in the way medicine-specifically cardiology-is practiced today. This editorial describes two opposing viewpoints commonly held by practicing clinicians of the AUC. Written from the perspective of two fellows-in-training looking ahead at the challenges and opportunities o...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiac Metastasis of Nonvisceral Soft-tissue Leiomyosarcoma.
We present the case of a man with a history of an upper extremity cancerous lesion that was completely resected with appropriate surveillance monitoring, which then metastasized to the heart 14 years later, presenting as superior vena cava syndrome. Full evaluation found no other metastatic lesions, including no residual sarcoma at the former primary site. We include transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography images of unusual presentation of the large mass extending from the caudal superior vena cava to the right atrium and into the right ventricle across the tricuspid valve. PMID: 29038416 [PubMed - in pr...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Role of Exogenous Phosphocreatine in Chemotherapy-induced Cardiomyopathy.
We report on a 52-year-old woman with cardiomyopathy following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The patient did not respond well to b-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. After the addition of exogenous phosphocreatine, the patient's cardiac condition improved significantly. PMID: 29038417 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Two Reports of Quadricuspid Aortic Valve With Aortic Insufficiency.
We report two cases of a quadricuspid aortic valve with severe aortic incompetence. Both patients presented with dyspnea on exertion. Their physical examinations demonstrated wide pulse pressures with diastolic murmurs. Bedside transthoracic Doppler echocardiography revealed preserved left ventricular systolic function and possible quadricuspid aortic valve with severe aortic incompetence in both patients. We proceeded with transesophageal echocardiography that confirmed a quadricuspid aortic valve with severe aortic incompetence in both patients. Left ventricular systolic function was preserved in both cases. Both patient...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiac Contractility Modulation: A Technical Guide for Device Implantation.
This article provides a technical description of common implant practice for delivery of cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) therapy to heart failure patients. As of September 2016, the authors of this article collectively have been involved with more than 400 system implantations in five medical centers, beginning with the advent of CCM therapy approximately 12 years ago. CCM therapy has been evaluated in a variety of studies, and was shown to be safe and effective and of benefit to patient quality of life and exercise capacity. As the use of CCM therapy continuously expands among medical centers in Europe, this articl...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The Role of Nitrates in the Management of Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: A Review of the Current Evidence and Guidelines.
Authors: Pragani MA, Desai KP, Morrone D, Sidhu MS, Boden WE Abstract Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and can result in significant morbidity. In particular, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that affects nearly 9 million individuals in the United States alone, with substantial annual health care costs related to recurrent medical visits and chronic disease management. Nitrates form a cornerstone of SIHD management by reducing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing exercise capacity by several mechanisms, including increasing epicardial blood fl...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Balancing Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction and Hepatotoxicity With Lomitapide Mesylate and Mipomersen in Patients With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
Authors: Won JI, Zhang J, Tecson KM, McCullough PA Abstract Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an autosomal codominant disorder manifested by high concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and premature cardiovascular disease. Despite conventional lipid-lowering therapy, LDL cholesterol levels remain elevated in patients with HoFH; these patients are considered to be at high risk for cardiovascular events. In 2012-2013, two drugs with novel mechanisms of action were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HoFH: lomitapide mesylate...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Review of Pathogenesis, Presentations, Treatment, and Outcomes.
We present three cases of SCAD that varied in their clinical presentation and describe the different management strategies utilized. This is followed by a review of the clinical features, epidemiology, prognosis, and potential treatment strategies for patients presenting with SCAD. PMID: 28509891 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: An Under-recognized Form of Inherited Cardiomyopathy.
We report a case of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVD) in order to evaluate the course of an under-recognized form of cardiomyopathy with a vast array of clinical manifestations. The patient is a 49-year-old white woman transferred from an outside hospital due to dyspnea and persistent hypoxia. She had a pertinent family history that included a sister who died suddenly in her 30s from unexplained heart failure. Initial work-up for hypoxia was unrevealing. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed isolated right ventricular dysfunction with dilation and multiple trabeculations. Further investigat...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Insights From Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography.
We present a patient with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with SCAD that illustrates two important points: use of intracoronary optical coherence tomography to guide PCI, and histologic assessment to provide a unique insight into the etiology of SCAD. Following the case, we briefly review the important aspects of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and interventional management of SCAD. PMID: 28509893 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Swallowing-induced Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmia.
Authors: Khalid U, Massumi A, Shaibani A Abstract Swallowing-induced supraventricular tachyarrhythmia is an extremely rare entity with unclear pathophysiology. A 55-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of worsening presyncopal symptoms triggered only by drinking liquids of any temperature. Results of a physical examination were unremarkable except for reproducible atrial tachycardias to 180 to 210 beats/minute documented on rhythm strips when the patient was given water to drink. He underwent radiofrequency ablation with complete resolution of symptoms. We reviewed all 43 published cases of swallowing-induc...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Advances in Heart Failure Management: Improving Outcomes With Innovation.
