Continuation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade therapy in acute decompensated heart failure.
Authors: Ayach T, Lapsia V PMID: 31912710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

AGE-RAGE stress play a role in aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review and novel potential therapeutic target.
In conclusion, elevated levels of AGE, RAGE and AGE-RAGE stress, and reduced levels of sRAGE increase the levels of cytokines that in turn increase the production of Matrix metalloproteinases resulting in formation of aortic aneurysms. The data suggest that AGE-RAGE stress is involved in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. Treatment options have also been discussed. PMID: 31912711 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients: the real silent killer.
Authors: Provenzano M, Coppolino G, Faga T, Garofalo C, Serra R, Andreucci M Abstract Chronic kidney disease is a growing public health problem, as its prevalence and incidence have almost doubled over the last three decades. Chronic kidney disease is defined as the presence of an estimated glomerular filtration rate
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Application of injectable hydrogels for cardiac stem cell therapy and tissue engineering.
Authors: Alagarsamy KN, Yan W, Srivastava A, Desiderio V, Dhingra S Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for approximately one-third of deaths around the world. Among cardiovascular diseases, the largest single cause of death is ischemic heart disease. Ischemic heart disease typically manifests as progressive constriction of the coronary arteries, which obstructs blood flow to the heart and can ultimately lead to myocardial infarction. This adversely affects the structure and function of the heart. Conventional treatments lack the ability to treat the myocardium lost during an acute myocardial infarctio...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute chest pain: Evolving paradigm of coronary risk scores and imaging.
Authors: Alderwish E, Schultz E, Kassam Z, Poon M, Coplan N Abstract There is a broad differential diagnosis for patients presenting with acute chest pain. History, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and serial troponin assays are pivotal in assessing patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. However, if the initial workup is equivocal, physicians are faced with a challenge to find the optimal strategy for further triage. Risk stratification scores have been validated for patients with known acute coronary syndrome, such as the TIMI and GRACE scores, but there may be limitations in undifferentiated che...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Factors IX, XI, and XII: potential therapeutic targets for anticoagulant therapy in atherothrombosis.
Authors: Rai V, Balters MW, Agrawal DK Abstract Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular and neurological ischemic events. Plaque rupture leads to the exposure of highly thrombogenic material with blood and results in the activation of the coagulation cascade, thrombus formation, and embolic events. Although antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to prevent thromboembolic episodes, bleeding episodes remain the major adverse effect. Decreased ischemic events have been reported while comparing oral rivaroxaban and apixaban with aspirin to improve the therapeutic outcome in several clinical trials, incl...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiac and vascular causes of persistent fever: A systematic review.
Authors: Yuan SM Abstract Fever of unknown origin refers to a prolonged fever with an unknown cause despite adequate medical evaluations. This condition often leads to unnecessary extensive laboratory work-ups and antimicrobial therapies. The atypical presentations often cause a delayed diagnosis and an improper treatment with an increased morbidity rate. In cardiac surgical patients, fever of unknown origin remains an intriguing problem during the diagnostic process of cardiac surgical diseases. Cardiac myxoma or aortic dissection are often misdiagnosed when patients present with fever of unknown origin as an onse...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Alterations in Doppler-derived renal venous stasis index during recompensation of right heart failure and fluid overload in a patient with pulmonary hypertension.
We report our care of a 48-year-old woman suffering from right heart failure and massive fluid overload due to severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to a combination of left-heart disease and status after recurrent pulmonary embolisms. Alterations in Doppler-derived intrarenal venous flow patterns and a novel renal venous stasis index were used to evaluate improvement in renal venous congestion during recompensation. Due to refractory congestion despite optimal medical treatment and continuous veno-venous hemodialysis, a peritoneal dialysis catheter was placed to relieve the massive ascites. The paracentesis of ascites l...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Renal implications of pulmonary arterial capacitance in acute heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Authors: Toroghi HM, Lo KB, Ziccardi MR, Horn B, Kanjanahattakij N, Malik E, Penalver J, Rangaswami J, Gupta S, Amanullah A Abstract Worsening renal function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is associated with poor outcomes. Pulmonary arterial capacitance is a novel right heart catheterization derived hemodynamic metric representing pulmonary arterial tree distensibility and right ventricle afterload. Given the strong association between heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and kidney function, the goal of this study is to investigate the correlation between Pulmonary arterial capac...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Simulated coronary arterial hemodynamics of myocardial bridging.
