Endothelial dysfunction contributes to COVID-19-associated vascular inflammation and coagulopathy.
Authors: Zhang J, Tecson KM, McCullough PA Abstract Great attention has been paid to endothelial dysfunction (ED) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is growing evidence to suggest that the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2 receptor) is expressed on endothelial cells (ECs) in the lung, heart, kidney, and intestine, particularly in systemic vessels (small and large arteries, veins, venules, and capillaries). Upon viral infection of ECs by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronarvirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), ECs become activated and dysfunctional. As a result of endothelial activation and ED, the leve...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiac sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management.
Authors: Markatis E, Afthinos A, Antonakis E, Papanikolaou IC Abstract Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by multi-organ involvement. End-organ disease consists of granulomatous inflammation, which if left untreated or not resolved spontaneously, leads to permanent fibrosis and end-organ dysfunction. Cardiac involvement and fibrosis in sarcoidosis occur in 5-10% of cases and is becoming increasingly diagnosed. This is due to increased clinical awareness among clinicians and new diagnostic modalities, since magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography are e...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Vitamin D deficiency in association with endothelial dysfunction: Implications for patients with COVID-19.
Authors: Zhang J, McCullough PA, Tecson KM Abstract There is emerging evidence to suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Conversely, vitamin D supplementation protects against an initial alveolar diffuse damage of COVID-19 becoming progressively worse. The mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency exacerbates COVID-19 pneumonia remain poorly understood. In this review we describe the rationale of the putative role of endothelial dysfunction in this event. Herein, we will briefly review (1) anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects of vitamin D, (2) vitamin D r...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Usefulness of machine learning in COVID-19 for the detection and prognosis of cardiovascular complications.
Authors: Zimmerman A, Kalra D Abstract Since January 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global concern, and its cardiovascular manifestations have highlighted the need for fast, sensitive and specific tools for early identification and risk stratification. Machine learning is a software solution with the ability to analyze large amounts of data and make predictions without prior programming. When faced with new problems with unique challenges as evident in the COVID-19 pandemic, machine learning can offer solutions that are not apparent on the surface by sifting quickly through massive q...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index and obstructive sleep apnea.
Authors: Tomita Y, Kasai T Abstract Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are susceptible to developing atherosclerosis. Consequently, such patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, leading to poor prognosis. Many physiological parameters have been previously used to predict the development of atherosclerosis. One such parameter, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a measure of arterial stiffness, has garnered much attention as it can also predict the degree of atherosclerosis. The CAVI can be calculated based on noninvasive measurements, and is less susceptible to blood pressure ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Current targets and drug candidates for prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection.
Authors: Goyal RK, Majeed J, Tonk R, Dhobi M, Patel B, Sharma K, Apparsundaram S Abstract Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host cell-binding site for SAR-CoV-2, poses two-fold drug development problems. First, the role of ACE2 itself is still a matter of investigation, and no specific drugs are available targeting ACE2. Second, as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 interaction with ACE2, there is an impairment of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involved in the functioning of vital organs like the heart, kidney, brain, and lungs. In developing antiviral drugs for COVID-19, ACE2, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a systematic review.
Authors: Deravi N, Fathi M, Vakili K, Yaghoobpoor S, Pirzadeh M, Mokhtari M, Fazel T, Ahsan E, Ghaffari S Abstract After the emergence of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease in P. R. China, this highly contagious disease has been currently spread out to almost all countries, worldwide. Novel 2019 coronavirus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome are reported to cause a higher risk for severe infections in patients with chronic comorbidities, such as hypertension and diabetes. These severe infections can contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in these patients...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiovascular system and COVID-19: manifestations and therapeutics.
Authors: Mahenthiran AK, Mahenthiran AK, Mahenthiran J Abstract The world is currently in the midst of a daunting global pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and associated COVID-19 disease. Healthcare professionals are tasked with the challenge of managing diverse multisystem clinical manifestations of this infection. Although acute hypoxic respiratory failure is the hallmark of severe COVID-19 disease, there have been diverse manifestations within the cardiovascular (CV) system that each pose unique therapeutic challenges. Of these manifestations, myocardial injury and right ventricular dysfunction are the ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a systematic review.