This article reviews the epidemiology of HF and some of the novel strategies developed to assess risk and monitor these challenging patients. It also discusses the evidence behind some of the newer treatments available that are recently included in the HF management guidelines. Various devices used in the treatment of HF, some of which remain investigational, are also discussed. Novel strategies for remote monitoring and new pharmacologic therapies may be useful in improving morbidity and mortality in patients with HF. PMID: 28233764 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 27, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

ST-segment Elevation: Myocardial Infarction or Simulacrum?
Authors: Patel N, Ngo E, Paterick TE, Ammar KA, Chandrasekaran K, Tajik AJ Abstract A rapid diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is mandatory for optimal treatment of an acute coronary syndrome. However, a small number of patients with suspected STEMI are afflicted with other medical conditions. These medical conditions are rare, but important clinical entities that should be considered when evaluating a STEMI alert. These conditions include coronary vasospasm, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, coronary arteritis/aneurysm, myopericarditis, Brugada syndrome, left bundle branch block, early repolar...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The Role of Novel Cardiorenal Biomarkers in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for the Detection of Acute Kidney Injury.
This article discusses the biologic and clinical data supporting the development and utility of several promising biomarkers in the management of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID: 28144017 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

An Overview of Pharmacotherapy in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Current Speculations and Clinical Perspectives.
Authors: Efthimiadis GK, Pagourelias E, Zegkos T, Parcharidou D, Panagiotidis T, Arvanitaki A, Rouskas P, Karvounis H Abstract Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. Its clinical course is variable, ranging from a benign asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic course throughout life, to severe symptoms (dyspnea, angina, palpitations) or cardiovascular events (syncope and thromboembolism). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains the most striking manifestation of the disease, affecting a minority of patients. This review focuses on the medical treatments applied according to the sympto...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Radiofrequency Coils and Pulse Sequences for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Applications: New Perspectives and Future Developments.
Authors: Giovannetti G, De Marchi D, Pingitore A Abstract Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a relevant diagnostic tool for the evaluation of cardiac morphology, function, and mass. The assessment of myocardial tissue content through the measurement of longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) relaxation properties and the development of different technical advances are important clinical novelties of CMR. Recently, magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been explored for the assessment of the metabolic state of tissue for cardiac function evaluation by using nuclei other than protons, such as (13)C and (23)Na, expandin...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiac Manifestations of Adrenal Insufficiency.
Authors: Schumaecker MM, Larsen TR, Sane DC Abstract It is estimated that the prevalence of primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) is 1 in 10,000 people. There are multiple case reports and several studies that suggest a correlation between Addison disease and abnormalities of cardiac function. The pathophysiology of cardiac abnormalities in this condition is incompletely understood. This review explores what is currently known about the cardiac manifestations of Addison disease. PMID: 28144020 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Rotational Atherectomy in a Dissected Coronary Artery That Propagated Into the Sinus of Valsalva: Is This the Last Hope?
Authors: Shah AH, Ossei-Gerning N, Mitra R Abstract Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a resistant, undilatable lesion can result in coronary dissection. Retrograde propagation of a dissection flap into the sinus of Valsalva is a rare phenomenon. It is commonly seen at the time of PCI to a right coronary artery (RCA) and is associated with potentially fatal consequences. Use of rotational atherectomy (RA) is contraindicated in the presence of a coronary dissection. Coronary dissection with preserved flow in asymptomatic patients should be managed conservatively until the dissection heals, but in the case p...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

An Unusual Presentation of Native Valve Endocarditis Caused by Staphylococcus warneri.
We report a case of native valve endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient without any of the usual predisposing risk factors. Our case illustrates the importance of CoNS bacteremia and the implications of delayed diagnosis of CoNS endocarditis in clinical practice. PMID: 28144022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Utility of Procalcitonin for Diagnosis of Superimposed Infections in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.
Authors: Mollar A, Miñana G, Villanueva MP, Guijarro J, Núñez J Abstract Respiratory infections are well-known precipitant factors for heart failure decompensations. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, is challenging. Pneumonia and acute heart failure often display overlapping clinical findings and, in other cases, more accurate infection-related findings are missing. In recent years, procalcitonin has emerged as a promising tool for early and accurate diagnosis of pneumonia and, interestingly, for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute hear...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Myocardial Bridge Complicated by Acute Myocardial Infarction.
We report a case of acute anterior wall ST-elevation MI occurring as a complication of MB involving the mid segment of the left anterior descending artery in a young, otherwise healthy woman who underwent a primary stenting procedure. Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the process leading from MB to acute MI vary, and so should the therapy for those patients. Coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and, potentially, optical coherence tomography should be used to assist in establishing an accurate diagnosis in these complex patients and should guide the therapeutic decision in acute settings. PMID: 28144024 ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - February 3, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Heart Failure University 2015: Presentation Summaries.
Authors: PMID: 27725622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Effects of Hyperkalemia: New Insights Into Prevention and Clinical Management.