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of myocardial bridge compression on blood flow, normal stress, circumferential stress and shear stress in mural coronary artery. An original mural coronary artery simulative device has been greatly improved and its measured hemodynamic parameters have been expanded from a single stress (normal stress) to multiple stresses to more fully and accurately simulate the true hemodynamic environment under normal stress, circumferential stress and shear stress. This device was used to more fully explore the relationship between hemodynamics and mural coronary atherosclerosis un...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Continuation of Chronic Heart Failure Therapies During Heart Failure Hospitalization - a Review.
Authors: Singhania G, Ejaz AA, McCullough PA, Kluger AY, Balamuthusamy S, Dass B, Singhania N, Agarwal A Abstract Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefits of guideline-directed medical therapy in the outpatient setting for treatment of chronic heart failure. However, the benefits of continuation (or discontinuation) of major chronic heart failure therapies when treating acute heart failure during hospitalization are less clear. Real and anticipated worsening renal function, hyperkalemia and hypotension are the three major reasons for discontinuation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibit...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Diet-induced chronic syndrome, metabolically transformed trimethylamine-N-oxide, and the cardiovascular functions.
Authors: Hardin SJ, Singh M, Eyob W, Molnar JC, Homme RP, George AK, Tyagi SC Abstract Recent studies have shown that the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and its microbiome impact the functioning of various body systems by regulating immunological responses, extracting energy, remodeling intestinal epithelia, and strengthening the gut itself. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and archaea which collectively comprise a dynamic community prone to alterations via influences such as the environment, illness, and metabolic processes. The idea that the host's diet p...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system through mind and body practices as a treatment for atrial fibrillation.
Authors: Bashir MU, Bhagra A, Kapa S, McLeod CJ Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most common symptomatic arrhythmia that is associated with stroke. Contemporary management of the disease is focused on anticoagulation to prevent stroke, coupled with catheter ablation to limit symptoms and prevent deleterious cardiac remodeling. Emerging data highlights the importance of lifestyle modification by managing sleep apnea, increasing physical activity, and weight loss. There is significant data that supports a link between the autonomic nervous system, arrhythmia development, and atrial fibrillation therapy. It is like...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Store-operated calcium channels: Potential target for the therapy of hypertension.
Authors: Bhullar SK, Shah AK, Dhalla NS Abstract Effective therapy of hypertension represents a key strategy for reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease and its associated mortality. The significance of voltage dependent L-type Ca²⁺ channels to Ca²⁺ influx, and of their regulatory mechanisms in the development of heart disease, is well established. A wide variety of L-type Ca²⁺ channel inhibitors and Ca²⁺ antagonists have been found to be beneficial not only in the treatment of hypertension, but also in myocardial infarction and heart failure. Over the past two decades, another cla...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

New insights into the immunomodulatory role of exosomes in cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Jiang W, Wang M Abstract Exosomes, nanosized lipid bilayer membranous vesicles, are secreted by a variety of cells and contain protein, lipids, mRNA, miRNA, and signaling molecules that participate in intercellular material transfer and information exchange through binding, fusion or endocytosis. Exosomes mediate the gene expression of target cells and regulate pathological and physiological processes, thereby playing a key role in the occurrence and development of various diseases. Accumulated studies has shown that exosomes hold therapeutic potential though their anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic roles. T...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Serum albumin in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A meta-analysis.
Authors: Hsieh WC, Aboud A, Henry BM, Omara M, Lindner J, Pirk J Abstract Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is becoming a more common therapeutic option for the treatment of aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for invasive surgery, but detecting which patients will benefit clinically can be challenging. Hypoalbuminemia is a useful prognostic marker for chronic inflammation in this population. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the prognostic value of serum albumin level in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. A literature search of PubMed, Emb...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Optical Coherence Tomography Vulnerable Plaque Segmentation Based on Deep Residual U-Net.