Authors: Dominici C, Chello M Abstract The clinical status and prognosis of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has dramatically changed in the recent years. Cardiovascular diseases can be related to combined antiretroviral therapy and to the aging of HIV-positive population, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity in those patients. It is crucial to understand whether the HIV-status affects the indications and outcomes of cardiac surgery. A literature search was conducted through electronic databases up to 15 May 2020 following PRISMA guidelines. Variables (i.e. patients characteris...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of medical management versus catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.
Authors: Mao YJ, Wang H, Chen JX, Huang PF Abstract Several observational studies have shown a survival benefit for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who are treated with catheter ablation (CA) rather than medical management (MM). However, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are uncertain. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of RCTs that compared the benefits of CA and MM in treatment of AF. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE databases for RCTs that compared AF ablation with MM from the time of database establishment up to January 2020. The risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Critical complications of COVID-19: A descriptive meta-analysis study.
In this study, we assessed the prevalence of the main clinical complications of COVID-19, and found that following respiratory complications, cardiac and renal complications are the most common clinical complications of COVID-19. PMID: 33070547 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of left atrial appendage occlusion in atrial fibrillation patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Zhang HF, Zhang QX, Zhang YY, Yang D, Xu Z, Jiao QB, Zhang XW Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia among the elderly, and more frequently occur in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is used as a mechanical alternative approach for prevention of AF-related thromboembolisms. This meta-analysis was conducted to provide suggestions for the clinical application of LAAO in AF patients with CKD. The incidence of perioperative adverse events and other clinical effects after operation was by a single rate meta-analysis. Results showed that inci...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Cardiovascular effects of waterpipe smoking: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
This study identifies and analyzes comprehensively all available data on the cardiovascular effects of waterpipe smoking. Databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published until December 2019 assessing cardiovascular effects of waterpipe smoking. We included experimental, cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies and excluded systematic reviews, case reports/series and qualitative studies. Studies not conducted in humans or not distinguishing waterpipe smoking from other forms of smoking were also excluded. A total of 42 studies with 46 cardiovascular parameters w...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Enoxaparin related spontaneous fatal retroperitoneal hemorrhage in a patient with atrial fibrillation.
Authors: Oh TH, Jung H, Lee Y Abstract Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage (SRH) is a potentially lethal complication of anticoagulation therapy. The signs and symptoms vary from clinical silence to abdominal pain or hemorrhagic shock. The diagnosis of SRH may be difficult, especially in its early clinical course, due to its varied symptoms. Physicians need to have a high degree of suspicion for its early diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of SRH can lead to serious complications or death. Bleeding complications in anticoagulated patients are well known; however, reports about SRH with fatal outcomes are sporadic. Her...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Positive chronotropic effects of theophylline and cilostazol in patients with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome who have declined permanent pacing.
Authors: Jin IT, Yoon N, Jeong HK, Lee KH, Park HW, Cho JG Abstract Pacemakers are more commonly recommended than theophylline for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) treatment. The positive effects of cilostazol on bradyarrhythmias also have been reported. However, no comparison of cilostazol and theophylline has been previously reported found. We retrospectively enrolled SSS patients, who refused a pacemaker implantation. Theophylline or cilostazol was administered, and the heart rate (HR) was evaluated in 4-8 weeks using a digital sphygmomanometer and the electrocardiogram (ECG). A 200-400 mg of theophylline or 100-200 mg...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Over-expansion of second-generation drug-eluting stents, risk of restenosis, and relation to major adverse cardiac events.
Conclusion: Stent over-expansion is associated with a significant increase in LLL and DSP at 1-year angiographic follow-up and with the increasing trend of cumulative MACE during 7-year clinical follow-up period compared with stent norm-expansion. Stent over-expansion needs to be avoided. PMID: 33070552 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Is there a silver lining for US health care from COVID-19 pandemic?
Authors: Naqvi TZ Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on economy and health care system of every nation. United States has been the hardest hit country both with incidence and absolute mortality from COVID-19. In some of its states the health care system have been stretched to their limits. This has led to a rapid change in the health care practice due to newly approved emergency legislative bills, new state government laws, measures taken by institutions and practices as well as the changing consumer behavior. Some of these adaptations - in particular, the transition of patient care to virtual visits ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Accelerated and intensified calcific atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Authors: Fakhry M, Sidhu MS, Bangalore S, Mathew RO Abstract Cardiovascular disease, and in particular coronary artery disease (CAD), remains an important contributor of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Classic symptomatology of CAD and effectiveness of established therapeutic measures is less frequent in patients with CKD. This suggests unique characteristics of CAD among patients with CKD. Two important features of CAD in CKD include increased calcific density of atherosclerotic plaques and of the vessels themselves (coronary artery calcification -- CAC), as well as a decr...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Current and emerging therapeutic approaches to pulmonary hypertension.