Authors: Krishnan SK, Lepor NE Abstract Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder associated with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and increased mortality. Patients at greatest risk for hyperkalemia include those with diabetes and those with impaired renal function in whom a defect in the excretion of renal potassium may already exist. Hyperkalemia is likely to become more common clinically because angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are increasingly being used in higher doses and are thought to confer cardiovascular and renal protection. Until recently, options for tr...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A Treatment Approach for Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure.
Authors: Greenberg BH Abstract The treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF) is changing rapidly. Advances over the past several decades have focused on blocking the adverse effects of neurohormonal activation. This approach has resulted in marked improvement in outcomes in the HFrEF population. Despite these advances, however, mortality and morbidity remain high and HFrEF patients have poor quality of life. New approaches to therapy now offer additional benefits. Combined neprilysin inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade using sacubitril-valsartan (LCZ696) has been shown to be superior to an a...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Nutritional Deficiencies and Sarcopenia in Heart Failure: A Therapeutic Opportunity to Reduce Hospitalization and Death.
Authors: McCullough PA, Fallahzadeh MK, Hegazi RM Abstract There is an expanding prevalence pool of heart failure (HF) due to the increasing prevalence of survivors of myocardial infarction, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. There is increasing interest in the role of nutrition in all forms of HF, given observations concerning micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, loss of lean body mass or sarcopenia, and their relationships with hospitalization and death. This review examines the relationships among loss of lean body mass, macro- and micronutrient intake, and the natural history of HF, ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A Decade of Progress in Regional ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Systems of Care: A Tale of Two Cities.
This article takes an in-depth look at two of the earliest STEMI systems within the United States: the Minneapolis Heart Institute and the Los Angeles County STEMI receiving network. PMID: 27667375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A Closer Look at Fractional Flow Reserve in Complex Anatomic Subsets: Left Main Disease, Bifurcation Lesions, and Saphenous Vein Grafts.
This article reviews recent data supporting the use of FFR in these complex anatomic subsets. PMID: 27667376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Emerging Treatments for Heterozygous and Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
This article focuses primarily on the clinical management of homozygous FH. PMID: 27667377 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The Role of Medical Therapy in Moderate to Severe Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation.
Authors: Slipczuk L, Rafique AM, Davila CD, Beigel R, Pressman GS, Siegel RJ Abstract Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular disorder that has important health and economic consequences. Standardized guidelines exist regarding when and in whom to perform mitral valve surgery, but little information is available regarding medical treatment of MR. Many patients with moderate or severe MR do not meet criteria for surgery or are deemed to be at high risk for surgical therapy. We reviewed the available published data on medical therapy in the treatment of patients with primary MR. b-blockers and renin-angiotensi...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A Review of the Clinical Subgroup Analyses From the RE-LY Trial.
Authors: Kumar R, Rahman AM, Henry BL Abstract Dabigatran was the first direct-acting oral anticoagulant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in people with atrial fibrillation, based on data from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial. Over 18,000 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate-to-high risk of thromboembolic stroke were randomized to warfarin or dabigatran. With respect to the primary endpoints for efficacy and safety, dabigatran was superior to warfarin in the prevention of stroke and thro...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Effects of Altitude on Performance Athletes.
Authors: Shah AB, Coplan N Abstract Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema. S...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
Authors: Marchesini M, Uguccioni L, Parisi R, Mattioli G, Terzi F, Olivieri R, Capucci A, Fattori R Abstract Until recently, the only imaging technique for the diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was two-dimensional echocardiography, and the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) was limited to patients with poor acoustic windows. Now, cMRI has gained an essential role in the diagnosis of HCM, providing superior visualization of myocardial hypertrophy-even in remote zones of the left ventricle-and visualization of subtle changes in thickness and contractility over time. The morph...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

An Update From the California Chapter of the American College of Cardiology Board of Directors.
Authors: Lepor NE PMID: 27667382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Leading the Way: Cardiology and the Future of HealthTech Innovation.
Authors: Pursnani S, Khandwalla R, Tadwalkar R PMID: 27667383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Forty Years of Chest Pain: A Case Report and Contemporary Review of the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Options for Myocardial Bridging.
Authors: Tat E, Cheng R, Helfenstein JS Abstract A 48-year-old woman with 40 years of intermittent squeezing chest pain presented with worsening symptoms. Results of an ambulatory electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and exercise treadmill were unremarkable. Persistent symptoms prompted a computed tomography coronary angiogram (CTCA) that revealed mid-left anterior descending artery myocardial bridging (MB) that was not physiologically significant by exercise single-photon emission CT. Conservative treatment was pursued. Anatomic MB is prevalent in a large proportion of the general population and are increasingly ide...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Vascular Complications of Percutaneous Transradial Cardiac Catheterization.
Authors: Patwardhan M, Mehra S, Movahed A, Daggubati R Abstract The percutaneous transradial approach for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention is increasing in the United States. Although its vascular safety profile is better than the traditional femoral approach, it is important to learn about potential complications. In this article, we present two cases of vascular complications, namely, pseudoaneurysm and radial artery occlusion, after transradial cardiac catheterization, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID: 27667385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Review...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - September 28, 2016 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research