Authors: Li L, Jia T Abstract Automatic and accurate segmentation of intravascular optical coherence tomography imagery is of great importance in computer-aided diagnosis and in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, this task has not been well addressed for two reasons. First, because of the difficulty of acquisition, and the laborious labeling from personnel, optical coherence tomography image datasets are usually small. Second, optical coherence tomography images contain a variety of imaging artifacts, which hinder a clear observation of the vascular wall. In order to overcome these limitations, a new me...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Establishment and identification of a novel HTRA1 mutation mice model.
Authors: Li C, Jin W, Wang X, Li T, Wang M, Cao B Abstract Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathyis a rare form of inherited cerebral small vessel disease associated with mutations in the high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 gene. As of now, only about 50 cases have been reported. In 2012, our group reported a family with a novel mutant of the high-temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 gene in China for the first time. To further explore the molecular pathogenesis of cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoen...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Inhibition of miR-34a-5p protected myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species accumulation through regulation of Notch Receptor 1 signaling.
Authors: Wang Z, Wang Z, Wang T, Yuan J, Wang X, Zhang Z Abstract Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is leading cause of death worldwide. miR-34a-5p was up-regulated in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury rats. We aim to explore how miR-34a-5p inhibition protected myocardium against I/R injury in both cell and animal models. In vivo rat and in vitro cell model were firstly constructed. quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to investigate expression of miR-34a-5p and its target genes. Functional assays were conducted to detect the impact of miR-34a-5p on myocardial I/R injury. En...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Anticoagulation for intra-cardiac thrombi in peripartum cardiomyopathy: A review of the literature.
Authors: Agrawal A, Jain D, Ram P, Leon JLP, Rangaswami J Abstract Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with a high rate of thromboembolic events. Guiding strategies for anticoagulation in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy and thromboembolic events are limited. Literature for all cases of peripartum cardiomyopathy with intracardiac thrombi were reviewed and summarized from twelve case reports. Based on the available literature, we conclude that patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of less than 30% should strongly consider anticoagulation therapy to avoid...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Emerging role of non-coding RNAs and extracellular vesicles in cardioprotection by remote ischemic conditioning of the heart.
Authors: Bartekova M, Jelemensky M, Dhalla NS Abstract Remote ischemic conditioning of the heart (including pre-, per-, and post-conditioning) is a phenomenon where short episodes of non-lethal ischemia in the distant vessels within the heart or distant organs from the heart protects the myocardium against sustained ischemia/reperfusion injury. Several pathways have been proposed to be involved in the mechanisms of Remote ischemic conditioning. While triggers of Remote ischemic conditioning act in preconditioned areas, its mediators transduce protective signals via humoral or neuronal pathways to the heart. Remote ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Metabolic cardiomyopathy in pediatrics.
This article deals with terminology issues in compliance with international disease classification, primary diagnostic criteria of non-coronary myocardium pathology, and modern methods of diagnostics and pharmacotherapy. PMID: 31344999 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The risk of periodontitis for peripheral vascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Wang J, Geng X, Sun J, Zhang S, Yu W, Zhang X, Liu H Abstract Periodontitis is one of the risk factors associated with peripheral artery disease. This meta-analysis evaluates how periodontitis contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of peripheral artery disease. We systematically searched electronic databases Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Pubmed. Grey literature was also searched via Google Scholar. All studies evaluating the relationship between the incidence of periodontitis and peripheral artery disease were included. Subgroup analyses of carotid artery disease and lower extremity a...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Anti-hypertensive efficacy of amlodipine dosing during morning versus evening: A meta-analysis.
Authors: Luo Y, Ren L, Jiang M, Chu Y Abstract A meta-analysis was performed to compare the antihypertensive efficacy of morning and evening dosing. Database of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang were searched up to December 2018. A total of 19 randomized control trials and 1215 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Administration time of amlodipine did not affect the office blood pressure (RR = -0.03, 95% CI -0.93-0.88, P = 0.96), daytime blood pressure (RR = -0.30, 95% CI -1.05-0.46, P = 0.44), 24 h mean blood pressure (RR = 1.15, 95% CI -0.39-2.70, P = 0.14), or heart rat...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Persistent left superior vena cava identified by transesophageal echocardiography.