Authors: Bisserier M, Pradhan N, Hadri L Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and fatal lung disease of multifactorial etiology. Most of the available drugs and FDA-approved therapies for treating pulmonary hypertension attempt to overcome the imbalance between vasoactive and vasodilator mediators, and restore the endothelial cell function. Traditional medications for treating PAH include the prostacyclin analogs and receptor agonists, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, endothelin-receptor antagonists, and cGMP activators. While the current FDA-approved drugs showed improvements in quality o...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of infiltrative cardiomyopathies resulting in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Authors: Madan N, Kalra D Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a very common clinical problem. Its prevalence is increasing with aging of the population. A diverse group of risk factors and etiologies comprise the HFpEF syndrome. No specific therapies have been shown to improve survival for the vast majority of HFpEF cases. Restrictive cardiomyopathies account for a significant portion of HFpEF patients and are characterized by diastolic dysfunction due to infiltration of the myocardium or ventricular hypertrophy. Many of these restrictive diseases occur in the context of myocardial infiltrati...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

High-sensitivity troponin in chronic kidney disease: Considerations in myocardial infarction and beyond.
Authors: Chuang AM, Nguyen MT, Kung WM, Lehman S, Chew DP Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (MI) represents one of the most common hospital encounters, with significant short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality, and frequently occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiac troponin is an exquisitely sensitive biomarker for myocardial injury and plays an essential role in the diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management of MI. In 2017, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Roche Diagnostics' 5th generation high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) for clinical use. Whils...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Sudden cardiac death in children and young adults without structural heart disease: a comprehensive review.
Authors: Tsuda T, Fitzgerald KK, Temple J Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a rare clinical encounter in pediatrics, but its social impact is immense because of its unpredicted and catastrophic nature in previously healthy individuals. Unlike in adults where the primary cause of SCD is related to ischemic heart disease, the etiology is diverse in young SCD victims. Although certain structural heart diseases may be identified during autopsy in some SCD victims, autopsy-negative SCD is more common in pediatrics, which warrants the diagnosis of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) based upon the assumption tha...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Safe performance of echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic: a practical guide.
Authors: Cameli M, Pastore MC, Henein M, Aboumarie HS, Mandoli GE, D'Ascenzi F, Cameli P, Franchi F, Mondillo S, Valente S Abstract Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a worldwide healthcare emergency, with continuously growing number of infected subjects. Considering the easy virus spread through respiratory droplets produced with cough, sneezes or spit or through close contact with infected people or surfaces, healthcare workers are further exposed to COVID-19. Particularly, echocardiography remains an essential diagnostic service which, due to the close contact with patients during the exam, ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Implication of dietary phenolic acids on inflammation in cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Ali SS, Ahmad WANW, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S Abstract In spite of medical advances, cardiovascular disease remains a significant concern, imposing a great burden upon the economy and public health of nations by causing the highest morbidity and mortality cases globally. Moreover, it is well established that inflammation is closely linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, targeting inflammation seems to be a promising strategy in reducing cardiovascular risks. Currently, the importance of natural products in modern medicine is well recognised and continues to be of interest to the pharm...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Hyperkalemia in heart failure: current treatment and new therapeutic perspectives.
Authors: Minà C, Ajello L, Gesaro GD, Falletta C, Clemenza F Abstract Hyperkalemia in heart failure is a condition that can occur with relative frequency because it is related to pathophysiological aspects of the disease, and favored by drugs that form the basis of chronic cardiac failure therapy. Often, associated comorbidities, such as kidney failure or diabetes mellitus can further adversely affect potassium levels. Hyperkalemia can result in acute and even severe clinical manifestations that put patients at risk. On the other hand, the finding of hyperkalemia in a chronic context can lead to a reduction ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Potential roles of GATA binding protein 5 in cardiovascular diseases.
Authors: Song ZP, Yan B Abstract It is known that functional defects of GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5), an important member of GATA transcription factor family, could cause multiple congenital defects. However, the mechanisms of this transcription factor in cardiovascular diseases are still little known. Finding a genetic approach should help with understanding the possible roles of GATA5 in different cardiovascular diseases and purpose it as a possible therapeutic agent. Hence, this review is divided into three chapters to summarize the roles and main regulatory mechanisms of GATA5 in hypertension, arrhythmia and ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Infective endocarditis after TAVI: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiology, risk factors and clinical consequences.
Authors: Tinica G, Tarus A, Enache M, Artene B, Rotaru I, Bacusca A, Burlacu A Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) represents one of the most challenging clinical entities, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The increasing number of surgical and transcatheter heart valves replacements performed annually lead to a higher incidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) brought a new alternative for the treatment of aortic stenosis and a new subgroup of IE with its features. We aimed to compare the incidence of IE in TAVI and surgical valve replacement (SAVR) to identif...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of Polygonum minus: a review of literature.
Authors: Hamid AA, Aminuddin A, Yunus MHM, Murthy JK, Hui CK, Ugusman A Abstract Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Natural products play an important role as nutritional supplements with potential health benefits in cardiovascular diseases. Polygonum minus (PM) is an aromatic plant that is widely used as a flavoring agent in cooking and has been recognized as a plant with various medicinal properties including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. Phytoconstituents found in PM such as...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

High thrombus burden despite thrombolytic therapy in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with COVID-19.
We describe a patient with COVID-19, who presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and was treated with thrombolysis and anticoagulation. He was later found to have a significant persistent thrombus burden requiring thrombectomy and stent placement. Invasive hemodynamics on multiple high-dose pressers revealed a high cardiac output state with low systemic vascular resistance, consistent with distributive rather than cardiogenic shock. Our case illustrates that thrombolytic therapy alone may not be adequate in patients with STEMI and COVID-19, as well as the importance of early invasive hemodynamics in management of...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Reversible bradycardia secondary to myxedema coma: case-report.
Authors: Kousa O, Mansour M, Awad D, Essa A, Qasim A, Sharma A, Holmberg M Abstract Myxedema coma occurs mostly in patients with long-standing untreated or undertreated hypothyroidism. Bradycardia is a well-known cardiac manifestation for myxedema coma; however, not all bradycardia with hypothyroidism are sinus bradycardia. Sick sinus syndrome is a group of arrhythmias caused by the malfunction of the natural pacemaker of the heart. Tachy-Brady syndrome is considered to be a type of sick sinus syndrome, where the heart alternates between tachycardia and bradycardia, and it is usually treated with pacemaker implanta...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Radiofrequency catheter ablation without radiation exposure in a 13th week pregnant woman with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
Authors: Jeong HK, Yoon N, Park HW, Cho JG Abstract A 36-year-old woman with 12-week gestation visited the emergency department, complaining of palpitations. Her electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated ventricular pre-excitation combined with atrial fibrillation. The polarity of the delta waves in leads V5, V6, I, and aVL were positive and negative in leads V1, III, and aVF, suggesting that the accessory pathway (AP) was located on the right posterior free wall. She did not want to take any medicine to prevent the tachycardia. Moreover, the shortest pre-excited RR interval during the atrial fibrillation was 200 ms, ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Short-term and long-term outcomes of bailout versus planned coronary  rotational atherectomy.
Short-term and long-term outcomes of bailout versus planned coronary rotational atherectomy. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2020 Jun 30;21(2):309-314 Authors: Qi Z, Zheng H, Wei Z, Dai Q, Xie J, Wang L, Zhang J, Song J Abstract The goal of this study was to compare in-hospital and long-term events between bailout rotational atherectomy (RA) and planned RA. In this retrospective study, All patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using RA at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from November 2011 to December 2018 were enrolled in this study. Planned RA was defined as RA performed immediately bef...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - July 27, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Urgent need for individual mobile phone and institutional reporting of at home, hospitalized, and intensive care unit cases of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection.
Authors: McCullough PA, Eidt J, Rangaswami J, Lerma E, Tumlin J, Wheelan K, Katz N, Lepor NE, Vijay K, Soman S, Singh B, McCullough SP, McCullough HB, Palazzuoli A, Ruocco GM, Ronco C Abstract Approximately 90 days of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) spreading originally from Wuhan, China, and across the globe has led to a widespread chain of events with imminent threats to the fragile relationship between community health and economic health. Despite near hourly reporting on this crisis, there has been no regular, updated, or accurate reporting of hospitalizations for COVID-19. It is known that many test-positive individ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Contrast induced acute kidney injury in interventional cardiology: an update and key guidance for clinicians.