Authors: Horvath SA, Suraci N, D'Mello J, Santana O Abstract A 70-year-old female with severe aortic stenosis presented for aortic valve replacement and underwent routine preoperative Swan-Ganz catheter placement. Transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated a dilated coronary sinus with a catheter present. A high suspicion of venous anomaly prompted an agitated saline study. Flow through the coronary sinus into the right atrium was observed, confirming the presence of a persistent left superior vena cava. Although the persistent left superior vena cava has a low prevalence in the general population, it is one of ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

miRNA-9 inhibits apoptosis and promotes proliferation in angiotensin II-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells by targeting MDGA2.
In this study, angiotensin II-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used as a model to imitate the pathological changes in endothelial cells under hypertensive conditions. We demonstrated that microRNA-9 (miR-9) suppressed angiotensin II-induced apoptosis and enhanced proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Direct interaction between miR-9 and mitochondria associated membrance domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2 (MDGA2) was determined. Moreover, miR-9 suppressed MDGA2 levels by binding to the 3' UTR site of the MDGA2 gene. This negative regulation of MDGA2 by miR-9 signifi...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Cardiac rehabilitation improved oxygen uptake measured by cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients after aortic valve surgery" (Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2019, 20(1):47-52).
This study was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. A2017257) and the National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (Grant No. 81600255). The corrected article appears overleaf with its original pagination. This corrects the article DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2019.01.3183. PMID: 31345004 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A short review of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors.
Authors: Alali RA Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, as estimated by the World Health Organization, where in 2016, 15.2 million deaths were attributed to ischemic heart disease and stroke. It is therefore essential to try to reduce the incidence of Cardiovascular disease by controlling modifiable risk factors. One such major modifiable risk factor is cholesterol, which influences the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Statins are often prescribed to lower blood levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, thereby reducing the risk of Cardiovascu...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Renal nerve ablation for resistant hypertension: facts, fictions and future directions.
Authors: Bolignano D, Coppolino G Abstract Hypertension remains a major public health problem and one of the most relevant causes of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity worldwide. Roughly 10% of hypertensive individuals are considered as "resistant" as they are not able to achieve and maintain optimal blood pressure values despite the concurrent use of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes at optimal doses. As resistant hypertension conveys a higher risk of adverse outcomes, the search for effective treatments to properly manage this condition has progressively surged as a true health priority...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Advances in epigenetic regulation of vascular aging.
Authors: Jin J, Liu Y, Huang L, Tan H Abstract Vascular aging is a major risk factor and driver of agerelated cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Atherosclerosis, hypertension, and other CVD lead to vascular dysfunction that involves multiple pathological processes such as oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and autophagy. Epigenetics refers to genetic changes that occur when the DNA remains unchanged that include DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA. It has been reported that epigenetics plays an effective regulatory role in CVD and affects cardiovascular repair function. Prese...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Treatment models of cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and related factors affecting patient compliance.
This study aimed to review the treatment models of cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and related factors affecting patient compliance to provide a better perspective of how patients with coronary heart disease can benefit from cardiac rehabilitation. PMID: 31184093 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Infective endocarditis complicated with coronary artery septic embolization: is it worth to be mentioned? Case presentation and review of the literature.
Authors: Bitay M, Varga S, Babik B, Havasi K, Szücsborus T Abstract Coronary artery septic embolization is a rare, but severe complication of infective endocarditis involving the leftside of the valves. The first case mentioned in the literature was a postmortem finding of a left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion by a vegetation fragment. Since this case, there have been several therapeutic strategies published with this clinical setting including medical treatment, percutaneous coronary angioplasty addressing coronary occlusion, surgical intervention for both the infected valve and coronary emboli...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Differentiation of patients with two-dimensional echocardiography false positive non-compaction of ventricular myocardium by contrast echocardiography.
In this study, the endocardium may be clearly visualized by contrast echocardiography to improve the diagnostic accuracy of patients with noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium. Twenty-four patients (n = 24) suspected with non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium Underwent transthoracic echocardiography including an intracardiac contrast echocardiography. The clinical data, Left ventricular opacification, and contrast echocardiography results were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (n = 24) suspected with non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium were classified with transthoracic echocardiography a...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiac rehabilitation improved oxygen uptake measured by cardiopulmonary exercise test in patients after aortic valve surgery.