Authors: Ronco F, Tarantini G, McCullough PA Abstract Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication that can affect outcome and prognosis of patients undergoing percutaneous diagnostic and interventional procedures in catheterization laboratories. There have been advancements in case definition and epidemiology. Additionally strategies have emerged that are positioned to have impact in the catheterization laboratory for patients undergoing cardiovascular procedures. The aim of this review is to provide the state-of-the-art of diagnosis, prevention and management of CI-AKI in interventional...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

The dynamic relationship between serum chloride and cardiorenal syndrome.
Authors: Kazory A, Costanzo MR Abstract Low serum sodium concentration has long been recognized as an established marker of short- and long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF), and is commonly included in various risk prediction models. Mechanisms leading to hyponatremia (e.g. maladaptive neurohormonal activation) could also lead to concurrent decline in serum chloride levels. Besides, chloride has distinct biological roles (e.g. modulation of renal tubular sodium transporters) that are relevant to the pathophysiology and therapy of HF, making it a potent cardiorenal connector. Several ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Management of heart failure in patients with end-stage kidney disease on maintenance dialysis: a practical guide.
Authors: Joseph MS, Palardy M, Bhave NM Abstract End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and heart failure (HF) often coexist and must be managed simultaneously. Multidisciplinary collaboration between nephrology and cardiology is critical when treating patients with such complicated physiology. There is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to the evaluation of patients with new left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and diagnostic testing should be adapted to an individual's risk factors. Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for systolic heart failure should be employed in these patients. While limited randomize...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Insulin resistance underlies the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration.
Authors: Adeva-Andany MM, Fernández-Fernández C, Carneiro-Freire N, Castro-Quintela E, Pedre-Piñeiro A, Seco-Filgueira M Abstract The curve that describes the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk is U-shaped, indicating that both reduced GFR (kidney failure) and elevated GFR (glomerular hyperfiltration) are equivalent cardiovascular risk factors. The elevated cardiovascular risk associated with abnormal GFR is not explained by standard cardiovascular risk factors. The relationship between GFR and all-cause mortality follows a similar pattern, so that alt...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Potential roles of microRNA-1 and microRNA-133 in cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Song Z, Gao R, Yan B Abstract Cardiovascular disease is still the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the frontier of research into cardiovascular disease is the field of non-coding RNA. In this review, information was collected on the use of micro-RNAs as non-invasive biomarkers and their role in pathophysiological processes and therapeutic applications. In the case of microRNA-1 and microRNA-133, the roles and regulatory mechanisms of them are reviewed for arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, myocardial hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte differentiation, and cell re...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention in unprotected left main coronary artery disease: A systematic review.
Authors: Macovei L, Magopet R, Tanasa A, Raileanu C, Prisacariu C, Presura MR, Balasanian MO Abstract Critical lesion of the unprotected left main coronary disease carries a tremendous mortality burden, often associated with a diabetes status or multivessel disease, with coronary artery bypass grafting being the standard treatment for over 40 years. Percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stents should be taken into consideration and could be a better option for patients with low SYNTAX score as validated by the recently published studies. This review summarizes the major randomized clinical trials and...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Endovascular and open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: A comparative analysis of western and Chinese studies.
Authors: Shi F, He Y, Wang S, Jia F, Ji C, Zhang J, Liu X, Han Y Abstract Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are life-threatening serious conditions that require effective and quick management. Although it is generally acknowledged that patients with AAA obtain the greatest benefit from endovascular repair (EVAR) compared to open surgical repair (OSR), there are few comparisons between the surgical approaches in Western versus Chinese patients. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of studies in which EVAR was compared with OSR in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We searched the Western literature through ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Imaging with intracardiac echocardiography compared to transesophageal echocardiography during left atrial appendage occlusion.