Authors: Song F, Zhan H, Liang Y, He X, Guo L Abstract Evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains scarce. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve surgery. The intervention group consisted of physical exercise for 3 months after surgery, while the control group underwent usual care without physical exercise. It was observed that cardiac rehabilitation has a beneficial effect on the peak oxygen uptake compared to the control group (24.2 ml/kg/min vs. 20.6 ml/kg/min) as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing 3 months after surgery. There was no significant di...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - June 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Key updates in Cardio-Nephrology from 2018: springboard to a bright Future.
Authors: Rangaswami J, Soman S, McCullough PA PMID: 31064161 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Pulmonary hypertension: a neglected risk condition in renal patients?
Authors: Bolignano D, Pisano A, Arrigo GD Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH), an acknowledged risk condition at the community level and in patients with heart or lung diseases, is now getting growing attention as a new, potentially modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor also in individuals affected by kidney diseases. PH is highly prevalent in this setting, being about 3 to 6 times more frequent that in the general population and portends a risk excess for mortality, adverse CV outcomes and also worsen graft function in kidney transplant recipients. Several factors might be involved to explain PH in renal pat...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The Cardiovascular effects of chocolate.
Authors: Garcia JP, Santana A, Baruqui DL, Suraci N Abstract The antioxidants as polyphenols, especially flavanols present in cocoa, exert a favorable effect on endothelium vasodilation, modulate inflammatory markers, and decrease platelet aggregation, lipid oxidation and insulin resistance. Recent nutritional intervention trials and molecular studies demonstrate that consumption of cocoa, particularly rich in flavanols, is beneficial to promote cardiovascular health. This review describes the cardiovascular effects of chocolate. PMID: 31064163 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Pitfalls in the diagnosis and initial management of acute cerebral venous thrombosis.
Authors: Cai H, Ye X, Zheng W, Ma L, Hu X, Jin X Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis is an important etiology of stroke in young patients. Its clinical manifestations are variable and based on different involved venous or sinus processes. Cerebral venous thrombosis could mimic ischemic infarction and is easy to misdiagnose. Although many patients have favorable outcomes, delayed or incorrect diagnosis due to atypical symptoms may lead to a poor prognosis. Here we present a case of a 33-year-old woman with transient headache and recurrent right extremity weakness whose symptoms progressed and were sustained in the h...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Long-term endurance training-induced cardiac adaptation in new rabbit and dog animal models of the human athlete's heart.
Authors: Polyák A, Kui P, Morvay N, Leprán I, Ágoston G, Varga A, Nagy N, Baczkó I, Farkas A, Papp JG, Varró A, Farkas AS Abstract Sudden cardiac death in athletes is rare and most often unexpectable. For a better understanding of cardiac remodeling, this study presents the effects of chronic vigorous exercise on cardiac structure and electrophysiology in new rabbit and dog athlete's heart models. Rabbits and dogs were randomized into sedentary ('Sed'), exercised (subjected to 16 weeks chronic treadmill exercise ('Ex') groups, and a testosterone-treated ('Dop') group in dogs. Echo...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Alteration of lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease, the role of novel antihyperlipidemic agents, and future directions.
Authors: Sudhakaran S, Bottlieri T, Tecson KM, Kluger AY, McCullough PA Abstract The role of anti-hyperlipidemic therapy remains of key importance in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, given an already exaggerated predisposition for vascular disease at baseline, there is a preponderance of data that show management of hyperlipidemia is especially important in patients with chronic kidney disease. This is a concise, up-to-date review of lipid physiology, alterations in lipid concentrations with progressive renal failure, and currently available and emerging hyperlipidemic treatment options. Specific...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Baroreflex stimulation for treating resistant hypertension: ready for the prime-time?
Authors: Bolignano D, Coppolino G Abstract The search of alternative methods for improving clinical management and outcomes of individuals affected by resistant hypertension has become a true health priority. In this review, we aimed at providing a timely overview and evidence synthesis on baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) and endovascular baroreflex amplification (EBA), two device-based therapies which rely on the principle of lowering blood pressure by stimulating the carotid baroreflex to decrease the sympathetic and enhance the parasympathetic activity. In resistant forms of arterial hypertension, accruing ev...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Activation of β1-adrenoceptors may not be involved in arrhythmogenesis in ischemic heart disease.
Activation of β1-adrenoceptors may not be involved in arrhythmogenesis in ischemic heart disease. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Sep 30;19(3):97-101 Authors: Adameova AD, Bhullar SK, Elimban V, Dhalla NS Abstract Although ischemic heart disease is invariably associated with marked activation of sympathetic nervous system, elevated levels of circulating catecholamines and lethal ventricular arrhythmias, the mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis due to myocardial ischemia are not fully understood. Since catecholamines are known to produce stimulatory effects in the heart mainly by acting on β1-adrenoceptors...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Usefulness of ultrasound in the management of aortic dissection.
Authors: Liu F, Huang L Abstract Aortic dissection is an acute large vessel disease characterized by sudden onset, rapid disease progression and high mortality. Color doppler ultrasound analyzed the morphological and hemodynamic status of aortic branches before and after aortic dissection surgery, including carotid, subclavian, renal, celiac, superior mesenteric and iliac arteries. Transthoracic echocardiography, vascular ultrasound, transesophageal echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are complementary to aortic multi-slice spiral computed tomography angiography for diag...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Characterizing an absent right coronary artery through 3-dimensional coronary computed tomography angiography.
Authors: Lee HC, Lai HY, Hsieh KL, Lan GY Abstract A 43-year-old man presented with exertional dyspnea and chest tightness for two months. He received coronary computed tomography angiography and the result revealed a single coronary artery, a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly. PMID: 31054560 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Fractional Flow Reserve and Intravascular Ultrasound of Coronary Artery Lesions Beyond the Left Main: A Review of Literature.
Authors: Agrawal H, Mahadevan VS, Shunk K, Lee MS Abstract Determining the severity of intermediate coronary artery lesions is a clinical dilemma. Physiologic assessment of these lesions can establish the presence of ischemia to justify percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Approximately 50% of patients undergo PCI without any noninvasive, cardiac, function testing to assess for myocardial ischemia. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a highresolution, tomographic imaging modality used to identify vessel size, morphology, and its subsequent layers. The use of IVUS continues to evolve with applications in underst...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Contribution of ApoCIII to Diabetic Dyslipidemia and Treatment With Volanesorsen.
Authors: Zhang J, Rocha NA, McCullough PA Abstract Diabetic dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by elevated levels of triglycerides (TG), decreased levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLC), and the predominance of small and dense LDL particles (sdLDL). The mechanism underlying diabetic dyslipidemia remains unclear. Insulin resistance is believed to be an important determinant. Mechanisms underlying insulin resistance-induced diabetic dyslipidemia seem to be related to apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), a known inhibitor of ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

A Review of percutaneous mechanical support devices and strategies.
Authors: Dudzinsk JE, Gnall E, Kowey PR Abstract The technology available to offer acute hemodynamic support to critically ill patients has evolved exponentially in recent years. As our experience grows, and our armamentarium of mechanical therapies expands, devices are becoming increasingly important to providing acute hemodynamic support. This review article will describe approaches to providing acute support and a concise review of the percutaneous mechanical support devices currently available. In an effort to define how and when to use them in acute situations, we will also describe some advantages and disadva...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiometabolic University 2017: Meeting Review and Presentation Summaries.
Authors: Rengarajan R PMID: 31032600 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO): A Review.
Authors: Koelbl CO, Nedeljkovic ZS, Jacobs AK Abstract Coronary artery chronic total occlusions (CTO) are frequently encountered during coronary angiography; however percutaneous recanalization has historically been technically challenging and an important determinant for referral to coronary artery bypass surgery or for medical therapy alone. Recent advances in interventional equipment and innovative approaches to crossing CTO have significantly increased the success rate of percutaneous treatment. Although there is only one relevant randomized control trial (RCT) performed to date, several large, nonrandomized st...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiorenal Outcomes in the CANVAS, DECLARE-TIMI 58, and EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trials: A Systematic Review.
In conclusion, there is a need for large-scale studies of SGLT2i with matching inclusion/exclusion criteria and appropriate endpoints to ensure a truly direct comparison of the drugs. PMID: 31032602 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research