Authors: Liang G, Xu B, Wang S, Li C, Zhong G Abstract We performed a meta-analysis comparing the procedural and outcomes data and related to left atrial appendage occlusion guided by intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients. Technical success with ICE was significantly similar to that of TEE (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% CI [0.62, 3.09], I2 = 0%, P = 0.43). The peri-procedural complications showed no significant difference between the two groups (OR 0.84, 95% CI [0.57, 1.23], I2 = 0%, P = 0.37). Mortality was similar in procedures using...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning in patients with STEMI during primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors: Chen E, Cai W, Hu D, Chen L Abstract Remote ischemic conditioning is usually associated with cardioprotective intervention against ischemia-reperfusion. However, the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIC-pre) completed before myocardial reperfusion with intermittent limb ischemia-reperfusion in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is unclear. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were fully searched from the beginning of each database up to September 2019 to find seven RCTs, a total of 2796 patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI with RIC-pre and 2818 pat...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

LCZ696 and preservation of renal function in heart failure: A meta-analysis of 6 randomized trials.
Authors: Chen X, Jin C, Xie L, Xiang M Abstract Patients with heart failure (HF) are prone to combine with renal insufficiency. Recently, LCZ696 has been used in the treatment of HF, but whether LCZ696 is better than angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor antagonists (ACEI/ARB) in renal protection for HF patients has not been investigated. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis focusing on LCZ696 and its role in preservation of renal function in HF patients. Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were electronically searched for available randomized controlled ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Imminent rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by arteriovenous fistulaization and hepatorenal failure: case report and literature review.
Authors: Huang D, Song F, Zhou X, Ma H, Chen S, Xie Y, Wang S, Qin T Abstract Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with complex clinical features. However, AVF and AAA usually cause no symptoms except when they rupture. This case study demonstrated that ultrasonography was a rapid and non-invasive method for the initial assessment of AAA and AVF. A 65-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit with hepatic and renal dysfunction. Physical examination revealed an abdominal vascular murmur and bilateral toe discoloration. Ultrasonic examination revealed an...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Predictors of 30-day re-admissions in patients with infective endocarditis: a national population based cohort study.
In this study, we analyzed the National Readmissions' Database (NRD) to identify infective endocarditis cases and the causative organisms, clinical determinants, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and 30-day hospital readmission rates. The study cohort was derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Readmission Database between 2010-15. We queried the National Readmissions' Database using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic code for infective endocarditis (421.0) and identified a total of 187,438 index admissions. SAS 9.4 (SAS Ins...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Complete Entry and Re-entry Neutralization protocol in endovascular treatment of aortic dissection.
CONCLUSION: Introduction of the Complete Entry and Re-entry Neutralization protocol improves the rate of favorable remodeling following endovascular treatment of aortic dissection in mid-term follow-up in patients with diffused aortic dissection. PMID: 32259912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Serum albumin and the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Authors: Wang Y, Sun WJ, Ji ZS, Liu CB, Wang R Abstract Serum creatinine and serum albumin levels were measured prior to surgery, and serum creatinine level was also measured at 72 hours following percutaneous coronary intervention in 819 (January 1st, 2015 and December 31th, 2018). According to whether patients developed contrast-induced acute kidney injury or not, they were assigned to either a contrast-induced acute kidney injury group (72 cases, 8.8%) or a non-contrast-induced acute kidney injury group (747 cases; control). Serum albumin was significantly lower in the contrast-induced acute kidney injury group ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Impact of lipoprotein(a) on long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Authors: Liu Y, Zeng Z, Yu X, Li T, Yao Y, Chen R, Zheng J Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of lipoprotein(a) level on long-range prognosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment. In this retrospective study, 350 patients in Coronary artery disease (CAD) with LDL-C less than 1.8 mmol/L were enrolled in the Guangdong Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases from January 2011 to December 2013. Follow-up was 1 year after PCI. According to the median value of the study population based on Lp(a), the patients ...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

Continuation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade therapy in acute decompensated heart failure.
Authors: Ayach T, Lapsia V PMID: 31912710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research

AGE-RAGE stress play a role in aortic aneurysm: A comprehensive review and novel potential therapeutic target.
In conclusion, elevated levels of AGE, RAGE and AGE-RAGE stress, and reduced levels of sRAGE increase the levels of cytokines that in turn increase the production of Matrix metalloproteinases resulting in formation of aortic aneurysms. The data suggest that AGE-RAGE stress is involved in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. Treatment options have also been discussed. PMID: 31912711 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine)
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - January 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research